Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Goodhue County, Minnesota"

See other formats

•niii  m*  «*  ■ 


£S  * 


Goodhue  County 






W.  M.  Sweney,  M.  D.;  Jens  K.  Grondahl;  C.  A.  Rasmussen;  Julius 

Boraas,  M.  L.;    F.  W.  Kalfahs;   Edward  W.  Schmidt,  M.  A.; 

Mrs.  Julia  B.  Nelson;     E.  Norelius,  D.  D.;    George  C. 

Wellner,  M.  D.;  John  C.  Applegate;   Ralph  W. 

Holmes;    Dwight  C.  Pierce;    Henry  Hal- 

vorson;     Rev.  James  H.  Gaughan; 

Henry  R.   Cobb;    Edgar  F. 

Davis  and  many  others 

H.  C.  COOPER,  JR.,  &  CO. 






B  1946  L 










It  is  with  a  feeling  of  considerable  pride  and  pleasure  that  the 
publishers  present  this  history  for  the  approval  of  the  people  of 
Goodhue  county.  The  undertaking  has  not  been  an  easy  one  and 
the  difficulties  have  been  many,  so  many  indeed  that  this  work 
would  not  have  been  possible  without  the  liberal  assistance  of 
the  citizens  of  the  county.  The  chief  contributors  have  given 
freely  of  their  time  and  talent ;  business  men.  church  officials,  fra- 
ternity and  association  officers,  manufacturers,  professional  men 
and  bankers,  often  at  great  personal  sacrifice,  have  laid  aside 
their  regular  duties  to  write  of  their  communities  and  special  in- 
terests; educators  have  written  of  the  schools,  and  men  and 
women  of  all  walks  of  life  have  willingly  given  all  the  information 
at  their  command  regarding  themselves,  their  families,  their  inter- 
ests and  their  localities.  To  all  of  these  the  readers  of  this  work 
owe  a  lasting  debt  of  gratitude  and  to  each  and  every  one  the 
publishers  extend  their  heartfelt  thanks. 

The  principal  contributors  are  mentioned  on  the  title  page.  Of 
these.  W,  M.  Sweney,  M.  D..  Jens  K.  Grondahl,  C.  A.  Rasmussen, 
Julius  Boraas,  M.  L.,  George  C.  Wellner,  M.  D.,  and  others,  aside 
from  contributing  chapters  have  generously  given  assistance  in 
the  general  construction  of  the  book.  Many  others  have  offered 
suggestions  and  some  contributions  have  been  made  by  those  to 
whom  credit  is  not  given  either  in  the  body  of  the  book  or  on 
the  title  page.  The  writings  left  by  Col.  William  Colvill,  Col. 
Hans  Mattson,  S.  J.  Willard,  Dr.  W.  W.  Sweney,  Judge  E.  T. 
"Wilder  and  others,  have  been  freely  drawn  upon. 

In  planning  for  this  work  the  publishers  hoped  to  prepare  a 
narrative  which  should  tell  the  story  of  this  rich  and  prosperous 
county  from  the  time  when  it  first  became  a  geologic  reality, 
through  the  years  when  the  first  explorers  pushed  their  way  up 
the  river  and  into  the  wilderness,  down  to  the  present  time  when 
cities  and  villages  dot  the  landscape  and  comfortable  homes  and 
fertile  farms  are  seen  on  nearly  every  quarter  section. 

In  handling  the  vast  amount  of  material  gathered  for  this 
work  it  has  been  the  aim  of  the  entire  staff  to  select  such  matter 
as  is  authentic,  reliable  and  interesting.  Doubtless  facts  have 
been  included  that  many  will  deem  of  little  moment,  but  these 
same  facts  to  others  may  be  of  the  deepest  import.  It  may  be, 
also,  that  some  facts  have  been  omitted  that  many  of  the  readers 
would  like  to  see  included.  To  such  readers  we  can  only  say  that 
to  publish  every  incident  of  the  life  of  the  county  would  be  to 
issue  a  work  of  many  volumes,  and  in  choosing  such  material  as 
would  come  within  the  limits  of  one  volume,  we  believe  that  the 


viii  PREFACE 

matter  selected  is  that  which  will  prove  of  greatest  interest  to  the 
greatest  number  of  readers,  and  also  that  which  is  most  worthy 
of  being  handed  down  to  future  generations,  who  in  this  volume, 
in  far  distant  years  may  read  of  their  large-souled,  rugged-bodied 
ancestors  and  predecessors  who  gave  up  the  settled  peace  of  older 
communities  to  brave  the  rigors  of  pioneer  endeavor. 

A  few  omissions  may  be  due  to  the  dereliction  of  some  of  the 
people  of  this  county  themselves,  as  in  some  instances,  fortunately 
few,  repeated  requests  for  information  has  met  with  no  response. 
In  such  cases,  information  gathered  from  other  sources,  though 
authentic,  may  have  lacked  copious  detail. 

In  spelling,  it  has  been  the  endeavor  of  the  publishers  to  follow 
the  generally  accepted  forms,  with  the  exception  of  the  word 
"Wacoota,"  in  which  case  the  publishers  have  chosen  to  follow 
the  English  spelling  rather  than  the  French  rendition  of 
"  Wacouta." 

Before  passing  hasty  judgment  on  apparent  errors,  one  should 
consider  carefully,  not  relying  on  tradition  or  memory.  In 
many  cases  we  have  found  that  persons'  memories  are  faulty 
and  tradition  erronious.  when  measured  by  the  standard  of  of- 
ficial records,  even  in  the  case  of  comparatively  recent  events, 
while  in  many  instances  families  are  under  the  impression  that 
their  forebears  arrived  in  the  county  long  before  it  was  possible 
for  them  to  do  so.  In  such  cases,  we  have  found  it  advisable  to 
follow  the  records.  Ah  instance  of  faulty  tradition  is  the  some- 
what extensively  accepted  story  that  Barn  Bluff  is  named  from 
a  man  named  Barnes  when  as  a  matter  of  fact  Barn  is  merely 
the  English  form  of  La  Grange,  the  cognomen  applied  to  the 
bluff  by  the  earliest  French  explorers  on  account  of  its  fancied 
resemblance  to  the  common  type  of  small  barn  in  the  old  coun- 
try. The  name  Barn  is  used  by  Pike  in  1806,  long  before  any 
man  named  Barnes  could  have  settled  at  its  base. 

The  publishers  are  indebted  to  the  files  of  the  Red  Wing  "Re- 
publican," which  have  been  carefully  perused  and  liberally 
copied;  to  the  county,  village  and  city,  records,  and  to  the  min- 
utes of  various  corporations  and  societies.  In  this  connection  it 
is  but  just  that  thanks  should  be  extended  to  those  courteous 
gentlemen  who  have  these  records,  files  and  books  in  charge  and 
who  have  freely  assisted  the  editors  in  their  researches.  Other 
books  consulted  and  in  many  instances  quoted  are :  The  History 
of  Goodhue  County,  published  in  1879;  J.  W.  Hancock's  History 
of  Goodhue  County:  W.  H.  Mitchell's  Geographical  and  Statis- 
tical Sketch  of  the  Past  and  Present  of  Goodhue  County;  His- 
tory of  St.  Paul  and  Ramsay  County  by  J.  Fletcher  Williams ;  the 
various  publications  of  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society;  the 
Legislative  Manual  of  the  State  of  Minnesota;  The  History  of 
Minnesota,  by  Edward  W.  Neill;  Minnesota  in  Three  Centuries, 
by  L.  F.  Hubbard.  William  P.  Murray,  James  H.  Baker  and 
Warren  Upham;  The  History  of  Scandinavians  in  the  United 
States,  by  0.  N.  Nelson;  The  Geological  and  Natural  History 
Survey  of  Minnesota,  by  N.  H.  Winchell,  assisted  by  Warren 
Upham;  The  Memoirs  of  Explorations  in  the  Basin  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, by  J.  V.  Brower;  The  Norsemen  in  America,  by  Martin 
Ulvestad;  also  various  other  standard  historical,  reference  and 
biographical  works,  as  well  as  many  original  manuscripts.    . 


The  biographies  have  all  been  gathered  with  care  from  those 
most  interested,  and  with  a  few  exceptions  have  been  revised  and 
corrected  by  the  subject  of  the  biography  or  by  a  relative  or 
friend.  This,  however,  refers  to  the  dates,  and  sequence  of 
events,  all  personal  estimates  being  the  work  of  the  editors  and 
inserted  in  biographies  only  after  consultation  with  other  mem- 
bers of  the  staff. 

That  this  history  is  faultless  we  do  not  presume;  it  is  prob- 
ably not  within  the  power  of  man  to  arrange  a  work  of  this 
kind  without  mistakes  of  one  sort  or  another;  that  it  will  meet 
with  the  unqualified  approval  of  all,  we  dare  not  expect,  but  we 
trust  that  the  merits  of  the  history  will  overbalance  any  short- 
comings that  may  be  discovered. 

.  Our  association  with  the  people  of  Goodhue  county  has  been 
a  most  pleasant  one.  We  have  conscientiously  performed  our 
task  and  in  placing  the  history  in  the  hands  of  those  whom  it 
most  concerns  our  hope  is  that  we  have  done  our  work  well. 

H.  C.  COOPER,  JR.,  &  CO. 




Location — Area — Water  Courses — Surface  Features — Ancient  River  Beds — 
Elevations — Soil — Forest  Trees — Artesian  Wells — Sources  of  Wealth — 
Native    Animals 1 



Formation  of  the  Earth — Cooling  of  the  Crust — The  Various  Periods  as 
Outlined  by  Scholars — Appearance  of  Vegetation — First  Animal  Life 
— Geologic*  Formations  of  Goodhue  County — Influence  of  These  Dis- 
tance Periods  on  Modern   Existence 11 



The  First  Human  Inhabitants  of  Goodhue  County — Indications  That  They 
Were  Indians — Location  and  Shape  of  the  Mounds — Their  Purpose — 
What  Excavation  Has  Revealed — Fort  Sweney — Stone  Cairns — The 
Lowland  Mounds — Reign  of  the  Sioux — By  Edward  W.  Schmidt 18 



Possession  by  Indians — The  Dakota? — Traditions  and  Opinions — Col.  Col- 
vill's  Views — Origin  of  Name  '-Rd  \\  ,'i  ;  — The  Raidssjn- 
Groseillers  Allegations — No  Proof  That  These  Men  Ever  Saw  Goodhue 
County — Hennepin  Lands  at  Red  Wing's  Village — Duluth  Passes  the 
Village — LeSueur  at  Prairie  Island — Fort  Beauharnois  and  Its  Suc- 
cessors-— Carver  Passes  Through  Wisconsin  Channel — Pike  and  His 
Narrative — Meets  Red  Wing  and  Calls  Him  by  His  English  Name — 
Leavenworth — First  Steamers — Denton  and  Gavin — Aiton  and  Han- 
cock— Tribute  to  Rev.  Hancock — Early  Schooling — The  Pioneers 
Arrive— By  Dr.  W.  M.  Sweney 33 



Landing  of  Count  Frontenac — Building  of  Fort  Beauharnois  by  Du 
Boucher  in  1727 — Work  of  the  Jesuits — Disastrous  Freshets — Capture 
of  Father  Guingas — Linctot's  Stockade — St.  Pierre  and  His  Meeting 
With  Washington — Abandonment  of  Stockade — Marin's  Fort  in  1750 
— Final  Evacuation  by  the  French — Modern  Evidences 6S 



French  and  English  Claims — Spanish  Rule— The  Louisiana  Purchase — A 
Part  of  Louisiana  Territory — Under  Successive  Jurisdiction  of  Mis- 
souri. Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  Iowa — No  Man's  Land — General 
Sibley's  Duties — Minnesota  a  Territory — In  Statehood  Days— A  Full- 
Fledged  County 






Prairie  du  Chien  in  1825— Second  Treaty  in  1830— Treaty  of  1837— Doty 
Treaty  in  1841 — Treaty  of  Mendota  in  1851 — Land  Open  to  Settle- 
ment— Prairie  Island   Indians 74 



Half-Breed  Tract — The  Location  and  Purpose — Issue  of  Scrip — Difficulties 
Which  Ensued — Threats  ami  Recourse  to  Washington  Finally  Settle 
the  Matter — Spirit  Lake  Massacre — Investigation  by  Red  Wing  Men — 
Uprising  of   1862 90 



Boundary  Lines  Given — First  Election — "Judge"  Young  and  His  Ballot 
Box — Imported  Yoters — County  Officers  Appointed — First  Session  of 
Board — Court  House  Resolution — School  Districts — A  Few  Early  Ses- 
sions— Court  House   Contract — 1849-1858 97 



An  Experiment  in  County  Government — Members  of  First  Board  of  Super- 
visors— Two  Chairmen — Party  Feeling  High — Sheriff  Preserves  Order 
— Another  Version — Court  House  Trouble — Meeting  of  Second  Board 
— Resumption  of  County  Commissioner  System — History  of  Court 
House — ( lounty  Poor  Farm — Political  History 110 



Denton  and  Gavin — Aiton  and  Hancock — Bush,  Bullard,  Post,  Snow  and 
Gould — Potter,  Young  and  Day — Sweney,  Freeborn  and  McGinnis — 
Friendliness  of  the  Indians — First  Winter — Arrival  of  the  Scandi- 
navians— Digging  Potatoes — Fishing  in  Stream  and  River — A  Sporting 
Clergyman — Some  of  the  Indian  Braves — Farming  in  the  Old  Indian 
Cornfield — Squaws  as  Farmhands 120 



Organization    ami    Original    Names — Belle    Creek — Belvidere — Burnside — 

Cherry  Grove — Central  Point — Early  Settlement 142 



First  Settlement — Platting  the  Yillage — Village  and  City  Incorporated — 
Water  Power  and  Mills — Fraternities — Hotels — Newspaper — Modern 
Cannon  Falls— Industries  —  Business  Houses  —  Schools  —  Commercial 
Club — Banks — Cannon  Falls  Township — Early  History — Veterans  of 
the    War 159 




Featherstone  —  Florence  —  Frontenac  —  Goodhue  Township  and  Village  — 
Advantages  and  Growth — Holden — Kenyon  Township  and  Village — 
Modern  Progress — Leon — Minneola 169 



Pine  Island  Township  and  Village — Progres^iv"  and  Prosperous — Roscoe — 
Stanton  —  V  a  s  a  — Wacoota  —  Wanamingo  —  Wanamingo  Village  — 
Warsaw — Dennisou    Village — Welch 206 



Zumbrota  Village — Its  Situation  and  Advantages — Modern  Zumbrota — 
Water,  Sewer  and  Public  Halls — Fire  Department — Industries — Banks 
— Hotels- — Mills  and  Klevators — Creamery — Fraternities — Village  His- 
tory and  Officers — T.  P.  Kellett  's  Speech — Military  Company — Village 
Schools  —  Public  Library  —  Zumbrota  Township  —  Township  Officers 
Since  Early  Days — Soldiers  from  This  Township 234 



First  School  Taught — First  District  Organized — Anecdotes  of  the  Early 
Days  —  Statistics  —  Summer  Schools  —  Library  Association  —  High 
Schools  —  Church  Schools  —  City  Superintendents  —  County  Superin- 
tendents —  Sunday  School  Work  —  Hamline  University  —  Red  Wing 
Seminary- — Villa  Marie — Lutheran  Ladies'  Seminary — Orphans'  Home 
— State  Training  School — Business  Colleges — By  Prof.  Julius  Boraas.   271 



Red  Wing — First  Post  Master — Stage  Coach  Days — Growth  and  Progress- 
Other  County  Officers — Discontinued  County  Officers — New  Federal 
Building— Statistics    298 



His  Proud  Achievements — His  Solemn  Oath — His  Ethics — The  True  Physi- 
cian— His  Reward — His  Delicate  Relation  to  the  Human  Family — His 
Inventions  and  Discoveries  Free  Gifts — The  Pioneer  Doctor — His 
Character — His  Services — His  Limitations — The  March  of  Medicine — 
Biographies — A  Roll  of  Honor — The  Goodhue  County  Medical  Society 
— The  Twentieth  Century — Preventive  Medicine — The  Physician  as  an 
Educator— By  George  C.  Wellner,  M.  D 315 



Discovery  of  America — Modern  Norwegian  Immigration — Mathias  Peder- 
sen  Ringdahl — Early  Settlers — Anecdotes — Officeholders — Newspapers 
— Norwegians  as  Pioneers — Their  Present  Status 333 




Early  Colonies — Coming  to  Minnesota — Mattson,  Willard  and  Norelius — 
Story  of  the  Early  Swedes  Told  by  Dr.  Norelius — The  Churches  at 
Eed  Wing  and  Yasa — Keminiscences  by  Early  Settlers — Character- 
istics of  the  Swedes 340 



Origin  of  Race — Colonial  Germans — Prominent  Teutons — Germans  in  Good- 
hue County — Early  Settlers  in  Various  Townships — German  Soldiers — 
German  Officeholders — St.  John's  Hospital  and  Training  School — 
German  Industries — German  Churches — Written  by  Prof.  P.  W. 
Kalf ahs    365 



Government  Records  of  Those  Who  Took  Claims  in  Goodhue  County  Be- 
fore 1858 — A  List  of  Hardy  Pioneers,  Nearly  All  of  Whom  Are  Now 
Dead — The  Year  and  Month  in  Which  They  Came  and  the  Section, 
Township  and  Range  in  Which  They  Settled — Many  of  Their  Claims 
Still  in  the  Possession  of  Their  Families 384 



Religious  Influence  —  Norwegian  Lutheran  —  Norwegian  Methodist  — 
Swedish  Lutheran  —  English  Lutheran  —  Swedish  Mission  —  German 
Churches — German  Methodism — Swedish  Methodists — Roman  Catholic 
— Congregational — Presbyterian — Episcopal  Baptis; — Swedish  Baptist.  404 



Address  by  Judge  Wilder — Office  Experiences — A  New  Setting  to  an  Old 
Tale— Pleasures  of  the  Early  Days— On  Thin  Ice— C.  J.  F.  Smith's 
Adventures — His  Arrival — An  Early  Journey — Writings  of  the  Rev. 
J.  W.  Hancock — Indians  and  Whisky — Difficulties  of  Travel — A  Canoe 
Trip  on  Land — The  Mysterious  Wild  Girl— Oil  Wells  in  Red  Wing — 
Coal  and  Gold  Also  Found 458 



List  of  Men  Who  Have  Represented  Goodhue  County  at  St.  Paul  Since 
Territorial  Days — List  of  County  Officers — Men  From  This  County 
Who  Have  Occupied  Positions,  of  Higher  Trust  and  Honor — Popula- 
tion of  the  County  by  Nationality  and  Occupation,  With  List  of 
Growth  Since  the  Earliest  Census 478 



Terrible  Cyclone — Vnsa  the  Greatest  Sufferer—" Sea  Wing"  Disaster — 
Lis*  of  Those  Who  Perished — The  Survivors — Terrible  Blow  to  the 
Whole  Countv — ' '  Galena ' '  Burned  at  the  Levee  in  Red  Wing — 
Shooting  of  Chief  Daily  and  Officer  Peterson — Red  Wing  Fires  in  By- 
gone Days 490 




First  War  Meeting — Colonel  Colvil]  'First  Man  to  Enlist — Mustering  in  of 
First  Companies- — First,  Second,  Third,  Fourth,  Fifth,  Sixth,  Seventh, 
Eighth,  Ninth  and  Tenth  Volunteer  Infantry — First,  Second,  Braekett's 
and  Independent  Cavalry — Heavy  Artillery — Light  Artillery — Colonel 
Hubbard's  Bravery — Colonel  Coivill's  Charge — Spanish-American  War 
— History  of  Local  Company — Complete  Roster  of  Soldiers  and  Offi- 
cers from  Goodhue  County  in  the  Philippines 507 



Origin  of  the  Village — First  Settlement — Rev.  Hancock's  Arrival — The 
Early  Settlers — Claim  Hunters — Incidents  of  Village  Life — Great 
Events  of  Those  Days — Burning  the  Indian  Tepees — First  Farming — - 
First  Stores — First  Churches — Pioneer  Politics — Principal  Events  from 
1852  to  1859 — Business  Directory  Published  in  1869 — Poem  by  Julia 
B.  Nelson 529 



Principal  Events  in  the  Government  of  Red  Wing  Since  Its  Incorpora- 
tion— List  of  Mayors,  Aldermen  and  Other  Officers — Railroads,  Tele- 
graph, Street  Car  and  Other  Franchises — Sewerage  System — Water 
Works — Fire  Department — Public  Buildings — Bonds  and  Improve- 
ments— Memorials — Red  Wing  Township — Veterans 550 



Its  Many  Advantages — Desirability  as  a  Home  City — The  Carnegie- 
Lawther  Library — T.  B.  Sheldon  Memorial  Auditorium — Red  Wing 
Civic  League  —  Fire  Department  —  Water  Works  —  Ferries  —  Wagon 
Bridge — Associations  and  Clubs — Banks  and  Banking- — Business  and 
Professional — Red   Wing   Fraternities 579 



Busy  Manufacturing  Plants  That  Furnish  the  Foundation  for  Red  Wing's 
Prosperity — Pottery  and  Sewer  Pipe  Making — Malting  Houses — Shoes 
and  Shoe  Pacs — Hats — Furniture — Iron  Works — Advertising  Novelties 
— Lighting  Facilities  —  Milling  Concerns  —  Lime  Burning  —  Linseed 
Products — Sand — Telephones — Job  Printing — Utilizing  the  Forests — 
Brick  Making — Other  Concerns — Edited  by  Jens  K.  Grondahl 616 




Its  Advantages,  Opportunities  and  Wealth — Some  of-  the  Things  Which 
Have  Made  It  Famous — History  of  the  Various  Newspapers  Which 
Have  Been  Published  Here  —  Associations  and  Societies  —  Miscel- 
laneous    645 



Principal  Events  in  the  Careers  of  Pioneers  Who  Have  Now  Passed 
Aivmv — Biographies  of  Men  Who  Are  Still  Active  in  Business.  Pro- 
fessional and  Commercial  Interests — Gathered  with  Care  from  Various 
Sources,  Carefully  Compiled  and  Submitted  for  Approval 666 

rjin  n 


)  k 





Location — Area — Water  Courses — Surface  Features — Ancient 
River  Beds — Elevations — Soil — Forest  Trees — Artesian  Wells 
— Sources  of  Wealth — Native  Animals. 

On  its  splendid  course  from  Itasca  to  the  Gulf,  the  mighty 
Mississippi  passes  no  fairer  land  than  that  which  it  touches  from 
Prairie  Island  to  Central  Point,  where,  guarded  on  the  north  by 
towering  bluffs  and  broken  here  and  there  by  picturesque  valleys, 
Goodhue  county  stretches  to  the  southward  in  undulating  prairies. 
Unusually  blessed  by  nature  with  deep  soil  and  abundant  natural 
resources,  and  endowed  with  a  wealth  of  prehistoric  and  historic 
lore,  it  is  a  fitting  home  for  the  sturdy  people  who  have  here 
made  their  dwelling  place.  Hard-working,  progressive  and  pros- 
perous, they  have  appreciated  the  gifts  which  nature  has  spread 
for  them,  and  have  added  their  own  toil  to  the  work  of  the  ele- 
ments, making  the  county  one  of  the  garden  spots  of  the  earth. 
On  the  hills  graze  cattle  and  sheep,  while  the  level  lands  respond 
to  the  efforts  of  the  spring-time  sower  and  planter  with  a  wealth 
of  harvest  in  the  summer  and  autumn.  On  nearly  every  quarter 
section  is  reared  a  comfortable  home  and  commodious  barns, 
while  from  every  hill  top  are  visable  the  churches  and  schools 
wherein  the  people  worship  the  Giver  of  all  Gifts  and  educate 
their  children.  The  county  seat  city  is  known  for  its  progres- 
siveness  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  and  the  busy  villages  and 
hamlets  have  had  their  share  in  the  growth  of  the  county  by 
furnishing  a  shipping  and  trading  point  for  the  product  of  the 
farms.     Thus  blessed  by  God  and  beloved  by  man,  the  county 



today  stands  for  all  that  is  ideal  in  American  life,  and.  from  year 
to  year  is  forging  ahead  to  still  wider  influence  and  more  extended 

Goodhue  county  is  situated  on  the  Mississippi  river  and  Lake 
Pepin,  and  is  bounded  on  the  northwest  by  Dakota  county,  on  the 
west  by  Rice  county,  on  the  south  by  Dodge  county  and  a  small 
portion  of  Olmsted  county,  and  on  the  east  and  southeast  by 
Wabasha  county.  Its  Wisconsin  neighbor  is  Pierce  county.  The 
population  in  1905  was  31,628,  and  this  has  probably  been 
increased  by  several  thousand  since  that  date.  It  is  a  large  and 
important  county,  ranking  among  the  first  in  the  state  in  wealth. 
size,  population,  education,  progressive]! ess  and  prosperity.  It 
contains  twenty-three  townships  and  Red  Wing,  which  is  outside 
of  any  township  jurisdiction.  Its  total  area  is  784.79  square 
miles,  or  502,265.62  acres;  the  water  area  being  only  20.21  square 
miles,  or  12,936.06  acres. 

The  surface  waters  of  the  county  all  reach  the  Mississippi 
river  in  an  easterly  or  northeasterly  course,  descending  from  the 
height  of  1,250  feel  above  the  sea  in  Kenyon.  to  665  feet  in  Lake 
Pepin,  a  drop  of  nearly  600  feet.  The  chief  of  these  tributary 
streams  are  the  Cannon,  with  its  southern  arm.  the  Little  Cannon, 
and  the  north  and  north-middle  branches  of  the  Zumbro.  Belle 
creek,  another  branch  of  the  Cannon  river,  occupies  an  important 
valley,  running  northward  from  near  the  center  of  the  county. 
Spring  creel;.  Hay  creek  and  Wells  creek,  though  not  large 
streams,  are  important  agents  in  defining  the  topography  of  the 
county,  and  have  subterranean  sources  of  supply  which  keep 
thein  at  a  nearly  uniform  stage  of  water  and  afford  valuable 
water  powers.  These  water  powers  have  in  the  past  been  utilized 
to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  and  at  the  present  time  afford  the 
motive  power  for  many  mills.  Their  use  in  generating  electricity 
has  also  been  considered. 

The  county  has  no  lakes.  There  are  a  great  many  large 
springs  issuing  from  the  banks  of  the  streams,  giving  clear,  pure 
water,  which  are  dependent  on  the  impervious  nature  of  the  rocky 
strata.  Some  of  the  tributaries  of  Belle  and  of  Wells  creeks  issue 
from  the  rock  Avails  of  the  valley,  having  size  sufficient,  in  some 
instances,  to  afford  available  water  power  for  machinery. 

The  topography  of  the  county  has  from  time  to  time  been 
made  the  subject  of  careful  study.  The  high  prairies  in  the  cen- 
tral and  southwestern  portions  present  a  strong  contrast  with  the 
hilly  tracts  in  the  northern  and  eastern.  The  former  are  broad, 
undulating,  and  somewhat  monotonous.  The  winds  find  no  nat- 
ural obstacles,  and  the  exposed  traveler  can  retire  to  no  sheltered 
nooks  for  protection.  The  latter  are  broken  by  frequent  and 
abrupt  hills,  which  rise,  with  some  sheltering  timber,  from  two  to 

lllsroUY   OF  G00DH1  I.  COUNT'S  3 

five  hundred  feet  above  the  adjoining  valleys.  The  transition  v 
between  these  extremes  is  gradual,  and  is  due  to  a  variety  of 
causes.  Some  of  the  deep  valleys  of  the  northeastern  part  of  the 
county  penetrate,  in  their  uppermosl  sources,  far  within  the  flat 
and  monotonous  areas  of  the  county.  Such  are  the  valleys  of  the 
Little  Cannon  and  of  Belle  Creek.  The  north  fork  of  the  Zumbro, 
which  entirely  crosses  the  county  from  west  to  east,  in  its  southern 
portion,  introduces  an  agreeable  diversity  of  surface  westward 
from  Zumbrota,  which  otherwise  would  be  one  of  mere  open  and 
nearly  Level  prairie.  The  north  middle  fork  has  the  same  effeel 
near  the  southern  border  of  the  county,  about  six  miles  further 
south.  The  townships  of  Tine  Island.  Roscoe,  Cherry  Grove, 
Keiiyon.  the  central  portion  of  Holden,  the  northern  half  of 
Wanamingo  and  Minneola,  and  much  of  the  area  of  Warsaw, 
Leon  and  Belle  Creek,  also  some  of  Vasa,  Peatherston  and  Good- 
hue, are  included  in  this  higher  portion  of  undulating  prairie. 
The  uplands  of  the  most  elevated  portions  of  the  county  are  from 
1,150  to  1,250  feet  above  the  sea.  The  streams  in  those  portions 
are  but  little  below  thai  area.  They  gradually  work  to  lower  and 
lower  levels,  becoming  larger  by  springs  and  territories,  until 
they  reach  the  level  of  Lake  Pepin,  which  is  662  feet  above  the 
sea.  At  the  same  time  the  uplands  that  immediately  adjoin  these 
streams,  even  The  Mississippi  valley  itself,  do  not  partake  of  this 
gradual  slope  toward  the  Mississippi.  The  Mississippi  bluffs  are 
from  1,000  to  1,100  feet  above  the  sea.  or  only  about  150  feet 
lower  than  the  average  elevation  in  the  southwestern  part  of  the 

In  Stanton,  Cannon  Falls  and  Vasa,  rounded  or  elongated 
knobs  and  ridges  rise  abruptly  from  the  plains  to  tic  height  of 
about  one  hundred  and  fifty  feet,  and  to  a  ceil  a  in  extent  the 
same  features  may  be  seen  in  Welch,  Burnsicle,  Red  Wing, 
Featherston,  Hay  Creek  and  Florence.  But  in  the  latter  town- 
ships the  knolls  are  larger  and  higher. 

In  those  vastly  remote  ages,  so  remote  that  the  passage  of 
time  since  then  can  only  be  vaguely  estimated  and  expressed  in 
terms  of  thousands  of  years,  when  nature,  by  the  exertion  of  her 
forces,  was  preparing  the  earth  for  the  habitation  of  humankind, 
occurred  a  period  known  as  the  glacial  epoch,  by  reason  that  a 
large  part  of  the  earth  was  covered  with  vast  fields  of  solid  ice,. 
many  hundreds  of  feet  deep.  With  the  melting  of  this  ice  were 
formed  vast  seas  and  streams  in  which  floated  huge  icebergs, 
composed  both  of  stone  and  ice,  which  plowed  out  the  valleys 
which  are  now  dry  land,  and  wrote  their  evidences  in  scratches 
upon  the  rocks,  and  gradually  melting,  left  various  deposits  of 
mud  and  gravel  in  the  turbulent  waters.  On  the  shrinkage  of  the 
high  waters  of  the  glacial  epoch,  numerous  streams  were  dried. 


old  channels  were  abandoned,  and  the  hastening  currents  made 
deeper  cuts  in  the  gravel  and  loam,  which  they  themselves  had 
previously  deposited  there.  The  location  of  these  old  streams, 
some  of  which  were  dried  up,  or  changed  their  courses  thousands 
of  years  ago,  forms  an  interesting  subject  for  conjecture.  Colonel 
"William  Colvill  during  his  lifetime,  after  long  study,  suggested 
the  course  of  some  of  these  old  streams  in  the  following  words: 
"Hay  creek,  going  upstream,  carried  one  of  these  currents.  The 
Trout  brook,  whose  branches  came  down  through  those  mag- 
nificent gorges,  now  followed  by  the  roads  leading  up  to  Feath- 
erston,  came  at  the  old  tannery,  on  to  the  ground  now  held  by 
Hay  creek.  The  bluffs  below  the  tannery,  on  that  side,  are  a  con- 
tinuation of  the  Trout  brook  bluffs,  and  beyond  the  range  of  Hay 
creek  at  any  time.  At  the  then  mouth  of  Trout  brook,  on  the 
river,  struck  in  the  current,  and  soon  broke  across  the  narrow 
and  low  divide,  into  Hay  creek,  followed  aloug  its  valley  to  the 
mill,  Section  12,  Featherston,  near  its  then  head,  and  broke  over 
into  the  wide  and  deep  valley  which  there  comes  down  from 
Featherstone — pointing  directly  to  the  great  bend  of  Hay  creek. 
This  bend  was  then  a  part  of  the  main  valley  of  "Wells  creek,  and 
the  current  then  flowed  down  that,  now  dry,  valley  to  AVells 
creek  mill,  on  the  present  stream.  With  what  eloquent  tongues 
do  the  acrid  cliffs  and  isolated  peaks  of  that  old  dry  valley  speak. 
They  seem  to  echo  the  thundering  floods  which  in  those  days  bat- 
tered their  faces,  and,  like  the  gigantic  bones  of  an  old  creation, 
to  tell  us  the  history  of  the  past." 

Colonel  Colvill  conjectured,  further,  that  the  water  of  AVells 
creek  was  not  then  able  to  reach  the  Mississippi  freely,  but 
passed  through  some  of  the  valleys  now  tributatory  to  it,  south- 
ward into  some  of  those  that  are  tributatory  to  the  Zumbro, 
mainly  through,  the  valley  of  Skillman's  brook,  uniting  with  the 
Zumbro  at  Mazeppa.  The  disproportion  between  the  size  of  the 
Zumbro  valley  and  the  drainage  area  which  it  now  serves  has 
been  noted  by  geologists,  and  this  hypothesis  serves  to  account, 
possibly,  for  this  irregularity.  There  is  still  observable  by  one 
passing  southwesterly,  a  perceptible  valley,  running  southeast- 
wardly,  outlined  on  the  west  by  the  Trenton  bluffs  all  the  way 
from  northeastern  Vasa  4o  southwestern  Zumbrota. 

Another  probable  water  course  which  is  now  abandoned  was 
from  Cannon  Falls,  northeastwardly.  The  observer  is  struck 
with  the  narrowness  of  the  Cannon  valley  at  once  on  passing 
Cannon  Falls,  as  compared  with  the  width  of  the  low,  flat  valley, 
lying  next  north.  It  is  probable  that  much  of  the  water  of  the 
Cannon,  in  glacial  times,  passed  north  of  the  bluffs  that  lie  next 
north  of  the  village.  Some  of  it  re-entered  the  Cannon  valley 
again  about  at  the  mouth  of  Belle  creek,  by  way  of  Trout  brook, 


and  some  of  it  passed  northeastward  to  the  Mississippi  at  Etter, 
the  same  place,  where  the  Vermilion  waters  entered  it.  The 
descent  of  this  northeastern  flat  to  Etter  is  about  one  hundred 
feet  for  the  uplands,  but  three  or  four  hundred  feet  for  the  valley 
in  which  the  waters  were  collected. 

The  greatest  recorded  elevation  in  Goodhue  county  is  on  the 
line  of  the  Chicago  and  Great  Western,  on  Section  23,  Kenyon, 
being  1,250  feet  above  the  sea  level;  but  large  areas  of  several 
other  townships,  notably  Cherry  Grove,  Roscoe,  Holden,  Wana- 
mingo,  Leon  and  Belle  Creek,  would  doubtless,  if  subjected  to 
careful  measurement,  prove  to  have  nearly,  if  not  quite,  the  same 

The  average  elevation  of  the  county,  estimated  from  contour 
lines,  taken  by  railroad  officials,  would  be  as  follows :  Central 
point.  725  feet  above  the  sea;  Florence,  975;  Wacouta,  925;  Red 
Wing,  800;  Hay  Creek,  975;  Belvidere,  1,100;  Burnside,  825; 
Featherstone,  1,000;  Goodhue.  1,100;  Zumbrota,  1,075;  Pine  Isl- 
land,  1,075;  Welch,  925;  Vasa,  975;  Belle  Creek,  1,050;  Minneola, 
1.075;  Roscoe,  1.125;  Cannon  Falls,  925;  Leon,  1,080;  Wana- 
mingo.  1.150;  Cherry  Grove,  1.200;  Stanton,  925;  Warsaw,  1,050; 
Holden,  1,150;  Kenyon.  1,210.  Florence  and  Central  Point  in 
these  estimates  are  considered  equal  to  one  town,  their  areas  being 
as  7  to  1  ;  Wacouta,  Red  Wing  and  Burnside  make  another,  their 
areas  being  as  the  figures  1,  2,  8;  Welch  and  Stanton  together 
make  two  towns.  The  figures  give  an  estimated  average  eleva- 
tion for  the  county  of  about  1.015  feet  above  the  sea. 

The  soil  of  Goodhue  county  is  based  on  a  clayey  sub-soil,  in 
all  places  except  on  the  terrace  plains  that  skirt  the  main 
streams.  This  clay  is  generally  fine  and  loamy;  but  in  the  high 
prairies  of  the  western  towns  it  is  mingled  with  some  pebbles,  and 
even  foreign  boulders  of  a  foot  or  more  in  diameter.  Yet,  how- 
ever frequent  the  stones  on  the  surface,  or  in  the  immediate  sub- 
soil, the  real  soil,  which  sustains  the  crops  of  the  farmer,  is 
invariably  of  a  fine  grain,  and  usually  of  a  black  color,  with  a 
thickness  from  a  few  inches  to  several  feet.  The  stones  in  the 
sub-soil,  which  appear  in  the  western  part  of  the  county,  gradu- 
ally disappear  towrard  the  east,  and  are  wholly  wanting  in  the 
extreme  eastern  part  of  the  co'unty.  The  sub-soil  in  the  rolling 
towns  of  the  eastern  tiers  is  a  fine  yellowish  loam,  in  some  cases 
a  compact  clay. 

Goodhue  county  abounds  in  lumber  along  the  rivers,  and  also 
in  several  other  portions.  The  following  list  has  been  compiled, 
giving  the  trees  native  to  this  county,  together  with  a  short 
description  of  each  variety.  In  addition  to  those  found  in  the 
list  there  are  a  few  smaller  trees,  like  the  plum,  crab  apple  and 
thorn  apple,  which  are  of  little  consequence.     Among  the  eulti- 


vated  shade  trees  which  have  been  induced  to  grow  here  are  the 
Balm  of  Gilead,  White  Poplar,  Scotch  Pine,  Mountain  Ash,  White 
Spruce  Balsam,  or  Fir,  and  Arbor  Vitae.  The  native  trees  are 
as  follows : 

Rock  Maple — Not  abundant;  it  is  very  valuable  for  fuel,  and 
fine  for  shade  but  of  rather  slow  growth.  Soft,  or  Red  Maple — 
A  good  shade  tree,  but  easily  broken  by  storms.  Box  Elder — 
Common  in  rich  woods:  a  hardy  shade  tree.  Sugar  is  made  from 
this  tree  in  some  parts  of  the  state.  Basswood — Abundant  in  rich 
woods.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  trees  for  shade.  Its  lumber  is 
excellent  for  furniture.  Black  Cherry — Very  valuable  for  lum- 
ber. Some  trees  are  found  here  which  grow  to  be  quite  large. 
White  Ash — Well  known  as  a  large  and  valuable  forest  tree.  It 
is  used  much  for  shade.  Rc<!  Ash — Not  common.  Grows  in  low 
grounds.  A  small  tree  which  resembles  the  white  ash.  Green 
Ash — Grows  near  river  banks.  Upper  half  of  leaves  have  sharp 
teeth.  Black  Ash — Not  abundant.  It  grows  in  swamps  and  wet 
banks  along  streams.  A  small  tree  with  tough  wood.  Red  Elm, 
or  Slippery  Kim — Well  known,  and  ranks  with  the  better  grade 
of  soft  wood  for  fmd.  White  Elm — Abundant  in  rich  soil  along 
rivers.  An  elegant  shade  tree.  Rock  Elm — Very  scarce.  Wood 
very  hard  and  timber  valuable.  Sugar  Berry,  or  Hack  Berry — 
A  small  tree  hearing  sweet  fruit,  the  size  of  wild  cherries.  Xot 
abundant.  Grows  by  river  banks.  Black-  Walnut — A  beautiful 
and  valuable  tree  found  along  streams.  Butternut — Grows  in 
damp,  rich  soil,  with  wood  softer  and  lighter  than  the  walnut. 
Butternut-Hickory — Abundant  on  moist  land.  Bark  smooth.  The 
nut  is  small  and  bitter.    Very  valuable  for  fuel. 

Paper,  or  Canoe  Birch — Grows  sparingly  on  river  banks.  The 
Indians  use  the  hark  of  this  species  for  making  canoes.  Black 
Alder — Found  at  the  Big  Falls.  It  resembles  the  black  cherry. 
Ironwood,  or  Hophorn  Bean — Common  in  rich'  woods,  and  is 
excellent  for  fmd.  Has  hop-like  fruit.  Blue,  or  White  Beech — 
Grows  along  streams.  Its  wood  is  very  hard.  Burr  Oak — Pin 
oak;  abundant.  It  varies  much  in  size  and  appearance.  Very 
valuable  for  timber  and  fuel.  White  Oak — Xot  common.  Trunk 
more  smooth  and  bark  lighter  colored  than  burr  oak.  Black 
Oak.  or  Scrub  Oak.  or  Jack  Oak — Grows  in  dry  soil  and  has  deep- 
eu1  leaves,  shining  on  the  upper  surface;  has  a  small  acorn  with 
a  deep  ciii).  Red  Oak — Abundant  on  rich  soil  on  elevated  ground 
in  this  vicinity.  It  resembles  the  black  oak.  but  the  trunk  is 
smoother  and  more  slender  and  light  colored.  The  leaves  are 
larger,  not  deeply  cut  nor  shining  above.  Acorn  large  and  oblong, 
with  shallow  cup.  It  is  often  mistaken  for  the  black  oak.  Com- 
mon Poplar,  or  Popple — Well  known  ;  grows  further  north  than 


any  other  deciduous  tree.  Large  Tooth  Poplar — Bark  darker. 
Colored  leaves  with  large  teeth.  Less  common  than  common  pop- 
lar. The  wood  is  harder  and  more  valuable  for  fuel.  Cotton- 
wood— Largely  used  as  a  shade  tree.  A  rapid  grower.  White 
Pine — Found  in  several  places  along  the  banks  of  rivers  and  small 
streams,  but  now  largely  cut  off.  Bed  Cedar — A  beautiful  tree 
found  in  small  quantities  along  the  banks  of  streams. 

To  do  justice  to  the  detailed  description  of  the  geological 
structure  of  the  county  would  be  to  use  more  space  than  the  lim- 
its of  this  volume  would  justify.  The  thoughtful  reader  will  find 
much  valuable  information  on  this  subject  in  the  second  volume 
of  a  publication  entitled  "The  Geology  of  Minnesota,"  dated  1885, 
edited  by  X.  IT.  Winehell.  upon  whose  statements  much  of  the 
information  in  this  chapter  is  based. 

The  first  deep  well  drilled  in  the  county  is  at  the  station  of  the 
Chicago,  Milwaukee  and  St.  Paul  Railroad,  beginning  at  the  grade 
line  of  the  road,  687  feet  above  the  sea.  Tin1  work  was  done  by 
W.  E.  Swan,  of  McGregor,  la.,  who  estimated  the  discharge  at 
800  gallons  per  minute.  The  water  could  rise  seventy-five  feet 
above  the  surface  when  confined  in  a  pipe.  The  water  began  to 
flow  at  190  feet  from  the  surface,  and  kept  on  increasing  to  the 
end.  Another  deep  well  situated  about  eighty  rods  west  of  the 
Milwaukee  station,  three  rods  south  of  the  track  and  thirty  feet 
above  it,  spouted  three  hundred  barrels  per  day,  rising  thirty 
feet  above  the  surface.  This  well  passed  through  160  feet  of 
drift  materials  and  entered  the  sandstone  one  hundred  feet. 
Following  is  the  record  of  the  well  at  the  Milwaukee  depot,  as 
given  by  Mr.  Swan:  Sand  and  gravel.  40  feet;  sandy  shale,  10 
feet ;  blue  shale,  50  feet ;  sand  rock,  10  feet ;  blue  shale,  30  feet ; 
mixture  of  sand,  quartz  and  limestone,  45  feet;  soft  sandrock,  265 
feet.     Total  depth,  450  feet. 

In  the  early  part  of  1887  August  Peterson  obtained  another 
artesian  flow  at  the  extreme  northwest  corner  of  section  26, 
township  113.  range  15,  in  the  valley  of  Spring  creek.  The 
surface  of  the  ground  where  this  well  begins  is  about  fifty  feet 
higher  than  at  the  well  above  mentioned,  and  the  water  rises 
freely  through  a  pipe  that  stands  twenty  feet  above  the  surface. 
On  striking  the  yellow,  green  and  brown  sandrock.  the  water 
rose  to  within  twenty-five  feet  of  the  surface,  and  increased 
constantly  in  volume  and  force  as  the  well  went  deeper.  The 
bottom  of  this  well  is  146  feet  short  of  the  bottom  of  the  well 
at  the  depot.  The  water  is  soft  and  pure.  The  record  of  this 
well  was  taken  by  the  late  Colonel  William  Colvill  as  follows: 
Sand  and  gravel,  112  feet;  compact  sandrock,  4  feet;  blue  sand- 
rock, 30  feet;  green  slaty  shale,  90  feet;  yellow,  green  and  In-own 
sandrock.    15   feet:    white   sandrock.    104   feet:    total    depth,    355 


feet.  Since  these  first  three,  numerous  others  have  been  success- 
fully sunk,  and  the  city  of  Red  "Wing  is  soon  to  receive  its  water 
supply  from  artesian  sources.  "With  the  increase  in  the  number 
of  wells,  the  force  of  the  water  has  been  somewhat  diminished. 

While  Goodhue  county  is  pre-eminently  an  agricultural  one, 
outside  of  the  cities  and  villages,  yet  it  has  several  other  sources 
of  material  wealth.  The  county  is  abundantly  supplied  with 
building  stone,  and  from  some  of  the  quarries  a  large  amount 
of  stone  has  been  sent  to  various  parts  of  the  Northwest.  There 
are  quarries  at  Frontenac  and  Red  Wing,  from  which  stone  has 
been  obtained  for  buildings  in  Red  Wing,  St.  Paul,  Minneapolis 
and  elsewhere.  There  are  other  quarries  of  lesser  importance  at 
Belvidere,  Hay  Creek,  Featherstone  and  Vasa.  Another  product 
produced  in  large  quantities  is  quicklime,  and  sand  for  mortar 
is  abundant  whenever  access  can  be  had  to  the  gravel  terraces, 
or  the  plains,  along  the  principal  streams ;  but  in  the  absence  of 
that,  resort  can  be  had  to  the  sandstone,  which  can  easily  be 
excavated  for  that  purpose.  Such  use  of  this  rock  has  been 
made  on  the  southwest  quarter  of  section  23,  Goodhue  township. 
There  are  some  townships,  however,  in  the  southwestern  part 
of  the  county,  in  which  sand  for  mortar  has  to  be  hauled  a  great 
distance,  the  whole  county  being  uniformly  covered  with  a 
clayey  loam. 

Brick  of  excellent  quality  is  made  at  various  points.  The 
old  capitol  at  St.  Paul  was  made  of  red  pressed  brick  from  Red 
Wing,  and  the  Red  Wing  product  in  this  line  is  known  far  and 
wide  for  its  excellence.  The  clay  found  in  Goodhue  township 
has  caused  the  making  of  stoneware  to  become  practically  the 
leading  industry  of  Red  Wing.  From  this  clay  are  manufactured 
the  finest  kinds  of  white  and  yellow  stoneware,  and  also  the 
sewer  pipe  which  has  a  national  reputation.  A  fine  quality 
of  sand  is  also  shipped  for  filtering  purposes.  There  is  but  little 
peat  in  the  county  at  large.  Along  the  old  valleys  in  the  eastern 
part  of  the  county  are  found  some  peat  beds,  but  as  yet  little 
has  been  done  in  the  line  of  making  it  a  commercial  product 
by  its  successful  use  as  fuel. 

The  animals  native  to  Goodhue  county  are  deer,  elk,  bear, 
fisher,  beaver,  otter,  mink,  muskrat,  coon,  squirrel  (black,  fox, 
red  and  chipmunk),  fox,  wolf  (cayote  and  lumber),  weasel, 
skunk,  gopher  (pocket  and  striped),  wild  cat,  lynx,  badger,  wood- 
chuck,  porcupine  and  a  very  few  buffalo,  though  these  were 
stragglers  from  the  south.  The  buffalo,  badger,  porcupine,  otter, 
beaver,  fisher,  bear,  elk  and  deer  are  now  practically  extinct. 

Elijah  Haskell  Blodgett,  deceased,  will  always  be  remembered 
as  one  of  the  most  kindly  and  best  beloved  of  Red  Wing's  most 
prominent  citizens.     His  period  of  activity  in  this  city  began  in 




the  early  days  and  extended  until  the  day  of  his  lamented  death, 
June  6,  1909,  although  he  retired  from  the  more  strenuous  duties 
of  his  career  several  years  before.  Mr.  Blodgett  came  of  sturdy 
old  New  England  stock,  the  name  of  Blodgett  being  an  honored 
one  in  the  Colonial  annals  of  that  section.  His  father,  Ashley 
Blodgett,  a  native  of  Massachusetts,  married  Orill  Haskell,  the 
daughter  of  an  old  Vermont  family,  and  together  they  estab- 
lished their  rooftree  on  a  large  farm  in  Weathersfield,  in  the 
Green  Mountain  State.  In  1835  they  moved  to  Middlesex,  Ver- 
mont, and  there  continued  farming  until  1854,  when  they  retired 
from  active  life  and  took  up  their  residence  in  Norwich  in  the 
same  state,  where  the  mother  ended  her  days  in  1867  and  the 
father  in  1894,  the  latter  having  reached  the  honored  old  age 
of  ninety-nine  years.  Elijah  was  born  in  Weathersfield,  Vt., 
February  16,  1832,  took  advantage  of  such  education  as  the 
primitive  district  schools  of  his  time  afforded,  and  supplemented 
this  with  a  course  in  an  academy  at  Montpelier,  Vt.,  later  learn- 
ing the  carpenter's  trade,  which  he  followed  at  Windsor,  Vt., 
from  1848  to  1855,  in  the  meantime  acquiring  a  knowledge  of 
wood  pattern  making,  which  he  made  his  occupation  in, the  same 
village  from  1855  to  1866,  with  the  exception  of  the  year  1857, 
which  he  spent  at  Newark,  N.  J.  Like  many  other  young  men 
of  his  day,  he  then  determined  to  try  his  fortunes  amid  the 
wider  opportunities  of  the  great  Northwest.  Arriving  in  Red 
Wing  May  31,  1866,  he  first  entered  the  employ  of  the  late  T.  B. 
Sheldon,  who  at  that  time  conducted  a  large  grain  elevator. 
After  several  years  of  faithful  and  efficient  service,  Mr.  Blodgett 
was  admitted  as  a  partner,  the  firm  being  known  as  T.  B. 
Sheldon  &  Co.  In  this  enterprise  Mr.  Blodgett  continued  until 
1902,  when  he  sold  the  business  and  retired.  During  his  more 
active  days  he  served  as  mayor  and  alderman,  as  president  of 
the  Red  Wing  &  Trenton  Transit  Company,  and  as  president  of 
the  board  of  education.  He  had  extensive  interests  in  the  manu- 
facturing industries  of  Red  Wing,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
was  a  director  in  the  Red  Wing  Union  Stoneware  Company,  the 
Red  Wing  Sewer  Pipe  Company,  and  the  LaGrange  mills.  Mr. 
Blodgett  was  married  September  17,  1855,  at  Hartland,  Vt.,  to 
Sarah  P.  Sturtevant,  of  that  place,  a  daughter  of  Thomas  F. 
and  Rosaline  (Taylor)  Sturtevant,  the  former  of  whom  was  an 
extensive  wool  manufacturer.  Mrs.  Blodgett  died  March  28, 
1906,  and  is  laid  at  rest  in  Oakwood  cemetery,  as  is  her  husband. 
At  the  entrance  of  this  cemetery  is  a  beautiful  arch,  erected  by 
Mr.  Blodgett  in  loving  memory  of  his  wife. 

Hon.  Joshua  C.  Pierce,  one  of  the  sturdy  pioneers  who  laid 
the  foundations  for  the  future  financial  integrity  of  Red  Wing, 
was  born  near  Nashua,  N.  H.,  December  8,  1830.     When  young 


he  went  to  Boston  and  started  in  life  for  himself  as  a  news- 
boy. By  dint  of  much  saving,  he  managed  to  secure  funds  suffi- 
cient to  pursue  a  course  in  surveying  in  the  Academy  o'f  New 
Hampshire.  It  was  in  1855  that  he  came  to  Red  Wing  and 
entered  the  land  business  as  a  member  of  the  firm  of  Smith, 
Towne  &  Co.  He  followed  that  business  until  October,  1868, 
when,  in  company  with  T.  K.  Simmons  and  A.  W.  Pratt,  he 
started  the  bank  of  Pierce,  Simmons  &  Co.  When  the  bank  was 
incorporated  Mr.  Pierce  became  president  of  the  institution,  and 
retained  that  position  until  the  time  of  his  death.  Pie  also 
served  several  terms  in  the  Minnesota  legislature,  being  elected 
on  the  Democratic  ticket.  Mr.  Pierce  was  twice  married.  During 
his  lifetime  he  was  an  enthusiastic  supporter  of  all  enterprises 
tending  toward  civic  growth  and  improvement.  The  name  is 
perpetuated  in  Red  Wing  by  a  nephew.  A.  P.  Pierce,  for  many 
years  mayor  of  the  city.     J.  C.  Pierce  died  June  13,  1904. 



Formation  of  the  Earth — Cooling  of  the  Crust — The  Various 
Periods  as  Outlined  by  Scholars — Appearance  of  Vegeta- 
tion— First  Animal  Life — Geologic  Formations  of  Goodhue 
County — Influence  of  These  Distance  Periods  on  Modern 

!t  was  necessary  for  the  earth  to  undergo  many  changes 
before  it  became  suited  for  the  habitation  of  man.  According 
to  the  students,  the  globe  was  originally  a  mass  of  molten  rock. 
The  cooling  process  was  undoubtedly  a  slow  one,  and  the  crust 
just  under  our  feet  did  not  become  hard  enough  and  cool  enough 
to  rest  any  superstructure  on  for  perhaps  many  thousands  of 
years.  Probably  many  ages  passed  while  it  was  a  rough,  ragged, 
irregular  mass  of  granite — the  skeleton  of  the  future  earth. 
Abrasion  and  erosion  ground  the  surfaces  of  the  mass  into 
powder.  Oceans  swept  over  it.  Chemical  changes  operated  upon 
it.  Next  the  sandstone  was  laid  up.  Then  came  the  magnesran 
limestone  of  which  our  bluffs  are  composed.  At  this  period 
fossil  life  begins.  The  reptilian  age  came  on.  The  iethyosaurus. 
the  pterodactyl,  the  iguanodon  and  plesiosaurus  and  other  huge 
monsters  wallowed  and  splashed  in  the  muddy  water.  Then 
came  the  glacial  period.  The  edges  of  the  bluffs  were  polished 
and  seamed  by  huge  icebergs  on  their  way  down  from  the  North. 
The  Mississippi  at  that  time  covered  a  vast  area.  What  are 
now  towering  peaks  were  then  islands,  scarcely  reaching  above 
the  water.  But  the  glacial  period  passed.  Vegetation  appeared. 
The  earth  rejoiced  in  scenes  of  beauty.  Mammals  came.  Man, 
rude  and  uncouth,  the  contemporary  of  the  mammoth  and  the 
cave  bear,  appeared  on  the  scene,  and  the  era  of  humankind 
commenced  in  primitive  barbarity. 

Some  years  ago  Prof.  E.  AY.  Schmidt.  M.  A.,  of  the  Red  Wing 
Seminary,  was  induced  to  write  a  short  article  on  the  geology  of 
Eed    Wing  and    the   surrounding   environs   of   Goodhue    county. 



Later  he  amplified  the  article,  but  the  managers  of  this  publica- 
tion present  the  former  paper  as  the  one  which  comes  within 
the  scope  of  this  work,  and  one  well  suited  to  popular  reading 
by  those  not  familiar  with  the  story  of  the  formation  of  this 
county  from  the  time  when  the  earth  was  a  mass  of  liquid  fire 
down  to  the  age  when  it  was  suited  to  the  occupation  of  man. 
The  paper  follows : 

"It  is  with  considerable  reluctance  that  I  assented  to  discuss 
this  subject,  because  my  pursuit  of  knowledge  in  this  realm  has 
been  prompted  by  a  love  of  nature  and  recreation,  by  a  desire 
for  relief  from  the  wearisome  routine  of  the  daily  vocation,  by 
a  wish  for  increase  of  culture  and  the  pleasures  that  spring 
from  contact  with  nature,  rather  than  from  a  desire  to  perfect 
myself  in  any  particular  study.  These  investigations  are  a 
splendid  field  for  training  the  powers  of  observation  and  judg- 
ment, and  a  lesson  in  patience  in  slowly  spelling  out  the  silent 
pages  of  nature's  book,  wherein  is  imprinted  the  geologic  history 
of  prehistoric  Goodhue  county. 

"The  subject  is  so  vast  and  the  material  that  can  be  com- 
manded so  abundant  that  the  greatest  difficulty  in  discussing 
it  lies  in  knowing  what  to  omit,  rather  than  in  finding  sufficient 
material.  The  object  in  the  following  is  an  attempt  to  present 
the  broad  outlines  of  our  natural  environment.  Let  us  endeavor 
first  to  read  the  story  of  the  rocks  and  hills,  of  the  uplands  and 
the  valleys,  of  the  artesian  wells  and  the  gravel  terraces,  of  the 
fossils  and  of  the  rocks,  and  see  bow  nature  fashioned  our  present 
abode  upon  the  ancient  sea  floor  and  turned  it  from  a  barren 
sea  of  waste  waters  into  the  picturesque  spot  that  makes  Red 
Wing  famous  for  its  beauty,  cheers  us  with  its  never  wearying 
aspect,  and  makes  it  a  suitable  location  for  industrial  and  educa- 
tional enterprises.  If  we  ascend  Barn  bluff  near  Webster's  Way, 
Ave  pass  over  strata  of  various  materials.  Some  layers  are  com- 
posed of  quite  pure  quartzoze  sand,  others  of  sand  mixed  more 
or  less  with  earthy  impurities.  Other  layers  present  shaly  lime- 
stone, others  more  massive  and  finer  grained  lime.  Nodules  of 
chert  and  cavities  filled  with  crystals  can  be  seen  at  various 
elevations.  Some  of  the  strata  also  contain  fossils."  The  lime- 
stone that  caps  the  bluff  can  be  traced  up  Cannon  river,  where, 
in  the  vicinity  of  Welch,  it  is  surmounted  by  a  hardened  layer 
that  seems  to  be  a  mixture  of  sand  and  the  limestone  that  can 
be  seen  still  further  up  the  valley  as  distinct  strata.  At  Cannon 
Falls  Mr.  Scofield  will  gladly  take  you  to  the  top  of  the  bluffs, 
where  an  outcrop  of  different  limestone  reveals  a  cemetery  of 
ancient  creatures,  lying  exposed  on  one  of  the  farms.  It  might 
here  be  noted  that  our  sandstones  are  composed  of  more  or 
less  angular  fragments,  worn  smooth  with  a  tendency  to  round- 


ness.  Their  size  is  fairly  uniform  iu  the  same  layer.  The  lower 
layers  contain  coarser  grains  and  the  succeeding  higher  ones 
liner  grains. 

"At  Claybank  can  be  seen  the  clay  pits.  At  Wanamingo 
the  limestone  quarries  are  filled  with  mummies  of  countless  crea- 
tures, while  on  the  fields  are  boulders  of  volcanic  rock,  covered 
everywhere  in  our  county,  as  with  a  mantle,  by  till  and  loam. 
Along  our  rivers  lie  the  terraces  and  gravel  bars  which  add  so 
much  to  the  beauty  of  our  deeply-eroded  valleys.  The  above 
features  constitute  the  main  geologic  formations  of  Goodhue 
county.  The  story  of  these  formations  is  believed  by  geologists 
to  be  about  as  follows :  The  hard  archaen  rocks  revealed  by 
borings  represent  the  ancient  sea  bottom  when  the  earth  had 
cooled  sufficiently  to  form  an  outer  crust  and  the  vapor  of  the 
atmosphere  had  become  sufficiently  chilled  to  form  the  sea,  which 
covered  the  outer  crust.  Then  the  nucleus  of  America  appeared 
at  the  north.  The  sea  had  a  powerful  sweep  against  the  newborn 
land.  The  absence  of  vegetation  favored  swift  drainage.  The 
high  rate  of  the  earth's  revolution  favored  the  formation  of 
rapid  ocean  currents.  The  tides  produced  by  such  a  rapid  motion 
hurled  themselves  with  fury  in  quick  succession  upon  the  beach. 
The  higher  temperature  of  the  atmosphere  favored,  torrential 
rains  and  produced  most  violent  storms.  The  presence  of  many 
gases  and  acids  and  the  barren  ness  of  the  land  all  favored  the 
rapid  disintegration  of  the  rocks  under  the  attacks  of  the  atmos- 
phere, while  the  heaving  of  the  sea  washed  the  debris  back, 
scattering  it  over  the  floor  of  the  sea.  The  finest  parts  were 
carried  furthest,  so  that  the  sand  in  our  county  is  a  testimony 
of  the  comparative  shallowness  of  the  former  sea.  The  grains 
of  sand  were  sifted,  sorted  and  smoothed  in  their  journey.  This 
explains  also  the  fact  that  the  grains  in  any  one  layer  are  fairly 
uniform  in  size.  The  difference  in  color  is  due  to  storms  or 
later  infiltrations;  coarser  or  finer  grains  determine  greater  or 
less  distance  transferred.  The  succession  of  sandstone,  shales 
and  limestones  is  due  to  the  successive  rising  and  sinking  of  the 
ocean  surface.  The  shales  were  formed  by  the  stirring  up  and 
blending  of  the  sand  with  the  new  material  coming  in  above  it. 
The  limestones  were  deposited  in  quiet,  deep  waters,  but  the 
succeeding  elevation  permitted  the  waves  to  stir  them  up  in 
places  into  dome-shaped  structures  and  knolls  of  varying  thick- 
ness. "Wherever  the  sea  encroached  on  the  northern  land,  the 
sand  was  left  further  north,  and  we  received  the  finer  materials. 
When  the  sea  receded  it  washed  backward  the  sand  upon  the 
deeper  formation.  That  our  rocks  are  sea  deposits  is  shown  by 
several  clearly  read  proofs.  1 — The  nature  of  the  material  and 
character  of  the  grains  of  sand  and  lime.     2 — Their  horizontal 


position   and  also   the  oblique   ebb  and  flow  structure.     'S — The 
presence  of  only  marine  fossils,  of  shales,  mud  cracks  and  ripple 
marks.      The    absence    of   tilting   and    of   the    influence    of    heat 
shows  that  ttiey  were  never  disturbed  by  volcanic  eruptions  in 
this  quarter.     The  enormous  amount  of  material  deposited  shows 
that  long  periods  of  ceaseless  activity  were  consumed  to  perform 
such  a  tremendous  amount  of  erosion.     Our  limestone  formation, 
for  instance,  extends  from  New  York  to  the  Rockies.     The  large 
quantities  of  carbon  dioxide  in  the  Limestones  is  thought  to  have 
been  derived  from  the  cooling  atmosphere.     The  sediments  were 
hardened   by  their  own  cohesion  and  the  infiltration  of  cements. 
The  wide  extent  of  country  over  which  some  of  the  formations 
spread  indicates  that  when  submerged  it    formed  a  wide,  shallow 
sea    bottom.      The   mud   cracks   and    ripple    marks   speak   of   the 
beach.     The   compacted   layers  of  sediments   have  received  dif- 
ferent names.     The  lowest   is  the  Potsdam  sandstone,  also  called 
St.  Croix,  from  the  St.  Croix  valley,  where  it  outcrops.     Over 
this  are  spread  in  succession  :    J.  2.  the  Si.  Lawrence  and  Jordan 
sandstones,  by  some  included  in  the  St.  Croix,  which  can  be  seen 
in  outcrop  in   Barn  bluff,  College  hill   and  Twin  bluff;  3,  lower 
magnesian    limestone,    capping    our    bluffs;    4.    New    Richmond 
sandstone  at  Cannon  falls:  5,  Shakope  limestone,  seen  at  Cannon 
falls  and  Northfield;  '».  St.  Peter  sandstone^  seen  at  White  rock, 
Castle  rock  and  the  falls  of  the  Cannon;  T.  Trenton   limestone, 
seen  at  Wanamingo  and  Cannon   falls. 

"Ai   some  period  life  appeared.     Some  geologists  place  this 
evenl    hack  as  far  as  2< )().()( )().()( )0  years,  so  we  have  a   wide  range 
of  lime   to  choose    from.     The   archaean    rocks   contain  no  clear 
traces  of  life,  so  thai   the  rocks  in  our  immediate  neighborhood 
are    of   special    interest,    as    they    introduce   us    to    some    of   the 
earliest   known  animals.     Other  living  things,  such  as  lichens  and 
mosses,   may    have   preceded   them,   hut   owing  to  their  delicate 
structure,   the  physical  conditions  under  which  they  lived  and 
the  lone-  period  of  time  that  has  elapsed,  no  definite  traces  have 
been  left.      The   St.    Croix    formation    contains   traces   of   plants 
regarded  as  sea   weeds.      There   is  no  evidence  of  land  plants. 
In  the  geologic  foundations  of  the  county  are  evidences  of  all 
the  types  known  to  the  animal  kingdom  except  the  vertebrates. 
The  combined  contribution  of  animal  life  to  the  rock  structure 
of  our  present  home  was  great.     The  successive  generations  were 
piled   up   on   the   tombs    of  their   ancestors,    while    those   whose 
shells  were  reduced  to  powder — and  their  number  was  undoubt- 
edly far  greater  than  those  whose  remains  are  unearthed  today — 
furnished  the  material  for  the  encasing  rock.     In  general  it  is 
an   accepted   proposition   that   limestones    deposited   by   marine 
agencies   were   produced    by   the   calcareous   remains   of   animals 


having  the   power   to   abstrad    Lime    held    in    suspension    in   the 

••Then  came  the  interval  between  the  Trenton  and  the  glacial 
periods.  The  struggle  between  the  ocean  and  the  archsean  con- 
tinent ceased.  Minnesota  and  adjoining  areas  were  raised  above 
the  sea.  and  our  enmity  began  giving  up  instead  of  receiving 
more.  Erosion  sei  in  and  the  debris  went  elsewhere  to  build  up 
other  states,  the  archsean  rocks  in  the  meantime  being  completely 
worn  down.  The  resull  is  in  good  part  embodied  in  the  topog- 
raphy we  have  today.  The  .Mississippi  carved  out  its  pivsenl 
channel  but  flowed  aboul  100  feel  Lower  than  it  docs  today.  As 
the  former  periods  were  useful  in  building  up  the  material  for 
Red  Wing's  industries,  so  tins  period  was  useful  in  exposing 
and   making  them   easy  of  access. 

"Then  came  the  glacial  period.  Geologists  are  very  happy 
because  of  the  fact  thai  an  area  of  10,000  square  miles  in  Minne- 
sota. Wisconsin  and  Illinois  was  left  uncovered  by  the  ice  fields. 
Of  the  driftless  area.  3,000  square  miles  lie  in  Minnesota,  and  we 
are  jusl  about  at  the  upper  end  of  it.  Maps  of  this  period  show 
thai  glaciers  bearing  down  on  this  region  from  the  northeast 
seem  to  have  spent  their  force  and  died  away  before  they  reached 
the  lower  driftless  area.  The  glaciers  from  the  Lake  Superior 
and  Michigan  regions  encircled  it  on  the  south,  but  did  not  cover 
it.  hence,  as  Prof.  Chamberlain  said,  the  driftless  area  remains  an 
unmarred  monument  of  erosion  from  the  earliest  ages  to  the 
present  time.  The  driftless  area  is  clearly  distinguished  from  the 
drifted  area  in  that  it  is  free  from  lakes,  sloughs,  or  obstructed 
drainage.  Gravid  mounds,  like  those  spread  over  the  country 
from  Hastings  northward,  are  absent.  No  gravel  is  found 
beneath  the  soil  except  where  running  water  lodged  it.  The 
valleys  look  old.  The  rivers  that  run  from  the  glaciated  to  the  drift- 
less area  are  lined  by  high  terraces  showing  the  height  of  the  river 
bottom  during  the  melting  period  of  the  glaciers,  while  the  rivers 
lying  wholly  within  the  driftless  area  lack  them.  During  the  last 
glacial  epoch,  when  the  melting  glaciers  made  a  larger  part  of 
this  county  a  great  sea  of  icy  water,  gravel  and  sand  were 
disengaged  from  the  ice  and  carried  forward  to  lower  levels  by 
turbulent  waters.  'The  valley  of  the  Cannon  river  was  flooded  per- 
manently during  the  continuance  of  this  whole  epoch  with  waters 
that  came  directly  from  the  ice  fields  of  Dakota  and  Rice  counties, 
and  which  bore  along  great  quantities  of  floating  ice  and  of 
mingled  sand,  mud  and  gravel.  The  Mississippi  also  was  at 
flood  stage.  These  valleys  were  filled  with  alluvial  detritus  to 
the  height  of  their  highest  terrace,  and  flowed  at  a  permanent 
level  of  about  125  to  150  feet  higher  than  now,  the  bottom  of 
the  water  being  determined  by  this  terrace.     On  the  withdrawal 


of  the  ice  field  further  north,  and  the  cessation  of  the  supply  of 
such  detritus,  these  streams  began  to  excavate  their  present 
channels  in  the  loose  materials  over  which  they  had  been  flowing. 
This  excavation  was  a  process  of  short  duration  and  continued 
as  long  as  any  glacial  condition  of  the  preceding  cold  epoch 
lingered  in  the  state.  When  the  rivers  were  reduced  to  more 
nearly  their  present  stage,  by  the  cutting  off  of  the  supply  from 
the  melting  glaciers,  a  slow  process  of  refilling  seems  to  have 
been  begun,  which  we  see  going  on  at  present.  This  refilling 
is  most  evident  in  the  lower  portions  of  the  river  valleys,  and 
in  those  parts  where  the  valley  is  much  larger  than  is  now 
required  by  the  stream  flowing  there.' 

"Such,  then,  is  the  geological  story  in  brief,  telling  us  how 
our  environments  were  formed.  They  are  of  interest  because  the 
industries  of  Ked  Wing  are  directly  dependent  upon  them.  The 
porous  sandstones,  containing  gallons  of  water  per  cubic  yard, 
furnish  us  with  an  inexhaustible  supply  of  water  for  our  mills 
and  other  establishments.  The  limestones  furnish  us  lime  for 
mortar  and  rocks  for  architectural  purposes.  We  draw  upon 
the  gravel  bars  to  grade  our  roads  and  our  railroads.  The  soil 
of  our  farms  is  splendidly  mixed,  by  the  plowing,  grinding  and 
crushing  of  the  glacial  mill.  The  trees  of  the  North  and  the 
grasses  of  the  South  came  in,  and  furnish  us  with  fuel  and  with 
opportunities  for  dairying.  Clay  for  making  bricks  is  handy 
in  many  places,  and  furnishes  material  for  the  pottery  industries. 
The  woods  keep  our  saw  mills  humming  and  supply  our  furni- 
ture factories  with  materials  for  various  products.  The  yield 
of  the  soil  employs  many  at  the  malt  houses  and  the  mills, 
while  the  beauty  and  the  facilities  of  the  place  draw  to  it  seats 
of  learning  and  of  training." 

Thor  K.  Simmons,  now  deceased,  was  for  thirty-three  years 
one  of  the  leading  citizens  of  Red  Wing,  and  his  name  is  still 
perpetuated  in  the  title  of  one  of  the  county's  leading  financial 
institutions.  He  served  as  alderman  and  as  county  commissioner, 
and  in  other  ways  showed  his  public  spirited  interest  in  the 
welfare  of  the  city  and  county.  Born  in  Kragers,  Norway, 
August  12,  1832,  he  received  his  education  in  the  excellent  public 
schools  of  that  city,  and  became  a  school  teacher.  At  the  age 
of  twenty-one,  in  1853,  he  left  his  native  land  and  came  to 
America,  locating  for  a  time  at  Janesville,  Wis.,  where  some 
fellow  countrymen  had  previously  settled.  In  1856  he  followed 
the  influx  of  immigration  to  Goodhue  county,  and  homesteaded 
160  acres  near  what  is  now  known  as  Clay  bank,  in  Goodhue 
township.  A  year  later  he  decided  to  enter  business  life,  and  as 
a  preliminary  training  in  American  commercial  methods,  clerked 
a  year  in  the  store  of  C.  J.  F.  Smith,  then  one  of  the  leading 

T.  K.  Simmons 



stores  in  the  city.  Thus  equipped,  Mr.  Simmons  started  a  mer- 
cantile establishment  of  his  own,  and  continued  in  business  many- 
years,  being  also  a  wholesale  grain  dealer  on  a  large  scale,  his 
elevators  being  located  throughout  the  country.  During  this 
time  the  need  of  a  financial  institution  was  felt,  and  the  Pierce- 
Simmons  bank  was  organized,  with  Mr.  Simmons  as  one  of  the 
chief  promoters.  In  1887,  he  retired  from  active  business,  and 
lived  a  retired  life  until  his  death,  May  7,  1890.  He  was  a 
Republican  in  politics,  and  a  member  of  the  Swedish  Lutheran 
church.  Thor  K.  Simmons  was  married  June  25,  1858,  at  Cannon 
Falls,  Minn.,  to  Hannah  S.  Hawkins,  of.  that  city,  daughter  of 
Nels  and  Eva  (Carlstrom)  Hawkins,  natives  of  Sweden,  who 
came  to.  America,  located  in  Indiana  for  three  years  and  then 
settled  at  Cannon  Falls,  where  they  resided  until  the  'time  of 
their  deaths,  the  father  dying  May  10,  1889,  and  the  mother 
May  26,  the  same  year.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Simmons  were  born 
nine  children.  Emma  is  now  Mrs.  AY.  C  Krise,  of  Red  Wing. 
N.  K.  Simmons,  the  second  child,  lives  in  this  city  also,  as  does 
Eleda,  now  Mrs.  (Rev.)  0.  S.  Meland.  Eva.  married  to  H.  J. 
Brown,  lives  in  Portland,  Me.  T.  N.  Simmons  lives  in  Red  Wing. 
Frances  is  Mrs.  J.  L.  Keenan,  of  Hammond,  La.  Marie,  now 
Mrs.  H.  Van  Smith,  lives  in  Oklahoma.  Elvira  is  at  home,  and 
T.  K.  Simmons  also  lives  in  Oklahoma.  The  family  is  universally 
respec.ted,  and  enjoys  the  heritage  of  honor  left  by  the  father. 



The  First  Human  Inhabitants  of  Goodhue  County — Indications 
that  They  Were  Indians — Location  and  Shape  of  the  Mounds 
— their  Purpose — What  Excavation  Has  Revealed — Fort 
Sweney — Stone  Cairns — The  Lowland  Mounds — Reign  of 
the  Sioux — By  Edward  W.  Schmidt. 

At  what  period  of  the  earth's  existence  the  eye  of  humankind 
first  beheld  the  beauties  of  Goodhue  county  and  surrounding 
territory  is  a  problem  which  will  probably  never  be  absolutely 
solved.  The  theory  that  a  prehistoric  race,  superior  in  intelli- 
gence to  the  Indians,  once  possessed  this  locality  is  not  accepted 
by  scholars  in  general,  and  it  is  doubtless  true  that  the  first 
human  occupants  of  this  county  were  the  ancestors  of  the  Sioux 
Indians;  though  from  whence  they  came  is  one  of  the  great 
unanswered  questions.  Evidences  thus  far  discovered  indicate 
that  the  Mound  Builders,  famous  in  song  and  romance,  who  left 
so  many  indications  of  their  work  in  this  locality,  were  prehis- 
toric Sioux,  or  at  least  a  race  of  Indians  (possibly  the  Iowas) 
closely  resembling  them,  and  not  an  entirely  different  people, 
as  has  sometimes  been  maintained  by  scholars  of  others  days. 

The  mounds!  The  mounds!  Who  does  not  love  to  spend  a 
day  among  the  silent  monuments  of  a  vanished  race?  Who  is 
not  charmed  while  strolling  among  these  tombs,  either  when  the 
green  of  spring  covers  them  as  with  a  carpet,  while  all  around 
you  the  hills,  lakes,  rivers,  ponds  and  woods  contribute  their 
beauty  to  complete  the  picture  of  a  glorious  day  in  June,  or 
while  the  dreamy  haze  of  an  autumnal  day  tinges  the  gorgeous 
jianorama  of  the  many-colored  landscape  with  delicate  tint  of 
blue?  To  the  charms  of  such  a  scene  the  lover  of  mounds  is 
not  a  stranger,  nor  to  the  pleasant  feeling  of  mystery  that  steals 
upon  his  mind  as  he  gazes  at  the  sepulchres  that  dot  the  terrace 
or  stand  out  boldly  on  the  promontory  of  a  steep  and  rugged 




One  of  the  places  to  see  the  mounds  on  a  magnificent  scale 
is  Goodhue  county.  Parts  of  the  county  are  so  rich  in  mounds 
that  she  need  not  take  a  back  seal  in  archaeology,  by  any  means. 
Archaeologists  will  he  taxed  for  many  years  to  come  before  the 
perplexing  problems  presented  by  the  relics  shall  he  unraveled 
into  dear  and  continuous  history. 

What  is  the  meaning  of  the  mounds.'  Who  made  them? 
Whence  did  the  mound  builders  come  .'  When  did  they  live  here? 
What  sort  of  life  did  they  lead?  What  was  their  state  of 
culture?  Who  were  the  first  inhabitants  of  Goodhue  county? 
These  are  some  of  the  questions  which  archaeology  is  busy  trying 
to  Solve. 

While  Goodhue  county  cannot  boast  of  mounds  having  such 
gigantic  proportions  as  some  other  parts  of  the  United  States 
can.  nor  of  such  grotesque  mounds  as  the  serpent  mound  of  Ohio, 
yet  the  mounds  of  our  county  are  so  striking  in  number,  kind 
and  distribution  that  they  present  a  rich  field  for  archaeological 
inquiry.  Our  late  state  archaeologist,  J.  V.  Brower,  had  in  mind 
the  publication  of  another  book  whose  main  contents  were  to 
be  the  presentation  of  all  known  facts  relative  to  the  mounds 
and  Indian  relics  of  Red  "Wing  and  vicinity.  As  it  is,  the 
mounds  of  Goodhue  county  will  make  no  small  showing  in  the 
forthcoming  volume  which  is  now  in  preparation  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Prof.  N.  Winched,  former  state  geologist.  The  number 
of  mounds  in  Goodhue  county  is  considerable.  The  largest 
number  is  found  in  the  vicinity  of  Red  AYing  along  the  banks 
of  the  Mississippi.  Spring  creek  and  the  lower  course  of  the 
Cannon.  Here  they  frequently  occur  in  groups  of  no  mean  pro- 
portions, while  smaller  clusters,  sprinkled  over  the  spaces  inter- 
vening between  the  larger  ones,  help  to  make  a  long,  continuous 
series  of  mounds,  extending  many  miles  in  length.  Isolated 
mounds  are  not  uncommon.  The  larger  groups  are  invariably 
situated  near  the  water  courses  and  usually  on  the  lofty  terraces 
that  give  a  commanding  view  of  the  magnificent  valleys.  Such 
a  distribution  of  the  mounds  finds  its  explanation  in  the  fact 
that  the  rivers  offered  beautiful  sites  for  habitations  and  routes 
of  travel  in  times  of  peace  and  war.  and  above  all,  two  sub- 
stances absolutely  necessary  to  the  maintenance  of  life,  namely, 
water  and  food.  The  mound  builder  was  not  slow  in  picking- 
out  picturesque  places  as  a  location  for  his  village  sites.  The 
distribution  of  the  mounds  bears  ample  proof  of  this.  Anyone 
who  visits  the  following  groups  cannot  fail  to  be  convinced 
that  the  mound  builders  were  certainly  guided  in  the  selection 
of  the  location  for  their  mounds  by  an  unerring  sense  of  beautiful 
scenery  and  a  high  appreciation  and  instinctive  love  of  nature 
as  well  as  by  other  factors.     At  Red  Wing  there  used  to  be  some 


fifty  mounds.  Many  of  these  have  been  destroyed  by  building 
operations  of  the  white  man.  but  some  still  remain.  On  the 
extreme  nort  Invest  spur  of  the  fair  grounds  a  few  nice  mounds 
overlook  the  Hay  creek  and  Mississippi  valleys.  The  city  of 
Red  Wing  ought  to  make  it  a  special  object  to  preserve  these 
and  keep  them  intact  as  an  object  lesson  for  coming  genera- 
tions. There  will  always  be  in  each  generation  a  certain  number 
of  people  to  whom  the  mounds  will  be  of  special  interest,  while 
a  much  larger  number  will  always  derive  pleasure  and  recreation 
by  an  occasional  visit  to  these  historical  remains.  On  Seminary 
hill,  only  two.  almost  obliterated  knolls,  remain  on  the  extreme 
eastern  spur  of  the  bluff.  These,  together  with  the  mound  in 
front  of  the  City  hospital  and  the  one  on  the  wooded  knoll  in 
front  of  the  ladies'  seminary,  are  all  located  in  places  from 
whence  a  magnificent  view  of  the  valley,  river,  lake  and  wooded 
bluff  can  be  had.  The  same  practically  holds  true  of  the  200 
mounds  near  Cannon  Junction,  some  of  which  are  located  on 
the  high  brow  of  one  of  the  finest  glacial  terraces  in  the  country. 
From  there  the  chain  of  mound  groups  extends  with  few  inter- 
ruptions to  Welch,  and  all  of  them  are  situated  on  the  imposing 
remains  which  mark  the  former  bottom  of  the  glacial  river 
whose  raging  flood  in  the  long  ago  rushed  through  this  valley, 
carrying  with  it  untold  quantities  of  sand,  cobble  stones  and 
rocks,  filling  up  the  valleys  in  places  to  the  height  of  eighty 
feet.  During  postglacial  times,  large  portions  of  this  deposit 
have  been  swepl  ou1  by  the  Cannon  river,  and  it  is  chiefly  on 
the  remnants  of  the  glacial  terraces  that  the  mounds  are  located. 
A  beautiful  illustration  of  this  is  seen  at  Fort  Sweney. 
Directly  south  of  the  Great  Western  station  at  Welch  is  a  small 
area  about  an  acre  in  extent  which  erosion  has  almost  detached 
from  the  rest  of  the  terrace.  A  long  neck  of  land  serves  as  an 
isthmus  to  unite  this  area  with  the  rest  of  the  terrace  towards 
the  south  and  thus  prevents  it  from  being  an  isolated  knoll.  On 
this  unique  elevation  is  the  only  prehistoric  fort  known  in 
Goodhue  county,  but  it  is  one  of  the  nicest  in  Minnesota.  It 
was  discovered  in  the  following  manner:  In  the  spring  of 
1902  the  state  archa'ologist,  J.  V.  Brower,  asked  the  writer  to 
examine  the  region  between  Cannon  Falls  and  Welch.  On  May 
1st  I  walked  from  Cannon  Falls  to  Welch  without  finding  a 
single  mound.  Having  half  an  hour  left  before  the  evening 
train  arrived,  I  climbed  the  terrace  to  see  how  the  valley  looked. 
This  brought  the  mounds  on  the  hill  into  view,  and  a  rapid 
inspection  of  the  place  revealed  all  the  evidences  of  a  strong 
fortification.  Six  mounds  crowned  the  inclosed  area,  while  a 
well  pronounced  embankment  skirts  the  southern  edge  facing 
the  terrace,  which  is  separated  from  the  fort  by  a  deep,  wide 


gully.  The  following  week  Mr.  Brower,  Dr.  W.  M.  Sweney  and 
myself  visited  the  place  and  made  a  careful  examination  of  it. 
A  detailed  drawing  of  the  fort  appears  in  Vol.  VI,  plate  XII, 
"Minnesota  Memoirs."  The  number  of  pits,  mounds,  and  other 
earthworks  in  this  locality  is  forty-one.  At  Mr.  Brower 's  urgent 
request  that  the  discoverer  give  the  place  a  name.  I  deemed  it 
proper  to  call  it  Fort  Sweney.  in  honor  of  Dr.  W.  M.  Sweney 
and  his  father.  Dr.  W.  \Y.  Sweney.  for  the  very  valuable  services 
rendered  by  them  to  the  study  of  Minnesota  archaeology.  What 
the  former  history  of  Fort  Sweney  is  can  at  present  only  be 
conjectured.  Mr.  Brower  pronounced  it  the  finest  fortification 
he  had  seen  in  Minnesota.  This  is  saying  a  good  deal,  because 
he  has  examined  a  great  number.  The  absence  of  other  fortifi- 
cations in  Goodhue  county  seems  -to  tell  us  that  the  aborigines, 
who  inhabited  this  region  held  undisputed  sway  over  this  part 
of  the  state.  Fort  Sweney  may  therefore  only  indicate  a  sporadic 
but  powerful  attack  upon  the  inhabitants  of  this  region  by  some 
roving  band  or  tribe.  It  may  also  mark  the  place  where  the 
last  possessors  of  the  land,  the  Sioux,  besieged  the  previous 
owners,  the  Iowas.  At  present  there  are  not  sufficient  data  at 
hand  to  determine  what  the  exact  truth  is.  Repeated  careful 
observation  and  searches  at  the  place  have  so  far  failed  to 
reveal  any  implements  of  war  of  any  kind.  The  place  has 
never  been  plowed  and  the  mounds  have  never  been  explored. 
Further  research  may  throw  more  light  on  the  obscure  problem 
as  to  who  the  warring  parties  were,  and  whether  the  conflict 
was  a  sanguinary  one  or  not.  At  any  rate,  the  place  chosen  was 
one  well  calculated  to  enable  a  small  party  to  make  a  stubborn 
defense.  The  sides  of  the  hill  are  as  steep  as  gravel  can  lie  on 
an  incline.  The  approach  from  the  neck  of  land  where  only 
a  few  men  could  approach  simultaneously  was  fortified  by  pits, 
an  embankment  and  by  a  stockade.  Traces  of  the  latter  are 
seen  in  the  dent  or  depression  that  runs  across  the  approach  at 
right  angles  to  its  length.  The  valley  side  towards  AVelch  was 
undoubtedly  fortified  by  the  river,  which  at  an  earlier  period 
skirted  the  base  of  the  hill,  as  is  shown  by  the  depression  in 
the  plane  of  the  valley  at  this  particular  point.  A  portion  of 
the  ancient  bed  is  still  filled  with  water  and  forms  a  pond. 
If  this  be  true,  then  the  construction  of  the  fort  must  be  placed 
at  a  considerably  remote  period  of  the  past  to  allow  time  for 
the  subsequent  changes  made  by  the  river,  which  now  flows  on 
the  other  side  of  "the  valley.  A  party  besieged  in  the  fort  could 
easily  render  an  approach  up  the  hillside  exceedingly  dangerous, 
while  the  river  gave  an  unfailing  supply  of  water.  Some  of  the 
pits  at  Fort  Sweney  could  accommodate  from  twelve  to  twenty- 
five  men.     The  pottery  and  other  relics  which   we  have   found 


on  the  flats  below  are  of  the  ordinary  Sioux  type.  That  the 
fort  was  built  before  the  introduction  of  firearms  seems  very 
probable  from  the  fact  that  rifle  bullets  can  be  dropped  into 
it  from  surrounding  hills,  but  in  times  when  only  bows,  arrows 
and  war  clubs  were  in  use  the  hill  was  almost  impregnable.  If 
the  fort  marks  the  site  where  the  Iowas  made  a  determined 
stand  against  the  new  invaders  and  later  possessors  of  Goodhue 
county,  then  the  spot  is  full  of  interest  to  the  student  of  arch- 
a?ology,  not  only  from  the  interesting  fort  "that  is  there,  but  also 
for  the  historical  interest  assoeiated  with  the  fact  that  here  the 
proud  and  dominant  Sioux  made  a  tight  to  gain  possession  of 
Minnesota  territory.  This,  however,  is  conjecture,  and  the  real 
history  of  the  fortification  may  be  far  different.  It  is  not  always 
easy  to  read  the  story  of  silent  stones  and  heaps  of  earth. 

The  extreme  northern  part  of  Goodhue  county,  composed  of 
Prairie  Island  in  the  town  of  Welch  and  Burnside.  is  also  full 
of  archaeological  interest.  The  number  of  mounds  and  earth- 
works along  Indian  slough.  Sturgeon  lake.  Buffalo  slough  and 
Cedar  lake  amounts  to  260.  One  of  the  mounds  near  Indian 
slough  is  all  of  MOO  feet  long  and  has  projections  on  it  which 
look  as  though  they  were  intended  to  represent  the  legs  of  some 
animal.  The  whole  earthwork  has  a  tadpole-like  appearance. 
If  this  is  an  effigy  mound,  then  Goodhue  county  possesses  at  least 
one  of  the  remarkable  class  of  mounds  of  which  many  beautiful 
illustrations  can  be  seen  in  various  parts  of  Wisconsin,  for 
example.  a1  Madison,  where  large  bird,  fox.  bear  and  squirrel 
mounds  can  be  seen  along  the  lake  shores.  Across  the  river 
from  Prairie  Island  are  two  more  effigy  mounds.  They  are  two 
of  a  very  remarkable  group  of  300  mounds,  the  Mero  group. 
To  see  a  more  imposing  group  of  mounds  than  is  presented  here 
in  the  short  distance  of  a  mile  one  would  have  to  travel  far. 
The  land  is  fairly  billowy  with  mounds  and  in  many  parts  there 
would  scarcely  be  room  enough  to  build  others  of  a  size  equal 
to  the  existing  ones.  Baby  mounds  and  large  mounds  clot  the 
surface  everywhere.  Those  not  familiar  with  the  various  kinds 
of  mounds  may  gain  an  idea  of  their  size  from  the  following 
figures :  An  effigy  mound  lying  in  the  open  field  was  intended 
to  picture  some  such  animal  as  the  wolf  or  lynx.  The  head  is 
thirty-nine  feet  wide,  the  neck  twenty-four  feet,  the  body  thirty- 
seven  feet.  The  tail  is  forty-six  feet  long  and  twenty-two  feet 
Avide  at  the  base.  The  height  of  the  body  above  the  ground  is 
four  feet.  The  annual  plowing  and  harrowing  of  the  field 
undoubtedly  decreased  the  height  of  this  and  other  mounds. 
The  beaver  mound,  which  occurs  on  the  northwest  corner  of  the 
Mero  group,  lies  close  to  the  edge  of  the  terrace  facing  the 
river.     It  is  190  feet  long  and  is  even  more  imposing  than  the 


one  jusi  described.  It  may  be  true  that  this  mound  represents 
,i  heaver  emerging  from  a  pond.  The  dam  terminates  in  a  mound 
six  feet  high  and  forty-two  feet  across.  The  best  time  to  view 
these  or  any  other  mounds  is  in  the  spring  before  the  grass  and 
weeds  get  a  good  start. 

At  the  Adams  farm,  near  Hager,  is  a  group  of  seventy-four 
mounds.  One  of  the  largest  is  located  in  an  adjoining  cemetery 
and  is  so  large  that  no  less  than  twenty- three  gravestones, 
marking  intrusive  burials  by  white  people,  can  be  counted  upon 
it.  About  two  miles  east  of  Hager  is  a  boulder  outline  or  picto- 
graph  representing  a  large  bow  and  arrow.  It  is  situated  on 
the  talus  slope  of  one  of  the  bluffs  on  Mr.  Shaver's  farm  and 
is  made  up  of  limestones  laid  in  such  a  way  as  to  represent  a 
bent  bow  with  the  arrow  pointing  towards  Lake  Pepin.  The 
bow  is  185  feet  long  and  under  favorable  conditions  can  be 
seen  at  a  distance  of  four  or  five  miles.  Near  Bay  City  are  a 
few  more  mounds.  Prof.  Hill  and  I  dug  trenches  through  some 
of  these,  but  failed  to  find  any  relics.  In  Trenton  slough  there 
is  a  long  bar  jutting  out  into  the  water.  Here  a  considerable 
number  of  pits  dent  the  ground.  In  digging  into  one  of  these 
I  found  a  tomahawk,  ashes  and  pottery.  The  pits  probably 
mark  the  site  of  dwelling  places  where  the  lodges  were  partially 
built  below  the  surface  as  a  protection  against  the  cold  of  winter. 
While  the  prehistoric  remains  located  at  Diamond  Bluff,  Bay 
( 'ity  and  at  the  Adams  farm  near  Hager  do  not  lie  within  Good- 
hue county,  they  cannot  be  omitted  in  this  connection,  because 
they  form  one  harmonious  whole  with  the  mounds  on  the  Min- 
nesota side  of  the  river  and  help  to  swell  the  testimony  that 
this  region  was  long  occupied  by  a  race  that  lived  in  considerable 
numbers  on  both  sides  of  the  river  and  wrere  undisputed  masters 
of  the  whole  region.  Where  hostile  territories  in  our  state  touched 
each  other,  there  the  boundary  line  can  be  roughly  traced  by 
the  forts  and  ramparts.  Forts  are,  however,  absent  in  this 
region,  except  the  fort  at  Welch.  The  similarity,  and  we  may 
say,  identity,  of  many  articles,  such  as  arrows  and  war  clubs, 
and  the  similarity  of  decorations  on  pottery  found  at  the  places 
mentioned  point  to  the  same  conclusion.  Hay  creek  and  Spring 
creek  also  furnish  their  contingent  of  150  or  more  mounds,  so 
that  the  total  number  of  tumuli,  earthworks,  embankments,  etc., 
that  occur  along  the  numberless  water  courses  within  eleven 
miles  of  Red  Wing  runs  up,  by  actual  count,  close  to  2,000. 
Such  an  array  of  earthworks  may  be  expected  to  present  con- 
siderable variety  of  size,  shape  and  purpose  in  construction. 
By  far  the  larger  number  are  of  the  round  kind  so  typical  of  this 
part  of  the  United  States.  Others  are  oblong.  A  few,  as  already 
stated,  are  of  the  singular  kind  called  effigy  mounds  and  repre- 


sent  wild  animals.  In  height  the  mounds  usually  vary  from  a 
swell  of  land  to  four  feet.  Some  are  considerably  higher.  On 
the  terrace  opposite  the  mouth  of  Belle  creek  is  a  mound  sixty- 
five  feet  long,  thirty  feet  wide  and  three  feet  high.  Another 
mound  in  the  same  group  is  eighty-six  feet  long,  fifty  feet  wide 
from  base  to  base  across  the  top,  and  six  feet  high  at  one  end. 
One  of  the  mounds  on  the  brow  of  Diamond  bluff  was  originally 
twelve  feet  high.  This  mound  was  selected  by  four  of  us  as  a 
favorable  specimen  for  exploration.  We  were,  however,  ill  repaid 
for  our  labor  as  far  as  finding  any  relics  was  concerned.  The 
round-topped  mounds  measure  from  ten  to  forty  feet  or  more  in 
diameter.  Their  circumference  is  usually  circular.  Departures 
from  this  shape  are  due  to  weather  erosion,  or  to  some  other 
degrading  agency.  Occasionally  walls  of  earth  many  feet  in 
length  but  low  in  elevation  are  found.  A  portion  of  such  a  wall 
was  removed  in  grading  a  street  on  the  fair  grounds  at  Red 
Whig,  and  thirteen  skeletons  were  brought  to  light.  It  would 
seem  as  though  these  earthenwork  walls  were  formed  by  burying 
a  large  number  of  dead  in  a  row.  The  burials  may  have  occurred 
at  different  intervals,  and  in  course  of  time  a  long  earthwork 
was  the  result.  The  arrangement  of  mounds  in  the  various 
groups  does  not  seem  to  depend  on  any  definite  rule  of  order, 
but  seems  to  result  from  a  process  of  mound  building  extending 
over  a  considerable  period  of  time,  each  site  for  a  mound  being 
selected  by  the  builders  according  to  the  space,  material  or 
topography  of  the  locality.  Undoubtedly  each  mound  was  placed 
for  some  definite  purpose  in  the  spot  where  it  is  found  today, 
but  what  the  purpose  of  any  mound  was  may  be  difficult  to  say. 
The  spade  often  partially  tells  us  what  we  want  to  know,  but 
sometimes  it  leaves  us  as  much  as  ever  in  the  dark.  When  the 
interior  of  a  mound  reveals  human  bones,  then  the  inference  is 
that  the  mound  served  as  a  tomb,  but  intrusive  burials  may,  of 
course,  complicate  the  problem.  But  when  a  mound  can  be 
opened  without  revealing  any  trace  of  human  remains  or  of 
artificial  articles,  it  seems  safe  to  conclude  that  not  all  the 
mounds  were  built  for  burial  purposes.  The  erection  of  such 
a  large  number  of  mounds  must  have  required  an  enormous 
expenditure  of  time  and  energy.  If  all  the  mounds  in  Goodhue 
county  were  placed  in  a  row  they  would  form  a  line  of  earth- 
works many  miles  in  length.  The  tools  with  which  all  the  work 
was  done  were  probably  wooden  spades,  stone  hoes  and  similar 
implements  that  indicate  a  low  degree  of  culture.  Where  the 
whole  village  population  turned  out  for  a  holiday  or  a  funeral 
a  large  mound  could  be  built  in  a  much  shorter  time  than  if  the 
work  was  performed  by  only  a  few  individuals.  The  surface  of 
the  land  adjoining  the  mound  frequently  shows  plain  evidences 


of  where  the  material  was  obtained  for  the  construction  of  the 
mound.  All  in  all,  the  regularity,  symmetry  and  even  mathe- 
matical exactness  with  which  the  mounds  are  built  show  con- 
siderable  skill  and  taste.  The  reader  can  picture  to  himself  the 
funeral  scenes,  the  wailing  of  the  sorrowing  survivors  and  the 
(lames  of  funeral  pyres  which  were  sometimes  built. 

Another  interesting  class  of  aboriginal  remains  in  Goodhue 
county  are  the  so-called  "stone  cairns"  found,  with  few  excep- 
tions, on  the  bluffs  between  Hay  creek  and  Spring  creek.  A 
baker's  dozen  of  these  have  been  located.  They  are  conical 
piles  of  stones,  now  much  mutilated,  measuring  up  to  twelve  feet 
in  diameter  at  the  base.  They  are  about  as  unique  archaeological 
structures  as  any  found  in  the  state,  because  no  others  are  found, 
if  memory  serves  me  right,  nearer  than  in  Illinois  and  Kansas. 
There  is  little  reason  to  doubt  that  they  are  old  stone  graves, 
so  old  that  all  positive  traces  of  human  bodies  buried  in  them 
have  been  obliterated.  Therefore  they  are  hundreds  of  years 
old,  and  may  have  been  built  by  a  tribe  of  Indians  who  lived 
here  before  the  Sioux  arrived.  If  they  were  built  by  the  Sioux, 
then  it  is  strange  that  the  number  of  cairns  is  so  small  and 
confined  to  such  a  limited  area. 

In  regard  to  the  origin  of  the  mounds  it  may  be  said  in 
brief  that  they  are  of  Indian  origin.  The  idea  of  a  prehistoric 
race  of  mound  builders  distinct  from  the  Indian  has  been 
exploded  by  archaeological  research,  but  it  is  very  common  to 
find  this  idea  expressed  in  books  of  the  last  generation  and  in 
the  minds  of  those  who  in  early  childhood  had  the  "mound 
builder"  theory  instilled  into  them.  The  real  mound  builder 
was  a  genuine  Indian  and  not  a  member  of  some  other  race. 
The  evidences  of  this  are  many.  Indians  are  known  to  have 
built  mounds.  The  articles  found  in  the  mounds  are  the  same 
in  kind  and  make  as  those  found  on  the  nearby  village  site. 
Invariably  a  large  mound  group  has  a  village  site  close  by.  The 
articles  found  on  the  sites  and  in  the  mounds  are  such  as  the 
Indians  used.  Space  forbids  a  discussion  of  this  subject,  but 
here  is  a  partial  list  of  the  objects  that  have  been  found  in 
.Goodhue  county:  Arrows,  of  various  sizes  and  shapes,  made 
of  chert,  quartz,  quartzite,  gunflint  and  other  varieties  of  rock; 
spearheads,  knives,  awls,  needles,  hammerstones,  millstones, 
clubs,  sinkers,  bone  implements,  fragments  of  pipes,  scrapers  in 
profusion,  ice-axes,  spuds,  chungee  stones,  paint  pots,  paint  cups, 
hammers  of  hematite  and  other  kinds  of  rocks,  fleshers,  polishing 
stones,  drills,  hairpins,  a  decorated  buffalo-rib  knife,  mauls,  stone 
balls,  flakes,  chisels,  lances,  mullers,  mortars,  whetstones,  deco- 
rated pieces  of  clam  shells,  also  vast  numbers  of  spalls,  chips, 
rejects   and  fragmentary  implements  in  various  stages  of  com- 


pletion,  a  slate  charm,  pieces  of  lead,  probably  brought  up  from 
Missouri,  bones  of  many  kinds  of  animals,  rough  tools,  etc.  Vast 
numbers  of  pottery  fragments  and  a  few  entire  vessels  have  also 
been  found.  Also  a  copper  spear  at  Spring  creek,  two  large  copper 
spuds  near  Diamond  bluff,  a  small  hoe  made  from  a  piece  of 
rifle  barrel  deposited  in  one  of  the  Indian  graves  where  the  Red 
Wing  Seminary  main  building  stands,  and  shell  beads  from  the 
same  locality.  Space  forbids  a  detailed,  description  of  these 
relics.  However,  a  few  thoughts  suggested  by  them  relative  to 
the  state  of  culture,  habits,  modes  of  life  and  occupations  of  our 
predecessors  may  be  mentioned.  Fortified  hills,  tomahawks,  bat- 
tle clubs,  spearheads,  etc.,  mean  war.  Arrows  signify  war  and 
the  chase.  We  do  not  know  what  human  beings  first  beheld  the 
beautiful  hills  and  valleys  of  Goodhue  county  and  claimed  them 
as  their  home.  We  may  never  be  able  to  look  beyond  the  veil 
or  penetrate  the  mists  that  enshroud  the  history  of  the  past, 
yet  we  are  not  left  in  utter  darkness.  The  relics  mentioned  tell 
us  many  interesting  stories.  The  absence  of  great  architectural 
ruins  show  that  the  mound  builders  lived  in  frail  homes.  The 
dearth  of  agricultural  implements  does  not  spell  waving  fields  of 
golden  grain.  The  ashpits  and  fireplaces  mark  the  bare  ground 
as  the  aboriginal  stove.  Net-sinkers  imply  the  use  of  nets;  ice- 
axes  the  chopping  of  holes  in  the  ice  to  procure  water,  stone 
axes  a  clumsy  device  for  splitting  wood;  stone  knives  for  scalp- 
ing, cutting  meat,  leather  and  twigs;  countless  flakes  mark  the 
ancient  arrow  maker's  workshop;  cracked  bones  show  the 
Indian's  love  for  marrow;  shell  beads,  charms  and  ornaments  in 
the  shape  of  fish  and  other  designs  reveal  a  primitive  desire  for 
ornamentation;  chisels  and  gouges  recall  the  making  of  canoes; 
sun-dried  pottery  made  of  clay  mixed  with  coarse  sand,  clam 
shells  or  powdered  granite  and  marked  with  rows  of  dots  made 
with  a  stick,  thumbnail  or  other  objects,  or  else  marked  with 
lines,  V-shaped  figures  or  chevrons,  all  are  an  index  of  a  rather 
crude  state  of  pottery  making.  The  hand  supplied  the  lathe 
and  the  wheel.  Inasmuch  as  some  of  the  most  ancient  remains 
show  great  similarity  to  the  more  recent,  we.  feel  certain  that 
no  great  progress  was  made  by  these  early  inhabitants.  A  copper 
spear  of  recent  date  shows  no  more  signs  of  smelting  than  does 
the  copper  blade  that  has  been  much  corroded  by  a  great  lapse 
of  time.  Trees  hundreds  of  years  old  give  us  at  least  some 
measure  of  estimating  the  age  of  the  contents  of  the  mounds 
on  which  they  stand,  and  it  also  means  that  the  mound  builder 
lived  there  several  hundred  years,  if  not  longer.  By  such  proc- 
esses of  reasoning  we  can  learn  a  good  deal  of  the  social,  indi- 
vidual and  family  life  of  the  savage  mound  builder. 

Besides  the  mounds  previously  mentioned,   which   occur  on 


elevated  terraces,  knolls  and  bluffs,  there  is  another  type  of 
mound  found  in  Goodhue  county,  which  differs  in  several  impor- 
tant respects  from  the  former.  The  first  group  of  mounds  may 
he  named  highland  mounds  and  the  others  lowland  mounds. 
Lowland  mounds  occur  in  the  town  of  Stanton,  Warsaw  and 
Kenyon.  They  are  far  more  numerous  in  Dakota  and  Rice 
counties,  where,  in  the  summer  of  1907,  I  located  some  1,700. 
For  some  reason  these  mounds  have  hitherto  escaped  observa- 
tion. Possibly  the  mound  hunter,  accustomed  to  look  for  mounds 
on  highlands,  would  not  expect  to  find  mounds  in  such  localities 
where  the  lowland  mounds  occur. 

The  following  is  a  brief  resume  of  a  paper  read  before  the 
Minnesota  State  Historical  Society  at  the  December  meeting  in 
1908.  The  subject  of  the  paper,  ''Lowland  Mounds  in  Dakota, 
Rice  and  Goodhue  Counties,"  reveals  where  these  mounds  are 
found  and  implies  that  they  all  belong  to  the  same  class  and 
are  related  to  each  other : 

"In  the  southern  part  of  Dakota  county,  particularly  in  the 
town  of  Greenvale  and  the  western  part  of  Waterford,  is  found 
a  large  number  of  mounds  which,  to  all  outward  appearance,  are 
Indian  mounds.  They  differ,  however,  from  the  well  known 
Indian  mounds  that  abound  in  the  Mississippi  valley  and  interior 
parts  of  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota  in  this  respect,  that  they 
are  usually  situated  on  low,  level,  and  often  wet  ground.  Mounds 
are  usually  situated  on  land  that  is  rather  high  relative  to  the 
surrounding  topography.  For  example,  the  mounds  in  the 
vicinity  of  Red  Wing,  Cannon  -Junction,  Welch  and  Diamond 
bluff  are,  as  a  rule,  situated  on  terraces  that  skirt  the  river,  or 
on  the  brows  of  prominent  bluffs.  The  mounds  found  near  our 
inland  lakes  are  almost  invariably  placed  well  beyond  the  reach 
of  water.  The  mounds  under  consideration  are  located  on  low, 
often  marshy  ground.  For  this  reason  a  person  accustomed  to 
mound  hunting  along  the  Mississippi  would  easily  pass  by  these 
lowland  mounds  without  paying  much  attention  to  them.  He 
might  think  they  were  curious  freaks,  chance  formations  of 
nature.  Mounds  of  this  type  are  also  found  south  of  Northfield, 
Rice  county;  also  near  Dunclas  and  south  of  there  along  the  east 
side  of  Cannon  river.  Near  Dennison  is  a  large  number,  par- 
ticularly about  one  mile  west  of  the  town  along  Prairie  creek. 
All  these  locations  are  immature  water  courses  that  lie  on  glacial 
■outwash  plains  or  along  the  Cannon  river.  The  Stanton  flats 
contain  hundreds  of  these  mounds.  On  the  flats  near  Farming- 
ton  and  Castle  Rock  are  found  numbers  of  mounds  in  similar 
locations.  The  total  number  observed  and  recorded  is  over 
1,500.  The  western  part  of  Dakota  and  Rice  counties  is  strik- 
ingly poor  in  mounds.    One  might  expect  to  find  a  large  number 


on  the  shore  of  the  chain  of  lakes  that  occurs  there.  The  absence 
of  mounds  in  this  locality  is  probably  due  to  the  fact  that  this 
is  a  morainic  country  made  rough  and  hilly  by  the  ice  lobe  which 
stood  there  in  times  long  ago.  A  few  such  mounds  are  also  found 
in  the  toAvn  of  Warsaw.  Goodhue  county.  They  occur  in  lowland 
tributary  to  the  Stanton  flats.  The  peculiar  problem  presented 
by  these  mounds  is  this :  No  positive  evidence  has  been  found 
by  digging  into  them  or  by  searching  the  surface  of  adjacent 
fields  that  would  establish  the  origin  of  the  mounds  as  being 
Indian  mounds.  Hence  the  question  arises:  What  reasons 
have  we  to  think  that  these  mounds  were  built  by  man,  and  that 
by  the  prehistoric  inhabitants,  the  Indians? 

"The  mounds  are  either  artificial  or  else  they  are  not  artifi- 
cial. If  natural  forces  made  them,  then  geologists  ought  to 
explain  them,  since  the  mounds  are  an  interesting  feature  in 
the  topography  of  the  country.  If  these  mounds  are  of  a  natural 
origin,  then  many  other  tumuli  jotted  down  as  mounds  may  be 
called  in  question.  However,  geology  and  physical  geography 
fail  to  account  for  them.  The  only  forces  which  one  might  con- 
cieve  of  as  able  to  make  some  of  the  mounds  in  the  location 
under  consideration  would  be  springs,  the  wind,  and  floods,  but 
a  knowledge  of  the  distribution  of  these  mounds  sets  these 
agencies  aside  as  inadequate  to  form  all  these  mounds  in  all  the 
places  where  they  occur.  There  are  innumerable  places  where 
mounds  ought  to  have  been  formed  just  as  easily  by  nature,  but 
no  mounds  are  to  be  found. 

"The  mounds  are  invariably  round;  they  measure  from  twenty 
to  forty  feet  across,  and  are  from  half  a  foot  to  three  feet  high. 
Occasional  specimens  may  be  higher,  hence  they  may  form  very 
conspicuous  objects  in  the  landscape;  for  example,  in  the  spring 
when  the  grass  has  been  burned  off. 

"People  living  near  the  mounds  often  have  various  ideas 
as  to  the  origin  of  the  mounds.  Some  think  they  are  the  remains 
of  hay  stacks ;  others  think  they  are  gopher  hills  or  ant  hills. 
However,  hay,  when  rotting,  does  not  leave  a  residue  of  soil, 
sand  and  stones.  The  mounds  occur  in  places  where  no  hay  ever 
was  stacked,  for  example,  in  woods,  or  where  water  stands  the 
year  round,  making  the  place  wet  and  soggy.  Gophers  are  occa- 
sionally found  burrowing  in  the  mounds,  but  gophers  do  not 
live  in  woods  nor  in  marshes,  and  where  they  are  found  burrow- 
ing in  mounds  on  high  land  they  usually  spoil  the  smooth  convex 
outline  of  the  mound  with  little  dirt  heaps,  giving  the  mound  a 
warty  appearance.  If  gophers  build  mounds,  why  did  not  the 
legions  of  gophers  in  Goodhue  county  build  mounds  of  all  sizes 
up  to  forty  feet  across  and  up  to  four  feet  high  in  other  parts 


of  the  county?  Similar  reasons  might  be  brought  up  against 
the  idea  of  these  earth  heaps  being  ant  hills. 

"In  no  ease  were  ants  found  to  inhabit  these  mounds,  nor 
do  such  mounds  occur  where  ants  are  very  numerous.  A  zoolo- 
gist or  botanist  would  have  a  hard  time  to  account  for  the  origin 
of  these  mounds  by  referring  them  to  the  work  of  animals  or 

"These  are  only  a  few  of  the  reasons  which  seem  to  warrant 
the  conclusion  that  these  mounds  are  not  the  accumulations  of 
geological  nor  of  botanical  agencies,  and  since  it  is  very  certain 
that  the  white  man  did  not  build  them,  there  seems  to  be  but 
one  other  reasonable  conclusion  to  draw,  namely,  that  the 
mounds  were  built  by  prehistoric  men  who  for  some  reason  lived 
there  either  temporarily  in  the  course  of  years  or  for  longer 
periods  of  time. 

"The  creeks,  sloughs  and  ponds  furnished  an  abundance  of 
water.  Fuel  in  great  abundance  was  near  at  hand.  The  sloughs 
contained  beavers,  mink,  muskrats  and  other  game.  In  the 
nearby  forests  lived  the  deer  in  great  abundance.  Moose  and  elk 
were  also  here.  Farmers  tell  of  having  plowed  up  bones  belong- 
ing to  these  animals.  Of  buffalos  there  is  scarcely  a  trace,  if  any, 
of  their  former  presence.  The  only  buffalo  relic  observed  was 
a  partially  decayed  horn  which  I  found  near  the  mounds  in  the 
Greenvale  slough. 

"If  closer  study  should  prove  the  mounds  to  be  burial  places, 
then  they  are  witnesses  both  of  the  large  number  of  Indians 
buried  here  as  well  as  the  much  larger  population  which  was 
not  honored  by  a  monument  of  earth.  The  groups  in  the  vicinity 
of  Dennison  probably  indicate  that  somewhere  between  North- 
field  and  Faribault  a  trail  passed  from  Cannon  river  to  Prairie 
creek,  while  the  southern  end  of  the  Stanton  flats  served  as  a 
halting  place  or  station.     Traces  of  such  trails  still  exist. 

"The  distribution  of  the  mounds  seems  to  be  governed  by 
the  river  courses  and  their  tributaries,  and  by  large  flats  which 
were  either  quite  free  from  timber  of  else  full  of  game.  The 
absence  of  long  mounds  and  the  inability  to  find  any  traces  of 
village  sites  or  Indian  relics  of  any  kind  seem  to  point  to  the 
great  antiquity  of  these  mounds,  or  else  to  warrant  the  view 
that  with  Red  Wing,  Spring  Creek,  Cannon  Junction,  Welch  and 
other  places  along  the  Mississippi  as  headquarters,  the  Indians 
followed  the  water  courses  in  temporary  quest  of  game.  They 
went  along  the  Cannon  to  Faribault,  Cannon  lake,  and  very  likely 
from  there  south  into  Steele,  Mower  and  Freeborn  counties.  At 
least  some  mounds  are  found  here  and  there  in  these  counties, 
but,  next  to  the  Mississippi,  the  valley  of  the  Cannon  seems  to 


have  been  the  most  favored  of  valleys  as  a  route  of  travel,  but 
Red  Wing  and  vicinity  for  permanent  villages. 

"In  the  absence  of  any  better  explanation,  we  may  tentatively 
accept  the  hypothesis  that  these  mounds  belong  to  the  province 
of  archeology,  and  that  the  larger  valleys  and  their  water 
courses  have  played  a  large  role  in  the  distribution  of  the  mounds. 
The  distribution  of  the  mounds  along  these  water  courses  is 
such  that  the  law  of  arrangement  governing  them  is  in  perfect 
harmony  with  the  law  governing  the  general  arrangement  of 
mounds  along  waterways  in  other  parts  of  the  county,  where  we 
know  that  Indians  lived  and  built  mounds. 

"'If  these  deductions  are  true,  then  the  seemingly  unsolved 
problem  of  this  singular  type  of  mound  finds  its  solution  in  the 
conclusion  that  these  mounds  are  the  products  of  human  activity 
in  prehistoric  times.  Thus  they  will  form  another  link  in  Min- 
nesota archaeology  that  will  undoubtedly  reward  further  study 
and  possibly  help  to  lift  the  veil  that  hangs  over  the  past  history 
of  our  state's  aboriginal  inhabitants  and  their  mode  of  life.  It 
unexpectedly  shows  that  Indians  built  mounds  in  low  lands  as 
well    as   on   higher  lands. 

'But  if  it  should  ever  be  shown  that  these  mounds  are  not 
the  toiuhs  or  camping  places  of  a  departed  race,  then  they  ought 
to  be  accorded  a  place  in  that  science  whose  province  it  will  be 
to  explain  them." 

Warren  Upham,  secretary  of  the  society,  and  well  known  for 
his  writings  on  glacial  questions,  suggests  that  these  mounds  are 
of  very  ancient  origin,  dating  back  to  the  time  of  the  glacier's 
recession  or  a  little  later.  The  lapse  of  so  long  a  time  would 
account  for  the  disappearance  of  all  human  remains.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1908,  Prof.  X.  Winchell  hired  men  and  had  a  number  of  these 
mounds  trenched.  Despite  the  very  careful  work  and  search,  our 
hopes  of  establishing  beyond  a  doubt  the  artificial  origin  of  the 
mounds  by  means  of  exhumed  relics  were  frustrated.  AYe  spent 
three  days  at  this  work. 

The  southern  part  of  the  county  still  requires  careful  explora- 
tion. In  the  following  townships  the  writer  was  unable  to  find 
any  mounds :  Vasa,  Cannon  Falls,  Leon,  Wanamingo,  and  Min- 
neola.  Very  likely  some  mounds  will  be  found  along  the  forks 
of  the  Zumbro.  A  few  were  seen  near  Kenyon.  Warsaw  has 
ten  on  section  8,  and  others  near  Dennison.  Florence  has  a  nice 
group  on  the  terrace  near  the  mouth  of  Wells  creek.  The  inability 
to  report  fully  on  all  townships  is  pardonable  when  it  is  remem- 
bered that  it  requires  much  time  and  thousands  of  miles  of  travel 
to  visit  and  carefully  examine  a  large  county  and  do  it  at  one's 
own  expense. — Edward  William  Schmidt. 

nmc  Li, 

ARVB,    LKN9X    4M0 
TILDttf    MCNDATlftNa 

«  L 

_ ajsam 



/Aju>-0Lv~*-<_  %  /5i  &fa-e^  0td~rT- 


Theodore  B.  Sheldon  is  a  name  that  will  always  be  remem- 
bered in  Red  Wing  for  what  he  accomplished  during  his  long 
life  here,  as  well  as  for  the  beautiful  T.  B.  Sheldon  Auditorium, 
which  was  built  with  the  money  which  he  left  to  be  expended 
for  the  good  of  Red  Wing.  He  was  born  January  31,  1820,  at 
Bernardston,  Franklin  county,  Massachusetts,  not  far  from  the 
village  of  Northfield,  made  famous  by  the  evangelist,  D.  L. 
Moody.  He  received  a  common  school  education  in  the  schools 
of  his  neighborhood,  and  at  the  age  of  twelve  began  work  in  a 
woolen  mill  in  Greenfield.  Mass.,  where  he  remained  until  1840, 
when  he  entered  the  employ  of  a  cutlery  manufacturer.  In  this 
business  he  remained  three  years  and  then  went  to  Springfield, 
Mass.,  where  he  obtained  a  situation  with  a  tool  and  lock  manu- 
facturing company.  Two  years  later  he  removed  to  Whitney- 
ville,  Conn.,  where  he  worked  in  a  gun  and  rifle  factory  two 
years,  later  taking  up  similar  work  for  a  similar  period  in 
Windsor.  Vt.  He  arrived  in  Red  Wing  in  the  autumn  of  1856 
and  went  into  partnership  with  Jesse  Mclntire  in  the  mercantile 
business.  In  1860  he  sold  out  to  his  partner  and  in  the  fall  of 
that  year  built  a  warehouse  and  went  into  the  grain  business. 
Shortly  afterward  he  took  his  clerk,  E.  H.  Blodgett,  as  a  partner, 
this  arrangement  continuing  until  Mr.  Sheldon's  death.  Mr. 
Sheldon  was  identified  with  most  of  the  leading  enterprises- 
of  Red  Wing.  In  the  early  days  he  represented  the  steamboat 
lines  and  express  companies  doing  business  here,  and  was  also 
agent  for  the  Milwaukee  road  until  the  line  was  completed  from 
St.  Paul  to  La  Crosse.  He  was  largely  interested  in  the  First 
National  and  Goodhue  County  banks,  being  president  of  the 
former  and  vice  president  of  the  latter.  He  was  president  of 
the  Goodhue  County  Savings  bank,  conducted  in  connection 
with  the  latter  institution.  He  was  also  president  of  the  Red 
Wing  &  Trenton  Transit  Company  when  that  company  was 
organized  for  the  purpose  of  operating  a  ferry  across  the  river 
and  a  road  over  the  island.  In  this  capacity  he  continued  until 
within  a  short  time  of  his  death.  Mr.  Sheldon  was  one  of  the 
prime  movers  in  the  Minnesota  Stoneware  Company,  and  also 
in  the  Red  Wing  Gas,  Light  &  Power  Company,  the  Red  Wing 
Furniture  Company,  and  the  Duluth,  Red  Wing  &  Southern 
Railway  Company.  His  business  capacity  was  recognized  by  his 
election  as  president  of  all  these  companies.  He  was  vice  presi- 
dent of  the  La  Grange  mills,  and  the  Red  Wing,  Duluth  &  Sioux 
City  Construction  Company.  He  was  also  associated  with  various 
other  enterprises  as  stockholder  or  director.  He  served  as  one 
of  the  supervisors  of  Red  Wing  while  the  township  organization 
was  still  in  force,  and  after  the  organization  of  the  city  was  a 
member  of  the  council.     In  politics  he  was  a  Democrat,  and  his 


church  affiliations  were  with  the  Episcopal  faith.  Of  him  it  has 
well  been  said,  "He  was  a  striking  type  of  the  practical  self- 
made  man,  and  his  success  in  life  was  due  to  his  energy,  honesty, 
foresight  and  fine  business  ability.  His  death  was  lamented  by 
a  community  in  which  every  man,  woman  and  child  was  his 
friend."  Mr.  Sheldon  died  April  3,  1900,  at  the  age  of  eighty 
years.  T.  B.  Sheldon  was  married  in  1818  to  Mary  T.  Sturtevant, 
of  Hartland,  Vt.  Five  children  were  born  to  them,  all  of  whom 
died.  Mrs.  Mary  Sheldon  died  in  November,  1891.  In  June,  1893, 
Mr.  Sheldon  married,  at  Milwaukee,  ~SVis.,  to  Annie  L.  Langton, 
who  recently  died.  She  was  one  of  the  committee  with  E.  H. 
Blodgett  and  F.  Buseh  named  in  the  will  to  determine  how  the 
bequest  of  her  husband  should  be  spent  to  best  benefit  the  city, 
and  many  of  the  artistic  features  of  the  Auditorium  are  the  fruits 
of  her  suggestions. 



Possession  by  Indians — The  Dakotas — Traditions  and  Opinions — 
Col.  Colville's  Views— Origin  of  Name  "Red  Wing"— The 
Raidsson-Groseillers  Allegations — No  Proof  that  These  Men 
Ever  Saw  Goodhue  County — Hennepin  Lands  at  Red  Wing's 
Village — Duluth  Passes  the  Village — LeSueur  at  Prairie 
Island — Fort  Beauharnois  and  Its  Successors — Carver  Passes 
Through  Wisconsin  Channel — Pike  and  His  Narrative — 
.  Meets  Red  Wing  and  Calls  Him  by  His  English  Name — 
Leavenworth — First  Steamers — Denton  and  Gavin — Aiton 
and  Hancock — Tribute  to  Rev.  Hancock — Early  Schooling-— 
The  Pioneers  Arrive — By  Dr.  W.  M.  Sweney. 

Through  how  many  ages  the  Indians  flourished  in  this  county 
is  a  question  that  will  never  be  satisfactorily  settled.  At  any 
event,  the  white  men  found  here  a  band  of  Indians  whose  ances- 
tors, according  to  their  tribal  traditions,  had  occupied  the  land 
for  ages,  and  had  for  headquarters,  "Hem-minne-cha,"  which  is 
now  known  as  Cannon  Junction,  with  straggling  villages  extend- 
ing in  every  direction  within  a  radius  of  six  miles.  The  villages 
of  the  Sioux  Indians  were  usually  found  situated  near  a  collec- 
tion of  earth  mounds ;  but  there'  are  no  well  authenticated  ac- 
counts of  the  Indians  found  there  by  the  early  explorer,  having 
practiced  to  any  great  extent  mound  burial,  but  they  did  follow 
the  custom  of  scaffold  burial,  as  was  noticed  by  Hennepin  at 
Prescott  Point,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Croix  in  1680.  This  prac- 
tice I  have  myself  seen  in  Red  AVing.  a  great  many  times.  Such 
flint,  stone,  bone  and  copper  implements,  and  rude  pottery,  as 
were  found  to  be  in  general  use  in  the  hands  of  the  Indians,  when 
first  visited  by  the  whites,  are  usually  found  at  the  bottom  of  a 
mound  when  excavated,  yet  the  natives  had  no  traditions  as  to 
who  were  the  makers  of  the  artifacts,  or  who  were  the  builders 
of  the  mounds.  Within  a  radius  of  six  miles  from  Cannon  Juncr 
tion  I  have  located,  mapped  and  charted  over  four  thousand  In- 
dian burial  mounds,  earthworks,  stone  cairns,  etc.,  showing  con- 
clusively that  this  region  must  have  been  inhabited  for  many 
ages.    I  can  show  today  an  oak  stump  standing  on  top  of  a  burial 



mound  that  lias  in  evidence  250  concentric  rings,  indicating  that 
it  "was  250  years  ago  when  the  acorn  which  grew  into  the  tree 
was  planted  in  the  mound.  How  long  had  the  mound  been  built  ? 
The  prevailing  opinion  of  writers  of  recent  date,  who  have  made 
Indian  mounds  of  this  region  a  study,  is  that  the  ancestors  of  the 
Indians  found  inhabiting  these  parts  at  the  time  it  was  first  vis- 
ited by  Europeans,  were  the  creators  of  these  earthworks.  From 
time  immemorial  this  locality  has  been  known  as  Hem-minne-cha 
(Hill,  water,  wood).  Franqueline  published  in  Paris,  in  166-4, 
a  map  of  this  country,  and  located  an  Indian  village  at  what  is 
now  known  as  Cannon  Junction,  and  called  it  by  the  name  of 
"Remnica."  Franqueline  received  his  information  probably  from 
Hennepin,  as  that  explorer  had  returned  to  France  and  published 
his  book  about  that  time.  "While  I  have  not  been  asked  to  con- 
tribute an  article  on  archaeology,  yet  it  may  not  be  out  of  place 
for  me  to  add  a  few  words  on  the  very  interesting  subject.  My 
father,  some  years  ago,  writing  on  the  subject,  stated  that  the 
builders  of  the  mounds,  or  the  people  who  inhabited  this  country 
before  the  Dakotas.  must  have  been  a  more  civilized  and  peaceful 
race  than  the  Sioux,  as  no  warlike  implements  were  found.  Since 
the  above  was  written  by  my  father  I  have  found  in  this  im- 
mediate vicinity  thousands  of  flint  and  stone  arrows  and  spear 
heads,  stone  axes,  and  clubs,  without  number.  The  general  opin- 
ion, I  think,  prevails,  that  the  art  of  chipping  flint  and  stone  im- 
plements is  a  lost  one;  but  as  there  are  a  number  of  descriptions 
in  print,  written  by  persons  who  have  witnessed  the  operation, 
I  will  give  a  description  or  two.  Catlin's  description  of  Apache 
mode  of  making  flint  arrow  points:  "This  operation  is  very 
curious,  both  the  holder  and  the  striker  singing,  and  the  strokes 
of  the  mallet,  given  exactly  in  time  with  the  music,  and  with  a 
short  and  rebounding  blow,  in  which,  the  Indians  tell  us,  is  the 
great  medicine  of  the  operation."  Admiral  L.  E.  Belcher  gives  an 
account  of  flint  arrow  head  making  by  western  Eskimo  tribes. 
Schoolcraft  describes  the  mode  of  making  flint  arrow  heads  by 
North  American  Indians.  John  Smith  describes  the  making  of 
arrow  points  by  Virginia  Indians.  "His  arrow  head  he  quickly 
maketh  with  a  little  bone,  which  he  ever  weareth  at  his  brace,  of 
a  splint  of  a  stone  or  glass,  in  the  form  of  a  heart  and  these  they 
glue  to  the  end  of  their  arrows." 

I  have  made  the  statement  at  the  beginning  of  this  article 
that  it  could  never  be  known  how  many  ages  the  Indians  had 
flourished  in  this  country,  and  now  add  the  opinions  of  others. 
Many  writers  in  the  past,  and  a  few  at  the  present  time,  speak 
of  the  Mound  Builders  as  a  vanished  race  and  declare  that  the 
skeletons  found  buried  in  the  mounds  denote  that  they  were 
giants  in  stature.     Marquis  De  Nadaillac,  in  "Prehistoric  Amer- 


ica,"  pages  L13-154,  says:  ''The  new  school,  with  such  scholars 
at  its  head  as  Brinton,  Cyrus  Thomas,  Powell  and  Carr,  hold 
that  the  presenl  Indians  are  the  descendants  of  the  Mound  Build- 
ers." John  Gmeiner,  pastor  of  the  Church  of  St.  Raphael, 
Springfield,  Minn..  January  10,  1908,  in  "Acta  et  Dicta,"  pub- 
lished by  the  St.  Paul  Catholics'  Historical  Society,  July,  1908, 
page  221-222.  says:  "The  Dakota  confederation  consisted  of  a 
number  of  tribes  whose  ancestors  must  have  been  originally 
united  in  one  tribe,  for  they  spoke  dialects  of  the  same  language." 
About  800  years  ago  seven  tribes,  the  Omaha,  Ooehenonpa,  Minn- 
ikannazo,  Ttazipco,  Licanga,  Hunkpapa,  and  Yanktonnen,  united 
to  form  the  Dakota  confederation.  The  very  name  implies  this. 
It  means  "allied  nations."  The  name  Sioux  was  unknown  to 
them;  it  is  a  corruption  of  an  Ojibwa  word,  meaning  enemies,  as 
the  Dakotas  and  Ojibwas  were  continually  at  war.  The  Dakota 
confederation  gradually  increased  until  it  included  forty-two 
tribes  and  extended  far  beyond  the  limits  of  our  present  state. 

The  Dakotas  entered  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  about  the  be- 
ginning of  their  confederation.  Father  Craft  writes:  'It  is 
quite  certain  they  were  near  Lake  Michigan  800  years  ago,  as  they 
met  there  Eric  Upsi,  Bishop  of  Greenland,  who  had  come  there- 
from Vineland  about  1121."  It  is  certainly  a  most  interesting 
and  surprising  fact  to  find  the  long-lost,  zealous  Norse  bishop 
finally  reappear  in  the  ancient  traditions  of  the  Dakotas.  Any 
one  desirous  of  reading  more  about  Bishop  Eric  Upsi,  or  Gnup- 
son,  may  consult  P.  De  Roo,  "History  of  America  Before  Colum- 
bus," Philadelphia  and  London,  1900,  vol.  88,  pp.  174-282.  No 
doubt  Eric  Upsi  came  to  the  western  shores  of  Lake  Michigan 
by  way  of  the  St.  Lawrence  river  and  the  Great  Lakes.  Accord- 
ing to  Humboldt,  the  Norsemen  had  some  of  their  principal  set- 
tlements at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Lawrence  river,  and  it  was 
quite  natural  for  them  to  follow  that  great  waterway  to  its 
sources,  as  the  French  did  at  a  later  period.  The  following  ap- 
peared in  the  St.  Paul  Pioneer  Press  September  7,  1909 : 

"  'Eight  Swedes  and  twenty-two  Norwegians  upon  a  journey 
of  discovery  from  Vineland,  Nova  Scotia,  westward.  We  had  a 
camp  of  two  skerries  (rocks  in  water)  one  day's  journey  from 
this  stone.  "We  were  out  fishing  one  day.  When  we  returned  home 
we  found  ten  men  red  with  blood  and  dead.  Ave  Maria.  Save  us 
from  evil.  We  have  ten  men  by  the  sea  to  look  after  our  vessel. 
forty-one  (?)  days'  journey  from  this  island.  Year  1362.'  This 
legend,  cut  in  Runic  characters  on  the  Kensington  stone  now  on 
exhibition  at  the  Swedish  village  at  the  fair  grounds,  the  genuine- 
ness of  which  seems  to  have  involved  in  dispute  many  of  the  pio- 
neer Scandinavians  in  Minnesota  and  parts  of  Wisconsin.     Some 


doubt  the  story  of  the  finding  of  the  stone.  According  to  affidavits 
in  possession  of  H.  R.  H.  Holand,  curator  of  the  Sons  of  Norway, 
Ephrain,  AVis.,  the  stone  was  found  under  a  gigantic  tree  at 
Kensington,  Minn.,  by  Pehr  Oman  while  he  was  grubbing  stumps. 
However,  it  was  at  one  time  on  exhibition  at  Chicago  and  was 
declared  to  be  a  fake.  At  the  exposition  at  Stockholm,  Sweden, 
where  the  Runic  lettering  was  translated  by  some  of  the  best 
scholars  in  Sweden,  it  was  claimed  that  there  can  be  no  doubt 
as  to  its  authenticity.  Arthur-  G.  Thomas,  of  Chicago,  manager 
of  the  Swedish  village,  said  yesterday  that  in  his  opinion  the 
proof  of  the  finding  of  the  stone  is  conclusive."  The  above  may, 
as  some  claim,  be  a  fake;  but  investigate,  and  if  in  time  to  come 
it  is  entitled  to  credence,  it  may  perhaps  be  the  means  of  shedding 
light  on  some  of  our  ancient  history  that  is  very  confusing.  On 
the  other  hand,  if  it  proves  to  be  spurious,  brand  it  as  such,  in 
a  manner  so  as  to  cause  the  perpetrators  of  fakes  of  this  nature, 
to  be  more  careful  in  the  future.  The  finding  of  this  stone  is  not 
more  remarkable  or  singular  than  the  finding  of  the  Rosetta 
stone  in  1799,  by  some  Egyptian  fishermen,  who  in  drawing  a 
seine  in  the  river  Nile  brought  to  shore  in  their  nets  a  curiously 
engraved  stone,  which  on  investigation  by  students  proved  to  be 
the  key  by  which  the  import  of  the  hieroglyphics  and  writings 
carved  within  the  great  Pyramids  of  Sheops  was  made  known 
to  the  world.  Some  of  the  information  given  to  the  world  through 
the  assistance  of  this  remarkable  relic,  is,  that  these  pyramids  in 
question  were  begun  by  the  builders  2170  years  before  the  Chris- 
tian era,  and  they  stand  today  the  greatest  structure  ever  reared 
by  the  hand  of  man. 

Following  is  an  article  written  by  Lucien  Carr,  entitled  "The 
Mounds  of  the  Mississippi  ATalley  Historically  Considered,"  which 
appeared  in  'Memoirs  of  the  Kentucky  Geological  Survey,"  Vol. 
11,  1183;  N.  S.  Shaler,  Director.  In  a  paper  upon  the  "Prehis- 
toric Remains  of  Kentucky,"  published  in  the  first  volume  of 
these  memoirs,  I  have  expressed  the  opinion  that  it  was  impossible 
to  distinguish  between  a  series  of  stone  implements  taken  from 
the  Mounds  in  the  Mississippi  valley  and  a  similar  series  made 
and  used  by  the  Modern  Indians.  In  fact,  so  alike  are  these  ob- 
jects in  conception  and  execution  that  any  attempt  to  distinguish 
them,  based  upon  form  or  finish,  must  be  but  the  merest  guess- 
work. From  the  rude  knife  to  the  carved  and  polished  "Groget," 
they  may,  one  and  all,  have  been  taken  from  the  inmost  recesses 
of  a  mound  or  picked  upon  the  surface  amid  the  debris  of  a 
recent  Indian  village,  and  the  most  experienced  archaeologist, 
if  called  upon  to  decide  as  to  their  origin,  would  have  to  acknowl- 
edge himself  at  fault.  Nor  does  the  similarity  stop  with  objects 
made  of  stone.     On  the  contrary,  it  is  believed  to  extend  to  all 


articles,  of  every  kind  whatsoever,  that  have  thus  far  been  taken 
from  the  mounds.  Indeed,  I  might  even  go  further,  and  as  the 
result  of  some  years  of  work,  as  well  in  the  field  as  in  the  library, 
venture  the  assertion  that  not  only  has  there  not  as  yet  been  any- 
thing taken  from  the  mounds  indicating  a  higher  stage  of  de- 
velopment than  the  red  Indian  of  the  United  States  is  known  to 
have  reached,  but  that  even  the  mounds  themselves,  and  under 
this  head  are  included  all  the  earthworks  of  the  Mississippi  val- 
ley, were  quite  within  the  limits  of  his  efforts.  All  that  I  intend 
to  assert  is,  that,  admitting  everything  that  can  be  reasonably 
claimed  by  the  most  enthusiastic  advocate  of  the  superior  civiliza- 
tion of  the  Mound  Builders,  there  is  no  reason  why  the  red  In- 
dians, of  the  Mississippi  valley,  judging  from  what  we  know, 
historically,  of  their  development,  could  not  have  thrown  up  these 
works.  This  proposition  is  not  as  complete  as  could  be  desired, 
and  yet  it  probably  embodies  all  that  can  ever  be  proven  on  this 

I  quote  from  Marquis  de  Nadaillac's  article,  "The  Unity  of 
the  Human  Species,"  pp.  1-2.  The  arrow  heads  of  the  Dakota, 
Apache,  and  Comanche  Indians  show  curious  resemblance  to  those 
discovered  on  the  borders  of  the  Seine  and  Thames ;  the  nuclei 
of  Scandinavia  compare  wrell  with  those  of  Mexico,  and  if  one 
exchange  the  hatchets  or  the  knives  of  flint  from  Europe  with 
similar  objects  from  America  it  is  difficult  for  even  experts  to 
separate  them,  however  well  they  may  be  versed  in  petrograph 
and  prehistoric  archaeology,  and  it  will  be  extremely  difficult  to 
distinguish  the  races  to  which  they  belong.  Pottery  from  widely 
separated  regions  is  made  in  the  same  form  and  by  the  same 
processes  of  fabrication,  and  even  with  the  same  ornamentation. 
The  spindle  whorls  in  stone,  bone  and  pottery,  found  in  settle- 
ments succeeding  each  other  on  the  hills  of  Hissarlik,  recall  those 
of  the  Swiss  lake  dwellings.  Those  of  Peru,  Mexico,  and*  even 
those  in  present  use  among  the  Navajos.  are  the  same  as  in  our 
museums,  whether  they  come  from  Italy,  Germany,  the  south  of 
France,  or  the  north  of  Scandinavia." 

Thomas  La  Blanc,  a  half-breed  Sioux,  has  told  of  the  separa- 
tion of  the  bands  of  Wacoota,  Bed  Wing  and  "Wabasha,  in  the 
vivid  terms  of  Indian  tradition.  While  this  narrative,  containing 
a  story  of  the  forceful  removal  of  a  mountain,  must  be  regarded 
as  fanciful,  it  is  doubtless  as  near  the  truth  as  anything  else,  in 
which  we  have  only  tradition  to  rely  upon.  After  telling  of  a 
general  war,,  after  which  Wacoota,  whom  he  describes  as  a  young 
libertine,  was  made  chief,  La  Blanc  says,  in  "Bunnell's  History 
of  Winona  County": 

"Wah-cou-ta  was  left  at  his  newly-selected  camp-ground 
at  Kaposia,  while  an  older  chief,  afterward  called  Rem-na-chee, 


from  the  place  where  he  settled,  "went  on  down  to  the  site  of  the 
modern  city  of  Red  Wing,  where  game  of  all  kinds,  fish  included, 
were  found  in  great  abundance.  Here  there  seemed  nothing  lack- 
ing to  their  perfect  happiness,  and  they  lived  for  a  great  length 
of  time,  intermarrying  like  some  families  in  Europe,  until  another 
chief,  who  might  be  styled  the  first  of  the  name  of  Wah-pa-sha 
or  his  progenitor,  drew  attention  to  the  efficiency  of  some  of  the 
warriors  who  could  not  complete  the  trail  of  the  sun  dance  and 
bear  dance  and  had  been  compelled  to  assume  the  garb  and  occu- 
pation of  women,  as  was  the  custom  among  the  Sioux.  He  also 
referred  to  the  increasing  number  of  skeletons  they  were  com- 
pelled to  place  in  their  ossuaries  on  Barn  and  other  bluffs  in  the 
neighborhood  and  ended  by  declaring  that  new  alliances  should 
be  made  with  more  vigorous  tribes,  and  the  customs  of  other  In- 
dians, now  extinct,  should  be  strictly  enforced. 

"It  so  happened  that  one  of  his  own  daughters  was  in  ex- 
pectation of  an  alliance  with  Chaska,  a  brave  of  great  repute, 
eldest  son  of  a  chief,  but  the  talk  of  Wah-pa-sha  had  so  impressed 
him  that  without  saying  anything  of  his  purpose,  he  had  started 
off  as  if  for  a  hunt,  but  in  reality  to  see  and  espouse  the  daughter 
of  Yellow  Thunder,  a  noted  Winnebago  chief,  who.  though  of 
Dah-ko-tah  origin,  was  very  far  removed  from  the  original  stock. 
Chaska 's  absence  was  iirst  noticed  by  his  charming  bride,  who, 
jealous  of  his  absence,  complained  to  her  father.  Upon  inquiry, 
it  was  found  that  the  teachings  of  Wah-pa-sha  had  driven  the 
young  man  away,  but  not  to  be  baffled,  the  young  girl,  proving  to 
the  high  priest  her  virginity,  he  was  at  once  able  to  call  good 
spirits  to  her  aid.  At  first  Rem-ne-chee  and  Wah-pa-sha  had 
taken  sides,  one  dor  the  son,  the  other  for  the  daughter.  Neither 
chief  desired  bloodshed,  but  old-time  prejudices  and  customs  are 
stronger  than  the  authority  of  any  chief,  unless  he  has  well- 
tested  persona]  bravery  to  enforce  his  commands.  This  seemed 
Lacking  in  the  older  chief,  Rem-ne-chee,  and  bows  were  being 
strung  and  spears  pointed,  when  the  power  of  the  secret  incanta- 
tions of  the  priest  burst  forth  in  vivid  flashes  of  lightning,  the 
earth  trembled  and  then  all  was  enveloped  in  darkness  most 
profound;  while  the  Indians  in  affright  cast  themselves  upon 
the  ground,  where  they  remained  chanting  their  death-songs  in 
expectation  of  destruction.  But  lo !  light  again  appeared,  and 
those  mi  Red  Wing  found  that  a  part  of  their  possessions,  includ- 
ing the  dome-shaped  peak  and  part  of  the  Barn  bluff  ossuary, 
had  disappeared,  and  during  the  seismic  strife,  Wah-pa-sha  the 
elder,  and  part  of  his  band,  had  also  been  torn  from  Remnechee's 
turbulent  followers.  Witch-e-ain,  the  virgin,  had  been  left  behind, 
but  calling  to  the  spokesman  of  the  band  for  aid,  she  soon  assem- 
bled a  few  young  braves,  who.  in  devotion  to  her  father,  and  in 


admiration  of  her  purpose,  declared  that  they  would  not  only  find 
the  truant  lover,  but  they  would  also  recover  their  lost  territory, 
which  they  naturally  supposed  must  have  been  transported,  with 
the  direction  of  the  wind,  clown  the  Mississippi.  Believing  this, 
they  started  down  in  a  canoe.  With  the  keen  sight  of  Indians, 
they  discovered  fragments  of  their  lost  possessions  at  the  present 
site  of  Wabasha ;  but  it  would  not  be  possible  to  explain  their 
reasons  for  believing  this,  without  a  faith  in  their  medicine 
charms,  so  we  will  pass  on. 

"At  the  site  of  Winona  they  were  overjoyed  to  see,  as  they 
approached  the  landing,  the  exact  counterpart  of  their  sacred 
dome  at  Bed  Wing.  It  had  been  rent  in  twain,  it  is  true,  but  the 
attrition  of  transportation  had  modeled  it  into  a  beautiful  cap, 
not  unlike  the  Scotch  or  Canadian  cap  of  old,  and  standing  in 
front  as  though  in  a  mirage,  his  tall  form  outstretching  almost 
to  top  of  cliff,  was  the  lost  chief  once  more  in  possession  of  the 
lost  cliff,  which  he  declared  should  be  his  cap  for  all  future 
time.  Its  beautiful  form,  garlanded  with  cedar,  would  have  re- 
mained the  admiration  of  all  beholders  until  this  time,  but  for 
Mammon,  a  most  powerful  modern  god,  more  powerful  by  far 
than  any  known  to  the  Dakotas. 

'Leaving  the  chief  to  recover  from  his  dazed  condition,  and 
assemble  his  scattered  family  on  a  site  he  selected  for  himself 
on  what  became  known  as  Burn's  creek,  the  anxious  maiden 
with  her  young  braves  pursued  her  way  down  the  river.  They 
soon  came  in  sight  of  one  of  their  lost  mountains,  which  became 
known  to  the  whole  Dakota  tribe,  when  they  had  heard  of  the 
wonder,  as  Fah-ha-dah  (the  moving  mountain),  but  to  the  Winne- 
bagoes,  who,  in  approaching  it  in  canoes  on  the  east  side,  found 
it  surrounded  by  water,  it  was  known  as  Hay-nee-ah-chah,  or 
Soaking  Mountain.  The  pursuing  party  stopped  but  a  moment 
at  Pah-ha-dah,  or  Trempeauleau,  for  just  below  they  saw  a  short 
range  of  isolated  bluffs,  which  they  felt  sure  were  taken  from 
the  upper  portion  of  the  range  of  what  is  modernly  known  as 
Barn  bluff.  The  vacant  space  below  Bed  Wing,  they  argued, 
justified  their  conclusion.  But  they  were  about  to  land  for  exam- 
ination, and  perhaps  for  some  slight  refreshment,  when  their  ears 
were  assailed  by  the  most  persistent  rattling  of  numerous  rattle- 
snakes, of  sin-tah-dah,  they  had  ever  heard.  Upon  inquiry  they 
found  that  the  bluffs  were  really  a  part  of  their  old  possessions, 
but  that  the  remains  of  their  ancestors  should  not  again  be  dis- 
turbed from  the  mounds  and  ossuaries  on  the  ridge,  but  be  held 
sacred  for  all  time.  The  snakes  were  magically  sent  by  the  good 
high  priest,  with  the  bluffs,  to  protect  the  remains  from  desecra- 

The  Omahas  and  Towas  wore  driven  out  of  this  state  and  beyond 


the  Missouri,  mainly  in  one  campaign  led  by  Red  Wing  and 
"Wapasha.  The  Menominees  were  privy  to  the  plans  of  the  Sioux, 
but  took  no  part  in  the  war ;  perhaps  furnished  canoes  and  horses. 
The  Sioux  marched  by  the  headwaters  of  the  St.  Croix  and  Chip- 
pewas,  down  the  Wisconsin,  beginning  the  attack  at  McGregor. 
The  Y-hanktons  reinforced  them  on  the  upper  course  of  the 
Minnesota.  The  Sioux  undertook  this  war  for  the  purpose  of  set- 
tlement in  the  country  which  they  had  always  claimed  to  own 
since  the  expulsion  of  the  Assinniboines.  It  was  after  Wapasha 
had  received  his  red  cap  and  commission  as  head  chief  of  the 

Colonel  AYilliam  Colville  once  wrote:  " Wapasha 's  title  as 
head  chief  not  being  allowed  by  Red  Wing,  Wapasha  removed 
with  the  greater  part  of  his  band  to  Winona.  Red  Wing's 
titular  name  was  Wacouta — 'The  Shooter.'  This  was  always 
the  head  chief 's  title — the  same  as  that  of  the  chief  who  captured 
Hennepin,  lie  had  the  name  of  Red  Wing,  Koo-poodioo-sha,  from 
the  swan's  wing,  which  he  dyed  scarlet  and  carried.  Wapahasha 
had  his  name  from  his  red  "coupe  stick,"  which  was  wound  with 
scarlet  ribbons  and  surmounted  by  a  white  horse  tail,  dyed  a  bril- 
liant red.  This  lie  used  to  signal  and  direct  his  warriors  in 
battle,  sometimes  as  a  standard  to  rally  them. 

'Red  Wing  and  his  contemporaries  here  retained  their  old 
custom  of  mound  burial,  such  as  is  described  by  Carver  in  his 
account  of  the  cave  at  St.  Paul.  His  spring  and  summer  camp 
was  along  the  west  bank  of  Jordan  stream  in  this  place.  The 
Indians  called  the  stream  Cold  Water  creek.  The  upper  end  of 
the  camp  was  ;i  little  above  Main  street.  There  was  an  oak  grove 
a  short  distance  behind  the  camp  on  slightly  higher  ground,  and 
commanding  a  broad  view  of  the  river  scenery.  In  this  grove 
were  a  number  of  mounds  when  I  came  here — 1854 — mostly  of 
small  size,  one  conspicuous,  over  twenty  feet  across  and  three  feet 
high.  It  was  ;it  the  southwest  corner  of  Main  and  Broadway 
crossing.  In  grading  the  street  this  was  leveled,  and  along  with 
very  badly  decayed  bones  was  found  a  Jefferson  medal  of  the 
year  1801.  After  Red  Wing's  time  the  Indians  coffined  and 
buried  the  dead  same  as  the  whites. 

Big  Buffalo,  his  successor,  was  so  coffined  and  buried,  about 
1820.  Now  Lieutenant  Pike,  on  his  return  from  the  source  of  the 
Mississippi  in  1806,  stopped  two  days  with  Red  Wing  at  this 
camp,  and  was  very  hospitably  entertained.  On  his  way  down 
he  had  been  reminded  by  Little  Crow,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St. 
Croix,  of  his  promised  medals,  promised  at  the  treaty  of  the  fall 
before  at  Pike  Island.  One  of  the  head  men  of  Red  Wing's  band 
signed  that  treaty;  Red  Wing,  from  old  age,  was  not  present. 
Red  Wing  was  friendly  to  the  Americans;  AVapahasha  had  his 


commission  from  the  British.  This  was  talked  over.  Altogether, 
if  anyone  was  entitled,  Red  AYing  was,  to  one  of  the  medals.  Of 
course,  Pike's  promises  were  sacredly  kept.  It  is  no  objection 
that  the  date  is  1801,  as  it  was  the  custom  to  strike  the  medal  the 
first  year  of  the  new  administration  and  the  die  was  preserved 
until  another  president  took  his  seat.  Big  Buffalo's  was  a  Madi- 
son medal  of  the  year  1809,  but  which  he  could  not  have  received 
until  1816,  for  he  fought  with  the  British  in  1812-15,  and  sur- 
rendered his  old  medal,  if  he  had  one,  to  them  on  receiving  their 
flag.  Big  Buffalo  was  originally  buried  at  the  corner  of  Main 
and  Plum  streets,  and  when  the  town  was  laid  out  was  removed 
to  College  Bluff,  and  about  1870  his  medal  was  stolen  from  the 
grave  and  fell  into  the  hands  of  a  stranger,  to  whom  it  is  worth- 
less, and  is  lost  to  us. 

"The  Jefferson  medal  is  now  held  by  Mrs.  Frank  Sterritt,  of 
Merriam  Park,  in  trust  for  our  Red  Wing  Library  Association.  I 
think  the  above  facts  make  a  good  case  for  it,  as  having  in  very 
deed  been  worn  by  Red  Wing." 

The  titles  Hoo-pa-hoo-doo-ta  (Wing  of  Scarlet),  now  rendered 
Red  Wing;  Wapashaw  (Red  War  Banner),  now  rendered  Wa- 
basha, and  Wa-coo-tay  (Leaf  Shooter),  rendered  in  French  Ocha- 
gach  and  now  called  AVacoota,  probably  have  a  common  origin, 
and  weye  evidently  used  interchangably  by  the  early  writers  to 
describe  whatever  chief  they  found  at  the  head  of  the  bands  in 
this  vicinity.  The  particular  chief  of  the  Goodhue  county  band 
of  whom  we  know  the  most,  with  the  exception  of  AVacoota,  whom 
the  white  settlers  of  1848-53  found  here,  is  the  Aile  Rouge 
described  by  Pike  and  Hennepin.  The  Dakota  Indians  who  now 
reside  on  Prairie  Island  still  speak  of  Red  AVing  as  Ilupa-hu-sha, 
meaning  wing  of  red. 

The  question  as  to  the  first  white  man  who  ever  set  foot  on  the 
soil  of  this  county  is  no  less  a  matter  of  conjecture.  Traders  or 
soldiers  of  fortune  may  have  wandered  to  this  locality,  but  the 
first  white  man  of  whom  we  have  any  reliable  record  as  to  his 
presence  here  is  Father  Louis  Hennepin,  an  explorer  and  Fran- 
ciscan monk,  in  1680. 

This  statement  is  made  with  a  full  knowledge  of  the  allega- 
tions advanced  by  AVarren  Upham,  of  the  State  Historical  Society, 
that  Radisson  and  Groseilliers  wintered  on  Prairie  Island  in 
1654-55  and  were  consequently  the  first  white  men  in  Minnesota. 
In  this  contention,  Mr.  Upham  is  unsupported  by  any  reliable 
historian,  and  his  own  earlier  writings  successfully  refute  his 
present  arguments.  Peter  (or  Pierre)  Esprit  Radisson  and  Me- 
clard  Chouart,  better  known  as  Sieur  de  Groseilliers  (The  Goose- 
berry), were  early  explorers  around  the  Great  Lakes,  and  the 
former,   after  being  discredited  by  France,  wrote   an   extensive 


account,  largely  fictitious,  of  his  adventures,  for  the  purpose  of 
interesting  English  parties  to  join  in  forming  what  later  became 
the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  for  the  exploitation  of  America.  This 
manuscript,  long  forgotten,  was  rescued  in  part  (some  of  it  hav- 
ing been  sold  for  wrapping  paper)  and  published  by  the  Prince 
Society  in  1885.  In  this  narrative  Radisson  claims  to  have  visited 
nearly  every  portion  of  America  and  to  have  discovered  a  pas- 
sage way  to  the  Pacific  ocean.  If  the  remainder  of  the  manu- 
script could  have  been  procured  I  have  no  doubt  that  it  would  be 
learned  that  Radisson  built  an  air  ship  and  ascended  to  Mars,  and 
even  reached  the  North  Pole,  thereby  robbing  those  two  distin- 
guished Americans.  Cook  and  Peary,  of  the  honor  of  being  the 
first  to  actually  discover  the  Great  Nail.  Mr.  Upham  himself 
acknowledges  that  the  manuscript  is  largely  fictitious,  but  picks 
out  tin1  part  which  he  claims  to  refer  to  Prairie  Island  and  stamps 
that  with  the  approval  of  truth  while  the  other  parts  are  charac- 
terized by  the  same  authority  as  apparent  fiction,  vaguely  and 
blunderingly  told.  The  part  of  the  manuscript  which  is  alleged 
to  refer  to  Minnesota,  and  the  contention  that  Radisson  and  Gro- 
seilliers  were  the  first  white  men  in  Minnesota,  is  best  described 
in  Mr.  Upham 's  own  words. 

He  says:  "When  we  come  to  his  (Radisson 's)  account  of  that 
next  year  (1855),  following  the  apparent  fiction  so  vaguely  and 
blunderingly  told,  he  resumes  his  accustomed  definiteness  of 
details,  telling  us  that  in  the  early  spring,  before  the  snow  and 
ice  were  gone,  which  forbade  the  use  of  canoes,  these  two  French- 
men, with  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  men  and  women  of  the 
native  tribes,  traveled  almost  fifty  leagues  on  snow  shoes,  coming 
to  a  river  side  where  they  spent  three  weeks  in  making  boats. 
This  journey  was.  if  I  rightly  identify  it,  from  the  vicinity  of 
Green  bay,  in  eastern  Wisconsin,  across  that  state  to  the  Missis- 
sippi, reaching  this  river  near  the  southeast  corner  of  Minnesota, 
or  somewhat  further  south,  perhaps  coming  by  a  route  not  far 
from  the  canoe  route  of  the  Fox  and  Wisconsin  rivers.  Thence 
they  voyaged  eight  days  up  the  river  on  which  their  boats  had 
been  made,  to  villages  of  two  tribes,  probably  in  the  vicinity  of 
Winona,  where  they  obtained  meal  and  corn,  which  supplied  this 
large  company  until  they  'came  to  the  first  landing  isle.' 

"The  description  indicates  that  the  voyagers  passed  along 
Lake  Pepin  and  upward  to  the  large  Isle  Pelee  (or  Bald  Island), 
now  called  Prairie  Island,  on  the  Minnesota  side  of  the  main  river 
channel  above  Red  Wing.  On  this  island,  which  derived  its 
names,  both  in  French  and  English,  from  its  being  mostly  a 
prairie,  a  large  number  of  Huron s  and  Ottawas,  fleeing  from  their 
enemies,  the  Iroquois,  had  recently  taken  refuge,  and  had  begun 
the   cultivation   of   corn.      Their  harvest  the  preceding  year,  in 


newly  worked  land,  was  small;  but  much  corn  would  be  needed 
for  food  duriug  the  loug  journey  thence  to  Quebec  with  beaver 
skins,  which  canoe  voyage,  requiring  a  month  or  more,  Groseil- 
liers  and  Radisson  wished  to  begin  soon  after  their  arrival  on  the 
island.  They  were  obliged  to  remain  till  the  next  year,  and  Gro- 
seilliers  spent  the  summer  on  Prairie  Island  and  in  its  vicinity, 
one  of  his  chief  objects  being  to  provide  a  large  supply  of  corn 
for  the  return  journey.  Meanwhile  Radisson  went  with  hunting 
parties,  and  traveled  four  months  'without  doing  anything  but  go 
from  river  to  river.'  He  wTas  enamored  of  the  beauty  and  fer- 
tility of  the  country  and  was  astonished  at  its  herds  of  buffaloes 
and  antelopes,  flocks  of  pelicans  and  the  shovel-nosed  sturgeon, 
all  of  which  he  particularly  described.  Such  was  the  first  year, 
1655,  of  observations  and  exploration  by  white  men  in  Minnesota 
and  their  earliest  navigation  of  the  upper  part  of  the  Mississippi 
river.  Accompanied  by  several  hundred  Hurons  and  other  Algon- 
quins.  and  carrying  a  most  welcome  freight  of  furs,  Groseilliers 
and  Radisson  returned  to  Montreal  and  Quebec  in  August,  1656. 
Their  stay  on  Prairie  Island  covered  the  period  from  April  or 
May,  1655,  to  June,  1656,  about  fourteen  months." 

Such  is  the  new  page  which  Mr.  Upham  would  write  on  the 
pages  of  AVisconsin  and  Minnesota  history,  and  in  honor  of  which 
he  would  erect  a  monument  on  Prairie  Island.  While  I  person- 
ally would  be  very  much  pleased  to  have  this  region  honored  with 
a  marble  shaft  as  being  the  spot  upon  which  the  first  white  men 
in  the  state  firs,t  set  foot,  in  view  of  the  uncertainty  and  grave 
doubts  I  do  not  feel  as  though  one  should  be  erected  to  perpetu- 
ate a  scarcely  probable  incident,  when  there  are  so  many  well 
authenticated  and  important  events  which  actually  happened 
within  the  borders  of  this  county  in  the  early  days  that  could  be 
so  honored.  To  my  mind  there  are  several  facts  which  preclude 
the  possibility  of  this  early  settlement  by  two  Frenchmen  and  a 
party  of  Hurons  on  Prairie  Island  for  a  long  period  of  fourteen 
months.     Briefly,  the  objections  are  as  follows : 

The  reputation  given  Radisson  for  veracity  by  such  a  distin- 
guished investigater  as  Mr.  Upham  is  sufficient  to  cause  us  to 
view  the  writer's  narrative  with  suspicion.  I  quote  Mr.  Upham 
in  'First  White  Men  in  Minnesota"  (page  2).  Speaking  of 
Radisson  he  says:  'His  narration,  besides  being  very  uncouth 
in  style,  is  exceedingly  deficient  in  dates,  sometimes  negligent  as 
to  the  sequence  of  events,  and  even  here  and  there  discordant  and 
demonstrably  untruthful."  Mr.  Upham 's  opinion  of  Radisson 's 
descriptive  powers,  as  found  on  page  11  of  the  above  work,  is 
this:  'Lake  Michigan,  with  its  surrounding  forests  and  prairies 
and  Indian  tribes,  appeared  even  more  fascinating  to  Radisson 's 
enraptured  vision.    He  wrote  of  it  in  an  ecstasy."    Radisson  must 


have  lost  power  of  his  "enraptured  vision"  before  he  reached  this 
locality,  for  there  is  no  description  in  the  entire  narrative  that  in 
any  way  describes  the  scenery  along  the  Mississippi  from  the 
mouth  of  the  Wisconsin  to  Prairie  Island.  I  do  not  know  of  a 
single  early  voyager  who  has  left  any  written  record  of  his  travel 
in  this  region  that  has  not  gone  into  ecstasies  over  the  beautiful 
panoramic  views  ever  presenting  to  his  vision  as  he  was  paddled 
up  the  river  in  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Pepin.  If  Radisson  had 
remained  on  Prairie  Island  fourteen  months  he  surely  would  have 
seen  Barn  Bluff  many  times,  and  if  he  did  see  it  and  not  mention 
it  he  cannot  hope  for  forgiveness. 

In  March,  1660,  Radisson  did  not  understand  the  Dakota  lan- 
guage. On  page  45  of  his  work,  Mr.  Upham  says:  "The  next 
morning,  in  March,  1660,  they  were  called  by  an  interpretor.  "We 
understood  not  a  word  of  their  language,  being  quite  contrary  to 
those  that  we  were  with."  Jean  Nicollet  discovered  Green  Bay, 
Wisconsin,  in  the  year  1634,  and  reported  a  wild  tribe  of  Indians 
in  this  region  which  he  calls  the  Nandusin  (Sioux).  Hennepin 
found  the  Sioux  here  in  1680.  Le  Sueur  lived  with  them  on 
Prairie  Island  1695,  and,  from  Indian  tradition,  their  ancestors 
had  made  Prairie  Island  their  home  for  ages  before  Radisson 
was  born.  Now  we  are  asked  to  accept  as  an  historical  fact  that 
Radisson  spent  fourteen  months  on  Prairie  Island  and  never 
heard  the  Dakota  tongue  spoken,  and  that  the  first  time  he  did 
hear  it  was  in  March,  1660.  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state. 

I  do  not  intend  to  burden  the  reader  with  my  views  on  this 
Radisson  matter  at  this  time,  for  in  my  opinion  the  facts  are  not 
sufficiently  historical  to  warrant  the  great  publicity  already  given 
by  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society  to  what  some  of  our  most 
able  writers  on  early  explorations  consider  as  "pure  romance." 
The  claims  made  by  Mr.  Upham  are  being  so  persistently  forced 
onto  the  citizens  of  this  state  that  they  will  soon  be  accepted  as 
an  historical  fact,  without  someone  call  a  halt  and  ask  for  a  more 
thorough  investigation,  and  I  regret  very  much  that  someone 
more  competent  than  myself  has  not  felt  it  his  duty  to  ask  for 
more  light  on  this  very  important  subject.  As  this  Radisson  mat- 
ter is  a  subject  of  local  interest  to  the  people  of  Goodhue  county, 
and  as  I  have  been  asked  to  contribute  a  chapter  on  early  times, 
I  will  take  the  opportunity  to  present  some  evidence  to  show  that 
Mr.  Upham 's  position  is  not  well  taken.  In  doing  so  I  will  quote 
from  Mr.  Upham 's  own  work.  "First  White  Men  in  Minnesota." 
William  Kingsford.  The  History  of  Canada.  (Toronto,  1887- 
98;  ten  volumes.)  Pages  1-12  and  45-49,  in  volume  III,  1889, 
notice  the  relation  of  Groseilliers  and  Radisson  to  the  beginnings 
of  English  commerce  with  the  region  of  Hudson  bay.  The  author 
ignores  the  narratives  of  the  four  land  expeditions,  ascribed  to 


Radisson 's  authorship,  in  the  volume  published  by  the  Prince 
Society,  declaring  that  part  to  be  "without  value"  and  appar- 
ently "the  work  of  a  writer  of  fiction." 

He  says:  "It  is  difficult  to  find  authority  for  the  statement 
put  forth  of  the  original  discovery  of  Hudson's  Bay  by  des  Gro- 
seilliers and  Radisson,  on  which  so  much  stress  has  been  laid" 
(page  5);  and  again:  "The  names  of  two  commonplace  adven- 
turers have  obtained  mention  in  the  chronicles  of  those  days,  to 
which  they  are  in  no  way  entitled,  from  the  circumstances  that 
they  were  brought  forward  by  the  French,  for  want  of  a  better 
^  argument  to  sustain  their  pretensions  to  early  discovery" 
(page  12). 

Legler,  Henry  E.  'Leading  Events  of  Wisconsin  History." 
(Milwaukee,  1898;  pages  322.)  The  travels  of  Groseilliers  and 
Radisson  are  noticed  in  pages  21,  47-51  and  137.  Although  chap- 
ter II  details  somewhat  fully  "The  Strange  Adventures  of  Radis- 
son," the  routes  and  dates  of  the  expeditions  are  not  exactly 
stated.  Concerning  their  supposed  journeying  to  the  Mississippi 
river,  the  author  thinks  that  "evidence  is  lacking  to  prove  the 

Ogg,  Frederic  Austin.  "The  Opening  of  the  Mississippi;  a 
Struggle  for  Supremacy  in  the  American  Interior. ' '  (New  York, 
1904;  pages  670.)  The  far  western  travels  of  Groseilliers  and 
Radisson  are  considered  in  pages  53-56.  Their  first  expedition  is 
conjectured  to  have  been  in  1654-56,  they  being  the  unnamed 
French  traders  who  are  mentioned  in  the  Jusuit  relation.  A  sec- 
ond expedition  is  thought  to  have  been  made  by  Groseilliers  in 
1658-59,  "trading  and  exploring  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Superior," 
with  return  to  the  St.  Lawrence  "in  the  spring  of  1659."  Next, 
"within  a  few  weeks,"  Groseilliers  and  Radisson  traveled  again 
to  Lake  Superior,  this  time  exploring  the  south  shore  to  La  Pointe 
and  Chequamegon  bay,  spending  the  winter  in  "many  excursions 
among  the  surrounding  tribes,"  and  returning  to  lower  Canada  in 
the  summer  of  1660.  Groseilliers  and  other  traders  are  said  to 
have  made  a  later  expedition  to  Lake  Superior,  going  in  August, 
1660,  and  returning  in  1663.  It  is  thought  that  they  did  not  reach 
the  Mississippi  river  in  any  of  these  expeditions,  though  coming 
to  some  of  its  eastern  tributaries.  This  author  makes  no  refer- 
ence to  Radisson 's  assertions  that  they  went  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico 
and  to  Hudson  bay. 

Neill,  Edward  D.  "Groseilliers  and  Radisson,  the  First  Ex- 
plorers of  Lake  Superior  and  the  State  of  Minnesota."  (Maga- 
zine of  Western  History,  volume  VII,  pages  412-421,  February, 
1888.)  The  following  footnote,  on  page  413,  explains  why  so  little 
care  was  taken  to  follow  the  narratives  of  Radisson  in  this  con- 
fused and  unwarrantable  account  of  the  expeditions  to  the  region 


of  Minnesota:  "The  journals  of  Kadisson,  published  by  the 
Prince  Society  of  Boston,  in  1885,  cannot  be  trusted  for  dates,  but 
are  correct  in  the  description  of  the  customs  of  the  tribes  he 
visited."  Neill,  Edward  D.  "Wisconsin  Historical  Society  Col- 
lections, volume  X,  188,  pages  292-297.  Accepting  the  supposed 
chronology  of  the  Prince  Society's  volume,  the  first  western  expe- 
dition is  referred  to  the  years  1658-60  and  the  second  to  1662-63 
or  1664.  Neill, '  Edward  D.  Macalaster  College  Contributions, 
first  series,  1890;  pages  86-94,  223-224.  The  expedition  to  Lake 
Superior,  narrated  by  Radisson,  is  restricted  to  about  one  year, 
in  1659-60 ;  and  two  later  expeditions  by  Groseilliers  are  noted, 
with  return  from  the  last  August  5,  1663.  Perrot's  account  of  the 
wanderings  of  the  Ilurons  and  Ottawas  is  translated;  but  no  sug- 
gestion appears  that  Radisson 's  "first  landing  isle,"  not  here 
mentioned,  Avas  their  place  of  refuge,  "Prairie  Island'  (Pelee) 
on  the  Mississippi. 

McCormick,  Hon.  Robert  Laird.  A  short  letter,  dated  Decem- 
ber 26,  1902.  is  published  by  Hon.  J.  V.  Brower  in  volume  VI  of 
his  "Memoirs  of  Explorations  in  the  Basin  of  the  Mississippi," 
1903,  page  72.  In  this  letter  Mr.  McCormick  writes:  "Histor- 
ical students  would  welcome  further  information  regarding  the 
travels  of  these  two  explorers  who  doubtless  saw  the  upper  Mis- 
sissippi years  before  Joliet  and  Marquette,  but  in  the  absence  of 
documentary  testimony  it  is  presumption  to  seriously  claim  that 
Radisson  crossed  AVisconsin  on  snowshoes  from  Green  Bay  to  the 
Mississippi  river  in  1651-55." 

Moore,  Charles.  "The  Discovers  of  Lake  Superior."  (Publi- 
cations of  the  Michigan  Political  Science  Association,  volume  II. 
pages  199-211.  Ann  Arbor,  January,  1897.)  The  two  western 
journeys  of  Groseilliers  and  Radisson  are  referred  to  1658-60  and 
1661-63.  It  is  doubted  that  they  saw  the  Mississippi,  but  the 
claim  of  an  overland  trip  to  Hudson  bay  is  accepted.  The  chro- 
nology carefully  studied  out  a  year  before  by  Campbell  is  con- 
sidered and  rejected. 

I  quote  the  following  from  "Memoirs  of  Exploration  in  the 
Basin  of  the  Mississippi,"  volume  VI.  Minnesota.  By  J.  V. 
Brower:  "At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Minnesota  Historical 
Society  held  at  St.  Paul,  January  13,  1902,  AVarren  Upham  deliv- 
ered an  address  containing  expressions  of  opinion  concerning  the 
original  discovery  of  the  area  of  Minnesota  by  Peter  Esprit  Rad- 
isson and  Medard  Chouart  in  the  spring  months  of  1655.  Those 
opinions  were  placed  in  writing,  ordered  printed  and  were  about 
to  be  adopted  as  adequate  history.  Indeed,  Mr.  Upham  was  so 
positive  concerning  the  results  of  his  study  of  Radisson 's  narra- 
tives that  at  page  83,  Kathio,  announcement  was  made  that  Radis- 


son  *  must  be  accredited  as  the  discoverer  of  Minnesota  first  at 
Prairie  Island  in  1655,'  etc. 

"That  statement  is  erroneous  and  I  now  expunge  it  from  my 
volume  IV,  above  mentioned.    After  a  careful  investigation  of  the 
historic  record  so  far  as  the  same  is  available  at  St.  Paul,  I  have 
reached  what   is  to  me   sufficient   conclusion   that   Mr,   Upham's 
opinions    concerning    Radisson's    explorations    cannot    be    safely 
accepted  or  adopted  as  a  part  and  portion  of  the  history  of  the 
discovery  of  Minnesota.     Before  I  proceeded  to  Prairie  Island, 
where  I  fully  expected  to  discover  an  extensive  Huron  Indian  vil- 
lage site,  Mr.  Upham  was  requested  to  contribute  for  the  pages 
of  this  volume  on  account  of  the  results  of  his  studies  concerning 
the  original  discovery  of  the  area  of  Minnesota.     As  soon  as  it 
was  ascertained  that  no  adequate  Huron  village  site  comparable 
with  the  descriptions   given  by  Mr.  Upham  could  be  found  on 
Prairie  Island,  he  was  requested  to  correct  his  manuscript  to  con- 
form to  such  actual  proofs  as  might  be  surely  ascertained,  thereby 
protecting  the  credibility  and  accuracy  of  Minnesota  history.   Mr. 
Upham  has  repeatedly  and  positively  refused  to  comply  with  that 
reasonable  request,  incidentally  urging  that  his  statement  be  pub- 
lished herein  as  originally  written.    I  comply  with  that  request  in 
order  to  review  for  the  benefit  of  Minnesota  history  the  fallacies 
and  inaccuracies  which  his  article  contains,  similar  to  the  review 
which  he  has  himself  extended  against  the  published  treatise  on 
the  same  subject  by  the  late  Captain  Russell  Blakely.    That  man- 
ner of  procedure  is  by  me  deemed  to  be  the  only  substantial  way 
to  guard  against  some  egregious  errors  which  are  about  to  be 
precipitated    against    the    integrity    and    stability    of    our    state 

'I  have  failed  to  discover  any  substantial  declaration,  written 
or  printed,  definitely  indicating  that  Peter  Esprit  Radisson,  who 
was  in  Europe  in  the  early  part  of  1654,  arrived  at  or  near  Fox 
river,  "Wisconsin,  the  same  year.  His  movements  during  the  years 
1654  and  1655,  after  he  arrived  in  New  France  from  Europe,  are 
unknown,  unaccounted  for  and  developed  in  uncertainty  and 
obscurity.  Any  statement  declaring  that  he  certainly  proceeded 
direct  from  Europe  to  Prairie  Island  between  the  late  spring 
months  of  1654  and  the  early  spring  of  1655  (conducting  a  snow- 
shoe  voyage  across  the  present  area  of  "Wisconsin  as  an  incidental 
necessity),  unsupported  by  any  definite  corroborative  evidence 
except  the  vague  falsifications  contained  in  the  book  entitled 
'Radisson's  Narratives,'  is  insufficient  historical  data  upon  which 
to  base  the  history  of  the  discovery  of  Minnesota.  The  fact  that 
two  nameless  persons  proceeded  westward  from  Quebec  in  1654 
is  not  definite  corroborative  evidence. 

'Does  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society  propose  to  force  upon 


its  sister  society  at  Madison,  Wis.,  as  a  part  of  the  history  of  that 
state,  an  alleged  snowshoe  voyage  urged  in  the  foregoing  paper 
as  certainly  having  been  made  by  Radisson  and  Chouart  in  1655 
from  Green  Bay  to  the  Mississippi  ?  The  historians  of  that  state 
have  rejected  the  proposition  and  it  has  been  declared  to  be  a 
presumption  to  force  upon  them  an  unwelcome  page  in  their  his- 
tory which  lacks  any  confirmation  whatsoever  of  a  reliable  char- 
acter. The  opinion  of  one  writer  unsupported  by  sufficient  con- 
firmatory evidence  cannot  and  ought  not  to  unduly  influence  the 
history  of  the  discovery  of  the  area  of  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota, 
especially  so  in  the  event  that  all  the  facts  concerning  Radisson 
have  not  become  fully  known  so  that  we  can  advisedly  and  dis- 
cretely complete  our  history  harmoniously  with  a  neighboring 

From  these  opinions  Mr.  Upham  reaches  the  following  conclu- 
sion :  "In  view  of  the  very  diverse  opinions  expressed  by  the 
many  writers  cited  in  the  foregoing  bibliography,  concerning  the 
routes  and  dates  of  the  western  expeditions  of  Groseilliers  and 
Radisson,  it  would  certainly  be  unreasonable  for  the  present 
writer  to  expect  his  studies  and  conclusions,  stated  in  this  paper, 
to  be  accepted  without  challenge  and  adverse  discussions.  It  will 
require  probably  many  years  for  historians  to  reach  a  general 
agreement  as  to  the  interpretation  of  Radisson 's  uncouth  but 
exceedingly  interesting  narratives  of  these  earliest  expeditions  to 
the  upper  Mississippi  river  (if,  indeed,  he  came  there,  which  some 
deny)  and  to  the  area  which  is  now  Minnesota. 

"Careful  studies  of  this  subject  during  seven  years  have  led 
me  to  believe,  with  full  confidence,  that  the  arguments  and  results 
here  presented  are  true,  and  that  they  will  ultimately  be  so 
received  by  all  students  of  our  Northwestern  history."  This 
appears  on  the  last  page  of  the  book  entitled  "First  White  Men 
in  Minnesota,"  by  Mr.  Upham,  and  appears  to  me  to  be  in  the 
nature  of  an  apology  to  the  readers  by  the  author  for  having 
asked  the  public  to  consider  in  a  serious  manner  the  proposition 
that  these  two  French  adventurers  were  ever  within  two  hundred 
miles  of  Prairie  Island. 

The  first  European  to  explore  the  Mississippi  above  the  mouth 
of  the  Wisconsin,  the  first  to  set  foot  on  the  soil  of  Goodhue 
county,  was  undoubtedly  Father  Louis  Hennepin,  a  Franciscan 
priest  of  the  Recollect  Order.  LaSalle,  in  February,  1680,  had 
erected  a  fort  on  an  eminence  near  Lake  Peoria,  in  Illinois,  and 
from  this  point  he  determined  to  send  an  expedition  up  the  Mis- 
sissippi. For  this  task  he  selected  three  of  his  faithful  followers. 
Accordingly,  on  February  29,  Father  Hennepin,  with  two  compan- 
ions named  Picard  du  Gay  and  Michael  Accault  set  out  in  a  canoe 
for  the  upper  Minnesota.    On  the  way  they  fell  in  with  a  band  of 


Sioux  on  the  warpath  against  the  Illinois  and  the  Miami  nations. 
This  party  accompanied  the  Frenchmen  up  the  river,  evidently  in 
doubt  as  to  whether  they  should  scalp  them  or  treat  them  as 
friends.  On  their  way  up  the  party  slept  one  night  in  April  or 
May,  1680,  at  the  head  of  Lake  Pepin,  near  Point  La  Saub.  A 
few  leagues  up  the  river,  probably  about  where  Red  "Wing  is  now 
located,  Hennepin  and  his  party  landed.  A  chief,  probably  Red 
Wing,  went  clown  to  tlie  shore,  and  telling  the  party  to  leave 
their  canoes,  pulled  up  three  piles  of  grass  for  seats.  Then  taking 
a  piece  of  cedar  full  of  little  holes  he  placed  a  stick  into  one  and 
revolved  it  between  the  palms  of  his  hands  until  he  kindled  a  fire. 
During  the  meeting  the  chief  informed  the  Frenchmen  that  they 
would  be  at  Mille  Lacs  in  six  days.  According  to  Hennepin  the 
whites  were  held  in  captivity;  according  to  Accaidjb  they  were 
not.  At  any  rate,  they  went  northward  with  the  Indians  and 
went  to  the  region  of  Mille  Lacs,  where  they  arrived  early  in 
May,  Permission  was  then  given  to  Hennepin  and  Auguelle 
(Pickard)  to  return  in  a  canoe  down  the  Mississippi  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Wisconsin,  where  they  hoped  to  find  a  reinforcement  of 
Frenchmen  as  well  as  goods  and  ammunition.  Meantime  Accault 
was  left  with  the  Indians,  possibly  as  a  hostage.  On  this  voyage 
down  the  river,  Hennepin  and  Pickard  again  passed  the  bluffs  of 
Goodhue  county.  Further  down  the  river  they  wTere  again  cap- 
tured, according  to  Hennepin,  and  finding  no  Frenchmen  at  the 
spot  where  they  hoped,  late  in  July  the  party  of  Indians  and 
Frenchmen  made  their  way  up  the  Mississippi  and  met  DuLuth 
and  several  French  soldiers  who  had  come  from  Lake  Superior 
by  the  canoe  route  of  the  Brule  and  St.  Croix  rivers.  They  all 
then  went  back  to  the  Isanti  villages  near  Mille  Lacs,  where 
DuLuth  the  previous  year  had  met  the  Indians  in  council  and 
endeavored  to  show  them  what  benefits  they  would  receive  from 
trading  with  the  French.  DuLuth  sharply  reprimanded  the  sav- 
ages for  their  attitude  toward  Hennepin  and  his  companions,  who 
henceforth  had  no  reason  to  complain  of  their  treatment.  In  the 
autumn  (1681) ,  on  pretense  of  bringing  goods  to  establish  a  trad- 
ing post,  DuLuth,  Hennepin  and  other  Frenchmen  were  allowed 
to  depart.  On  their  journey  down  the  Mississippi  they  again  passed 
Goodhue  county,  this  time  with  DuLuth  and  his  companions. 
According  to  Sieur  DuLuth,  the  Indians  near  the  source  of  Run 
river,  this  state,  near  the  latter  end  of  September,  1681,  held  a 
great  council,  at  which  Ousicoude  (Wacoota),  the  head  chief, 
prepared  for  them  a  chart  of  the  route,  by  the  way  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi and  Wisconsin,  to  Green  Bay.  "Minnesota  Historical 
Collections,  volume  1,  page  316  (note).  The  name  of  the  chief  in 
Dakota  was  Wazikute  (Wah-zee-koo-tay),  or  the  'Shooter  of  the 
Pines.'     Long's  expedition  in  1823  met  a  Dakota  at  Red  Wing 



who  bore  the  same  name  as  the  chief  alluded  to  iu  the  travels  of 

Le  Sueur  had  visited  Prairie  Island  and  established  a  trading 
post  in  1695,  after  having'  prevailed  upon  the  Dakota  and  Chip- 
pewa Indians  to  recognize  the  island  as  neutral  ground,  bury  the 
hatchet,  and  live  together  in  friendly  intercourse,  for  the  purpose 
of  amusement  and  trade. 

Of  this  post.  La  Harpe,  in  the  introduction  of  his  narrative  of 
Le  Sueur's  mining  expedition  in  1700.  wrote  as  follows,  according 
to  Shea's  translation:  "M.  Le  Sueur,  by  order  of  the  Count  de 
Frontenac,  Governor  General  of  Canada,  built  a  fort  on  an  island 
in  the  Mississippi,  more  than  200  leagues  above  the  Illinois,  in 
order  to  effect  a  peace  between  the  Santeurs  nations  (Ojibways), 
who  dwell  qc  I  lie  shores  of  a  hike  of  five  hundred  leagues  circum- 
ference Lake  Superior),  one  hundred  leagues  east  of  the  river, 
and  the  Sioux,  posted  on  the  upper  Mississippi.  The  same  year, 
according  to  his  orders,  he  went  down  to  Montreal  in  Canada  with 
a  Sauteur  chief  named  Chingouabe  and  a  Sioux  named  Cioscate 
Tioscate  i.  who  was  the  first  of  his  nation  who  had  seen  Canada." 

Penicaut  wrote  of  Prairie  Island,  as  translated  by  Hill:  "At 
the  end  of  tin-  lake  (Pepin)  yon  come  to  Paid  Island,  so  called 
because  there  arc  no  treeson  it.  It  is  on  this  island  that  the 
French  from  Canada  established  their  fort  and  storehouse  when 
they  come  to  trade  for  furs  and  other  merchandise,  and  they  also 
winter  here  because  game  is  very  abundant  in  the  prairies  on 
both  shores  of  the  river.  In  the  month  of  September  they  bring 
their  store  of  meat  there  procured  by  hunting,  and  after  having 
skinned  and  (leaned  it.  place  it  upon  a  sort  of  raised  scaffold  near 
the  cabin,  in  order  that  the  extreme  cold,  which  lasts  from  the 
month  of  September  to  the  end  of  March,  may  hinder  it  from  cor- 
rupting during  the  winter,  which  is  very  severe  in  that  country. 
During  the  whole  winter  they  do  not  go  out  except  for  water, 
when  they  have  to  break  the  ice  every  day;  and  the  cabin  is  gen- 
erally built  on  the  bank,  so  as  not  to  have  to  go  far.  When  spring 
arrives  the  savages  come  to  the  island,  bringing  their  merchan- 
dise, which  consists  id'  all  kinds  of  furs,  as  beaver,  otter,  marten, 
lynx  and  many  others — the  bear  skins  are  generally  used  to  cover 
the  canoes  of  the  savages  and  <  'anadians.  There  are  often  savages 
who  pillage  the  French  Canadian  traders,  among  others  the  sav- 
ages of  a  village  composed  of  the  five  different  nations,  and  which 
have  each  their  own  name:  that  is.  the  Sioux,  the  people  of  the 
big  village;  the  Mententons,  the  Mencouacantons.  the  Ouyates- 
pony  and  other  Sioux  of  the  plains.  Three  leagues  higher  up. 
after  leaving  this  island,  you  meet  on  the  right  the  river  St. 

From  Charlevoix,  in  the  third  volume  of  this  history  of  New 


Prance,  published  in  1744.  the  following  brief  description  of  this 
island  is  translated:  "On  going  above  the  lake  (Pepin)  one 
comes  to  Isle  Pelee,  so  named  because  it  has  not  a  single  tree,  but 
is  a  very  beautiful  prairie.  The  French  of  Canada  have  often 
made  it  the  center  of  their  trade  in  these  western  districts,  and 
many  have  also  wintered  there,  because  all  this  country  is  excel- 
lent for  hunting." 

There  have  been  found  on  Prairie  Island  in  modern  times  such 
articles  as  iron  axes  of  very  ancitnl  make,  "strike-a-light"  flint- 
lock guns,  pistols,  etc.,  indicating  an  early  occupation  by  whites 
long  previous  to  the  settlement  in  1837-53. 

The  next  occupancy  of  this  county  by  Europeans  was  in  1727, 
when  Fort  Beauharnois  was  erected. 

Rev.  Neill  says:  "In  June,  1727,  an  expedition  left  Montreal 
under  Rene  Boucher,  Sieur  de  la  Perriere,  to  establish  a  post  on 
Lake  Pepin.  His  party,  arriving  there  on  September  17  follow- 
ing, built  a  post,  according  to  Father  Guignas,  upon  the  western 
shore  of  Lake  Pepin,  about  the  middle  of  the  north  side,  on  a  low 
point  where  the  soil  is  excellent.  We  are  here  on  the  parallel  of 
43  degrees  and  41  minutes."  Again  Xeill  says:  "Frontenac,  in 
Goodhue  county,  occupied  the  site  of  this  old  fort,  and  recently  a 
four  and  a  six-pound  cannon  ball  were  found  at  the  railway  sta- 
tion five  feet  below  the  surface.  It  is  noteworthy  that  Sieur  La 
Perriere  Boucher,  the  officer  in  command  of  the  Indians  who  sur- 
prised Haverhill.  Mass..  killed  the  minister  of  the  town,  scalped 
his  wife  and  broke  the  skull  of  his  child  against  a  rock,  and  shot 
one  Samuel  Sibley,  said  to  be  a  relative  of  Hon.  H.  H.  Sibley,  of 
St.  Paul,  was  the  person  who  established  this  post  at  Point  au 
Sable  of  Lake  Pepin.  A  connection  of  the  leader  of  the  expedi- 
tion was  the  wife  of  a  person  named  Pepin  (Jean  Pepin),  and 
this  may  account  for  the  name  of  the  lake.  The  post  was  located 
at  the  Sandy  Point,  which  extends  into  Lake  Pepin  opposite 
Maiden's  Rock.  Boucher  built  a  stockade  of  pickets  twelve  feet 
high,  forming  a  square  of  100  feet,  with  two  bastions,  and  called 
the  post  Fort  Beauharnois.  in  compliment  to  the  governor  of 
Canada.  On  April  15,  1728.  the  water  in  the  lake  was  unusually 
high  and  overflowed  the  point,  so  that  the  log  buildings  within 
the  enclosure  were  full  of  water  and  it  was  necessary,  for  two 
weeks,  to  dwell  upon  higher  ground.  The  principal  trader  at  the 
post  ;it  this  time  was  the  Sieur  de  Mont  Brun  Boucher,  a  In-other 
of  the  commandant:  and  the  armorer  and  blacksmith  was  Francis 
Campau,  a  brother  of  him  who  settled  at  Detroit.'  and  whose 
descendants  are  so  numerous  in  Michigan. 

"Owing  to  the  hostility  of  the  Renards,  or  Fox  Indians,  early 
in  October,  1728,  the  post  was  left  in  charge  of  a  young  man,  the 
Sieur  Dutrost  Jemeraye.  and  a  few  voyagers,  while  the  rest  placed 


the  goods  in  canoes,  retreated  down  the  Mississippi  toward  the 
Illinois  river  and  were  captured  by  allies  of  the  Renards.  The 
Sieur  Jemeraye,  early  in  1729,  abandoned  the  post,  and  nothing 
was  done  toward  its  re-establishment.  In  March,  1730,  the  Sieur 
Marin,  a  bold  officer,  moved  against  and  had  an  engagement  of 
the  'warmest  character'  with  the  Renards  in  Wisconsin;  and  in 
September  of  the  same  year  another  French  force  attacked  them, 
killed  many  of  their  warriors  and  compelled  them  to  escape. 

"After  this  defeat  of  the  F»xes  it  was  determined  to  build  a 
new  post  on  higher  ground,  yet  in  the  vicinity  of  the  first  stock- 
ade, which  had  been  destroyed.  The  new  commandant  was 
Sieur  Portneuf.  Linctot's  son,  Campau  and  several  others  were 
licensed  to  trade  with  the  Sioux.  Linctot  passed  the  winter  of 
1731-32  at  'Mantagne  Quitrempe  Dans  L'eau,'  now  corrupted  to 
Trempealeau,  and  early  in  the  spring  of  1732  proceeded  to  the 
vicinity  of  Sandy  Point,  Lake  Pepin,  and  found  at  the  site  of  the 
old  stockade  ;i  large  number  of  Sioux  awaiting  his  arrival.  Select- 
ing a  belter  position,  he  erected  a  larger  post,  the  pickets  enclos- 
ing I2(i  let  square,  and  there  were  four  bastions.  The  Sieur 
Linctot.  jti  1733,  asked  to  be  relieved,  and  the  able  officer,  Sieur 
Legardeur  St.  Pierre,  was  sent  to  command.  Upon  the  6th  of 
May.  ITMti.  St.  Pierre  was  informed  by  letters  from  Lake  Superior 
of  the  dreadful  massacre  of  twenty-one  Frenchmen  on  an  island 
in  the  Lake  of  the  Woods  by  a  party  of  Sioux.  The  16th  of  Sep- 
tember there  came  to  the  Lake  Pepin  post  a  party  of  Sioux  with 
some  beaver  skins  as  a  pledge  of  friendship,  and  the  next  day 
another  party,  one  of  whom  wore  in  his  ear  a  silver  pendant. 
When  asked  by  St.  Pierre  how  he  obtained  the  ornament  he 
refused  to  answer,  and  the  captain  tore  it  from  his  ear  and  found 
that  it  was  similar  in  workmanship  to  those  sold  by  the  traders, 
and  then  placed  him  under  guard.  The  Sioux,  in  December,  were 
unruly,  and  burned  the  pickets  around  the  garden  of  Guignas, 
chaplain  of  the  post.  In  the  spring  of  1737  a  war  party  of 
0  jib  ways  appeared  from  the  St.  Louis  river  of  Lake  Superior, 
and  wished  to  attack  the  Sioux,  and  threatened  St.  Pierre;  and 
after  conferring  with  the  son  of  Linctot,  the  second  officer,  in 
May.  1737,  he  set  fire  to  the  post  and  descended  the  Mississippi. 

"After  a  few  years  the  Sioux  begged  that  the  French  would 
return  to  Lake  Pepin,  and  in  1750  the  governor  of  Canada  sent 
the  great  Indian  fighter  and  stern  officer,  Pierre  Paul  Marin,  to 
take  command  there,  and  Marin's  son  was  stationed  at  Chagaua- 
migon,  on  Lake  Superior.  In  1752  Marin  the  elder  was  relieved 
at  Lake  Pepin  and  his  son  became  his  successor.  The  war  between 
the  French  and  English,  which  continued  several  years,  led  to  the 
abandonment  of  the  post  at  Lake  Pepin.  Captain  Jonathan  Car- 
ver, the  first  British  traveler  in  Minnesota,  mentioned  in  his  book 


of  travels  in  L766  he  observed  the  ruins  of  a  French  factory 
(trading  post),  where,  it  is  said,  Captain  St.  Pierre  resided,  and 
carried  on  a  very  great  trade  with  the  Naudowessies  before  the 
reduction  of  Canada. 

•'Lieutenant  Pike,  the  first  officer  of  the  United  States  army 
to  pass  through  Lake  Pepin,  writing  in  1805  of  Point  au  Sable, 
or  Sandy  Point,  which  he  reached  on  the  same  day  of  the  same 
month  as  La  Perriere  in  17127.  observes:  "The  French,  under  the 
government  of  M.  Frontenac,  drove  the  Renards,  or  Otaguainies, 
from  the  Ouisconsing,  and  pursued  them  up  the  Mississippi;  and 
as  a  barrier  built  a  stockade  on  Lake  Pepin  on  the  west  shore 
just  below  Point  au  Sable;  and.  as  was  generally  the  case  with 
that  nation,  blended  the  military  and  mercantile  professions  by 
making  their  fort  a  factory  for  the  Sioux.' 

"A  short  distance  from  the  extreme  end  of  the  point,  near  the 
mouth  of  what  Pike,  on  his  map.  calls  Sandy  Point,  there  is  an 
eminence  from  which  there  is  an  extensive  view  of  Lake  Pepin 
below  and  above  the  sandy  peninsula." 

There  is  evidence  that  there  had  been  once  a  clearing  there,, 
and  it  is  the  most  suitable  spot  in  the  vicinity  for  a  stockade,  and 
visible  to  anyone  coming  up  in  a  boat  from  the  bend  near  where 
Lake  City  is  now  situated.  By  the  valley  of  the  creek  the  Sioux 
of  the  prairies  could  readily  bring  their  peltries  to  the  post.  The 
cannon  balls  found  in  the  ground  at  Frontenac  station  may  have 
been  discharged  in  some  engagement  with  hostile  Indians,  or  they 
may  have  been  taken  from  the  fort,  after  its  abandonment,  and 
placed  in  a  cache. 

In  the  meantime,  there  were  probably  many  explorers  and 
traders  who  passed  Goodhue  county;  but  the  next  one  of  whom 
we  have  an  authentic  record  is  Jonathan  Carver,  the  first  native 
white  American  to  explore  the  Mississippi.  He  did  not,  however,  . 
land  at  Red  "Wing,  but  passed  by  on  the  other  side  of  the  island, 
through  what  is  known  as  the  back  channel. 

Then  came  the  sturdy  sailor,  Zebulon  M.  Pike,  who  carried 
the  American  flag,  and  informed  the  Indians  that  the  President 
of  the  United  States,  and  not  a  European  monarch,  was  now 
their  great  father.  Pike  passed  Red  Wing  on  September  18, 1805T 
on  his  way  up  the  river.  Of  Pike's  visit  to  Red  Wing  he  himself 
wrote:  "Embarked  after  breakfast.  Mr.  Cameron  with  his  boats 
came  on  with  me,  crossed  the  lake,  rounded  it,  and  took  an  obser- 
vation at  the  upper  end.  I  embarked  in  one  of  his  canoes,  and  we 
came  up  Canoe  river  (Cannon  river),  where  there  was  a  small 
band  of  Sioux,  under  the  command  of  Red  Wing,  the  second  war 
chief  of  the  nation.  He  made  me  a  speech  and  presented  a  pipe, 
punch  and  a  buffalo  skin.  He  appeared  a  man  of  sense,  and  prom- 
ised to  accompany  me  to  St.  Peters."    I  think  that  on  September 


18,  1805,  Lieutenant  Pike,  for  the  first  time  in  history,  spoke  the 
English  name  of  the  Sioux  chieftain  Bed  AYing.  On  his  return 
trip  he  calls  him  by  his  French  name,  Aile  Rouge.  Continuing  his 
narrative  of  the  trip  up  the  river,  Pike  says:  "We  encamped  on 
the  end  of  the  island,  and  although  not  more  than  11  o'clock,  Avere 
obliged  to  stay  all  night;  distance  eighteen  miles." 

Lieutenant  Pike  writes  after  that,  leaving  his  camp  on  the 
island,  he  proceeded  to  the  mouth  of  the  Minnesota  river,  then 
known  as  St.  Peter,  when  on  the  23rd  of  September,  1805,  he  held 
a  council  with  sonic  of  the  Dakota  chiefs,  and  purchased  from  the 
Dakota  Indians  a  large  portion  of  hind  now  known  as  Fort  Snell- 
ing.  Somewhere  above  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Croix  and  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Minnesota  rivers.  Pike  notes  the  following:  "I  ob- 
served a  white  Mag  on  shore  today,  and  on  landing  observed  il  to 
be  white  silk;  it  was  suspended  over  a  scaffold,  on  which  were 
laid  four  dead  bodies,  two  enclosed  in  boards  and  two  in  bark. 
They  were  the  bodies.  1  was  informed,  of  two  Sioux  women  who 
had  Lived  with  two  Frenchmen,  one  of  their  children  and  some 
other  relative,  two  of  whom  died  at  St.  Peter  and  two  at  St.  Croix. 
This  is  the  manner  of  the  Sioux  burial,  when  persons  die  a  natural 
de-ath ;  but  when  they  are  killed  they  suffer  them  to  remain  un- 
buried.  Tins  circumstance  brought  to  my  recollection  the  bones 
of  a  man  I  found  on  the  hills  below  the  Si.  Croix.  The  jawbone 
I  brought  on  board.  He  must  have  been  killed  on  the  spot. 
Distance  twenty-four  miles." 

The  names  of  some  of  the  chiefs  thai  signed  the  treaty  grant- 
ing the  United  States  the  land  spoken  of  above  are  familiar  to 
our  people.  I  quote  from  the  "St.  Paul  Daily  Democrat"  of  May 
21,  1854,  an  article  by  Dr.  Thomas  Foster:  "LeBoccasse  should 
be  written  'Bras  <';isse,'  or  'Broken  Arm.'  His  Indian  name  was, 
tI  believe,  Wa-kan-tah-pay,  and  as  late  as  1825  he  was  still  living 
at  his  small  village.  AYahpaykootans,  on  a  lake  near  the  Minne- 
sota, some  five  or  six  miles  below  Prairie  La  Fleeh,  now  LeSueur. 
The  last  named  on  the  list  is  Le  Bouef  epie  Marche,  the  'Walking 
Buffalo.'  or  Tah-taw-kah-mah-me.  He  was  a  kind  of  sub-chief 
of  old  Wabasha,  who  was  not  present,  being  also  called  Red  Wing, 
and  it  is  from  him  that  the  name  of  the  village  at  the  head  of  Lake 
Pepin  derives  its  name.  lie  was  the  father  of  AVah-koo-tay.  Hie 
present  old  chieftain  of  the  Red  Wing  band."  After  Pike  had 
concluded  the  treaty  at  the  mouth  of  the  Minnesota,  he  continued 
on  up  the  river,  for,  as  he  states,  a  distance  of  two  hundred  and 
thirty  miles,  and  went  into  camp  for  some  time.  In  the  spring  of 
1806' he  revisited  Red  AVing  again;  but  I  shall  let  him  tell  the 
story  himself. 

"April  13,  Sunday. — We  embarked  after  breakfast.  Alessrs. 
Frazer  and  ATood  accompanied  me,    AVind  strong  ahead.     They 


mit rowed  us;  the  first  boat  or  canoe  we  met  with  on  the  voyage 
able  to  do  it,  but  then  they  were  double  manned  and  light.  Ar- 
rived at  the  band  of  the  Aile  Rouge  (Red  Wing)  at  two  o'clock, 
where  we  were  saluted  as  usual.  We  had  a  council,  when  he 
spoke  with  more  than  detestation  of  the  rascals  at  the  mouth  of 
the  St.  Peter's  than  any  man  I  had  yet  heard.  He  assured  me, 
speaking  of  the  fellow  who  had  fired  on  my  sentinel  and  threat- 
ened to  kill  me.  that  if  1  thought  it  requisite,  he  should  be  killed; 
but  that,  as  there  Mere  many  chiefs  above  with  whom  he  wished 
to  speak,  he  hoped  I  would  remain  one  day,  when  all  the  Sioux 
would  be  down,  and  I  might  have  the  command  of  a  thousand 
men  of  them,  that  I  would  probably  think  it  no  honor1;  but  that 
the  British  used  to  flatter  them ;  they  were  proud  of  having  them 
for  soldiers.  I  replied  in  general  terms,  and  assured  him  it  was 
not  for  the  conduct  of  two  or  three  rascals  that  I  meant  to  pass 
over  all  the  good  treatment  I  had  received  from  the  Sioux  nation, 
but  that  in  general  council  I  wTould  explain  myself.  That  as  to 
the  scoundrel  who  fired  at  my  sentinel,  had  I  been  at  home  the 
Sioux  nation  would  never  have  been  troubled  with  him,  for  I 
would  have  killed  him  on  the  spot.  But  that  my  young  men  did 
not  do  it,  apprehensive  that  I  would  he  displeased.  I  then  gave 
him  the  news  of  the  Sauteurs;  that  as  to  remaining  one  day  it 
would  be  of  no  service ;  that  I  was  much  pressed  to  arrive  below, 
as  my  general  expected  me,  my  duty  called  me,  and  that  the  state 
of  my  provision  demanded  the  utmost  expedition;  that  I  would  be 
happy  to  oblige  him,  but  that  my  men  must  eat.  He  replied  that 
Lake  Pepin,  being  yet  shut  with  ice,  if  I  wrent  on  and  encamped 
on  the  ice  it  wTould  not  get  me  provision.  That  he  would  send 
out  all  his  young  men  the  next  day,  and  that  if  the  other  bands 
did  not  arrive  he  would  depart  the  day  after  wTith  me.  In  short, 
after  much  talk.  I  agreed  to  remain  one  day,  knowing  that  the 
lake  was  closed,  and  that  Ave  could  proceed  only  nine  miles  if  wTe 
went ;  this  appeared  to  give  general  satisfaction.  I  was  invited 
to  different  feasts,  and  entertained  at  one  by  a  person  whose 
father  wTas  enacted  a  chief  by  the  Spaniards.  At  this  feast  I  saw 
a  man  (called  by  the  French  the  Roman  Nose,  and  by  the  Indians 
the  "Wind  that  Walks)  who  wyas  formerly  the  second  chief  of  the 
Sioux,  but  being  the  cause  of  the  death  of  one  of  the  traders, 
seven  years  since,  he  voluntarily  relinquished  the  dignity  and 
has  frequently  requested  to  be  given  up  to  the  whites.  But  he 
was  now  determined  to  go  to  St.  Louis  and  deliver  himself  up 
where  he  said  they  might  put  him  to  death.  His  long  repentance, 
the  great  confidence  of  the  nation  in  him,  would  perhaps  protect 
him  from  a  punishment  which  the  crime  merited.  But  as  the 
crime  wTas  committed  long  before  the  United  States  assumed  its 
authority,  and  as  no  law  of  theirs  could  affect  it,  unless  it  w^as 


ex-post  facto,  and  had  a  retrospective  effect,  I  conceived  it  would 
certainly  be  dispunishable  now.  I  did  not  think  it  proper,  how- 
ever, to  inform  him  so.  I  here  received  a  letter  from  Mr.  Kollet, 
partner  of  Mr.  Cameron,  with  a  present  of  some  brandy,  coffee, 
and  sugar.  I  hesitated  about  receiving  those  articles  from  the 
partner  of  the  man  I  intended  to  prosecute;  their  amount  being 
trifling,  however,  I  accepted  of  them,  offering  him  pay.  I  assured 
him  that  the  prosecution  arose  from  a  sense  of  duty  and  not  from 
any  personal  prejudice.  My  canoe  did  not  come  up  in  conse- 
quence of  the  head  wind.  Sent  out  two  men  in  a  canoe  to  set 
fishing  lines ;  the  canoe  overset,  and  had  it  not  been  for  the  timely 
assistance  of  the  savages,  who  carried  them  into  their  lodges,  un- 
dressed them,  and  treated  them  with  the  greatest  humanity  and 
kindness,  they  must  inevitably  have  perished.  At  this  place  I  was 
informed  that  the  rascal  spoken  of  as  having  threatened  my  life 
had  actually  cocked  his  gun  to  shoot  me  from  behind  the  hills, 
but  was  prevented  by  the  others. 

'April  14.  Monday. — Was  invited  to  a  feast  by  the  Roman 
Nose.  His  conversation  was  interesting,  and  shall  be  detailed 
hereafter.  The  other  Indians  had  not  yet  arrived.  Messrs.  AYood, 
Frazer,  and  myself,  ascended  a  high  hill  called  the  Barn,  from 
which  we  had  a  view  of  Lake  Pepin,  the  valley  through  which  the 
.Mississippi  by  numerous  channels  wound  itself  to  the  St.  Croix ; 
tlie  ( 'annon  river,  and  the  lofty  hills  on  each  side. 

"April  15,  Tuesday. — Arose  very  early  and  embarked  about 
sunrise,  much  to  the  astonishment  of  the  Indians,  who  were  en- 
tirely prepared  for  the  council  when  they  heard  I  had  put  it  off; 
however,  after  some  conversation  with  Mr.  Frazer,  they  acknowl- 
edged that  it  was  agreeable  to  what  I  had  said,  that  I  would  sail 
early,  and  that  they  could  not  blame  me.  I  was  very  positive  in 
my  word,  for  I  found  it  by  far  the  best  way  to  treat  the  Indians. 
The  Aile  Rouge  had  a  beaver  robe  and  pipe  prepared  to  present, 
but  was  obliged  for  the  present  to  retain  it." 

From  this  time  onward  all  the  early  celebrities  of  Minnesota 
passed  this  way  on  their  journey  to  Fort  Snelling  and  other  set- 
tlements that  were  afterward  made.  That  many  of  them  stopped 
with  the  Indians  at  Red  Wing  occasionally  is  not  unlikely.  In 
1823  the  first  steamboat,  the  "Virginia,"  from  St.  Louis,  came  up 
the  river,  and  up  to  May  26,  1826,  fifteen  steamers  had  passed 
Barn  Bluff.    After  that  they  became  more  frequent. 

Major  Long  was  ordered  by  the  War  Department  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1817  to  proceed  west  and. examine  sites  on  the  Wisconsin 
and  Mississippi  rivers  suitable  for  the  location  of  fortifications. 
"Minnesota  in  Three  Centuries,"  on  page  363,  Vol.  I,  gives  an 
account  of  Major  Long's  visit  at  Red  Wing:  'The  next  day,  on 
Julv    18,   Long   similarly    examined    the    country    adjoining   the 


mouth  of  the  St.  Croix,  in  relation  to  its  advantages  for  a  military 
post.  Mis  stock  of  provisions  was  already  nearly  exhausted,  and 
therefore  a  delay  through  the  afternoon  was  allowed  at  the  vil- 
lage of  the  old  Sioux  chief  Red  Wing,  for  catching  fish,  and  Long 
ascended  the  Barn  Bluff,  called  by  its  French  name  of  the  Grange 
in  his  journal.  He  wrote:  "From  the  summit  of  the  Grange  the 
view  of  the  surrounding  scenery  is  surpassed,  perhaps,  by  very 
few.  if  any.  of  a  similar  character  that  the  country  and  probably 
the  world  can  afford.  The  sublime  and  beautiful  are  here  blended 
in  the  most  enchanting  manner,  while  the  prospect  has  very  1  ittle 
to  terrify  or  shock  the  imagination.'  " 

I  quote  from  ".Minnesota  in  Three  Centuries."  Vol.  II,  pages 
37-38.  that  portion  of  .Major  Forsyth's  journal  that  pertains  to 
Red  Wing:  "A't  Prairie  du  Chien  Colonel  Leavenworth  (1819)  was 
joined  by  Major  Thomas  Forsyth,  a  special  Indian  agent,  wdio 
had  been  sent  up  from  St.  Louis  in  charge  of  the  provisions,  etc., 
for  the  troops  to  be  stationed  at  the  St.  Peter's,  and  'a  quantity 
of.goods,  say  $2,000  worth.'  to  be  delivered  to  the  Sioux  in  pay- 
ment for  the  lands  ceded  by  them  to  the  United  States  under  the 
Pike  treaty  of  1806.  As  stated,  he  joined  Colonel  Leavenworth 
at  Fort  Crawford  and  accompanied  the  expedition  to  the  St. 
Peter's.  Major  Forsyth  kept  a  daily  journal  of  his  trip  from  St. 
Louis  to  the  St.  Peter's  and  return.  This  important  manuscript 
was  secured  from  his  son.  Colonel  Robert  Forsyth,  of  St.  Louis, 
in  1871,  by  Dr.  Lyman  C.  Draper,  and  published  in  the  Wisconsin 
Historical  collections,  of  which  he  (Dr.  Draper)  was  editor,  and 
was  reprinted  in  Volume  III  of  the  Minnesota  Society  Collections. 
From  this  journal  the  incidents  of  the  voyage  of  Colonel  Leaven- 
worth to  Minnesota  have,  in  the  main,  been  obtained. 

'The  Sioux  bad  somehow  learned  that  an  agent  of  their  Amer- 
ican Father  was  on  his  way  with  presents  for  them,  and  on  the 
arrival  of  Major  Forsyth  at  Prairie  du  Chien,  July  5,  he  found 
the  son  of  Chief  Red  Wing,  with  a  considerable  band,  awaiting 
him.  Young  Red  Wing  at  once  began  begging  for  goods.  He 
said  a  member  of  his  band  had  recently  been  killed  by  the  Chip- 
pewas,  and  on  this  account  the  hearts  of  himself  and  companions 
were  very  sad,  and  therefore  the  major  should  at  once  give  them 
goods  to  assuage  their  grief  and  lighten  the  gloom  of  their 
bereavement.  'But  all  this,'  writes  Major  Forsyth,  'was  a  mere 
begging  speech.  I  told  him  that  I  meant  to  go  up  with  the  troops 
to  the  River  St.  Peter's,  and  on  my  way  up  I  would  stop  at  their 
different  villages,  where  I  would  speak  to  them  and  give  them  a 
few  goods,  but  that  I  would  not  give  any  goods  at  this  place. 
Yet  he  is  such  a  beggar  that  he  would  not  take  any  refusal.  I 
got  up  in  an  abrupt  manner  and  left  him  and  his  band  to  study 
awhile.'    A  week  later  the  major  writes:     'The  Red  Wing's  son 


is  still  begging.'  And  not  until  the  15th,  after  a  stay  of  ten  days, 
did  he  leave  for  home,  to  Forsyth's  great  relief.  But  in  the  mean- 
time old  "Wabash,  he  of  one  eye,  whose  big  village  was  near  the 
present  site  of  Winona,  had  arrived,  and  a  week  later  old  Red 
Wing  himself,  with  twenty  followers,  from  their  village,  where 
the  City  of  Red  W7ing  now  stands,  had  come.  'This  is  another 
begging  expedition,'  writes  Major  Forsyth.  Lake  Pepin  was 
'crossed  with  ease'  on  the  18th,  and  the  next  morning  Major 
Forsyth  had  'a  little  talk'  with  Chief  Red  AVing  at  his  village. 
'I  gave  him  some  goods.  He  was  much  pleased  with  his  pres- 
ents. His  son  (whom  the  major  encountered  at  Prairie  du  Chien) 
is  exactly  what  I  took  him  to  be— a  trifling,  begging,  discontented 
fellow.'  This  clay,  after  making  twenty-four  miles,  the  expedi- 
tion encamped  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Croix,  which  is  described 
as  a  'large  river.'  On  the  evening  of  the  20th  a  landing  was  made 
at  Medicine  Wood,  probably  near  Gray  Cloud  Island.  Medicine 
AVooel  takes  its  name  from  a  large  beech  tree,  which  kind  of  wood 
the  Sioux  are  unacquainted  with,  supposing  that  the  Great  Spirit 
plaeed  it  there  as  a  genius  to  protect  or  punish  them  according 
to  their  deserts.  This  is  the  first  and  perhaps  the  only  recorded 
instance  of  the  existence  of  a  beech  tree  in  Minnesota,  and  it 
might  therefore  properly  have  a  'medicine'  character,  that  term 
being  Sioux  for  supernatural  or  deeply  mysterious." 

Henry  R.  Schoolcraft  in  1820  accompanied  the  Cass  expedi- 
tion as  mineralogist  and  historian,  and  that  part  of  the  journey 
relating  to  Red  Wing  will  be  found  in  the  work  entitled  Minne- 
sota in  Three  Centuries,  Vol.  1,  page  353:  "The  next  day  they 
passed  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Croix,  and  at  noon  arrived  at  the 
village  of  Talangamane  (for  Tatankamani,  his  Dakota  name, 
meaning  Walking  Buffalo),  or  the  Red  Wing,  consisting  of  four 
large  lodges  and  several  other  smaller,  built  of  logs  like  those  of 
Little  Crows.  Of  this  chief,  Red  Wing,  and  his  band,  Schoolcraft 
wrote:  'Talangamane  is  now  considered  the  first  of  his  nation, 
which  honor,  it  is  said,  he  enjoys  both  on  account  of  his  superior 
age  and  sagacity.  He  appears  to  be  about  sixty,  and  bears  all 
the  marks  of  that  age.  Very  few  of  his  people  were  at  home, 
being  engaged  in  hunting  and  fishing.  We  observed  several  fine 
cornfields  near  the  village,  but  they  subsist  chiefly  by  taking  stur- 
geon in  the  neighboring  lake,  and  by  hunting  deer.  The  buffalo 
is  also  occasionally  killed,  but  they  are  obliged  to  go  two  days' 
journey  west  of  the  Mississippi  before  this  animal  is  found  in 
plenty.'  " 

Major  Long  Again,  in  1823,  called  at  Red  Wing,  and  I  quote 
from  the  same  authority  as  above:  "On  the  evening  of  June  30. 
Major  Long  arrived  at  the  village  of  the  chief  Red  AVing,  then 
called  Shakea;  and  in  the  next  forenoon  the  boat  party  arrived 


there  I>y  invitation  of  Shakea  a  ceremonious  council  was  held 
in  his  cabin,  over  which  he  hoisted  the  United  States  nag.  Being 
shown  the  map  of  the  upper  Mississippi  region  used  for  the  expe- 
dition, the  Indians  readily  understood  it,  traced  and  named  its 
rivers,  and  one  of  them  laid  his  finger  upon  the  Falls  of  St. 
Anthony,  which  he  called  Ilahawotepa." 

The  first  men  to  locate  'on  what  is  now  the  site  of  Red  Wing 
were  Revs.  Daniel  Gavin  and  Samuel  Denton,  sent  out  by  a  mis- 
sionary society  of  Basle,  Switzerland.  After  arriving  in  this 
region.  Mr.  Denton  married  Persis  Skinner  and  later  Mr.  Gavin 
married  Lucy  C.  Stevens,  of  Lake  Harriet.  Their  first  mission  was 
located  at  Trempeleau,  on  the  Mississippi,  near  the  present  site 
of  Winona,  and  its  field  of  work  was  near  Wabasha's  Prairie. 
However,  the  Sioux  of  that  region  had  become  degenerated 
through  intermarriage,  and  the  missionaries  in  1837  decided  to 
come  to  Red  AVing's  village,  where  the  Indians  were  of  a  higher 
degree  of  intelligence  and  morality.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Denton  came 
first  and  were  soon  joined  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gavin.  They  built 
two  mission  houses  of  logs  on  a  spot  which  is  now  about  a  third 
of  the  way  along  the  east  side  of  Bush  street,  between  Third  and 
Main  streets.  One  of  the  houses  extended  into  what  is  now  the 
street.  It  is  unfortunate  that  we  have  not  a  more  complete  ac- 
count of  the  work  done  by  these  devoted  souls.  To  them  belongs 
more  credit  than  has  ever  been  accorded  them.  The  Indians  were 
taught  to  read  and  write  and  many  of  them  learned  farming  and 
gardening.  In  July.  1838,  Airs.  Denton,  writing  to  Governor 
Sibly.  said : 

"The  Indians  have  planted  something  more  than  thirty  acres 
of  corn,  also  some  vegetables,  all  of  which  are  growing  finely. 
They  are  now  in  excellent  humor,  and  have  about  given  up  the 
practice  of  begging  from  us.  Many  thanks  for  your  prompt  at- 
tention to  our  call  for  seeds.  Could  you  see  how  finely  they  are 
growing  in  our  beautiful  garden  I  am  sure  that  you  would  be 
glad  with  us.  Indeed  you  can  hardly  imagine  what  won- 
derful improvements  have  been  made  at  our  village  since  you 
were  here.  You  must  know  also  that  among  many  other  mercies 
which  I  enjoy  I  have  at  length  a  friend  with  me,  a  Miss  Blakesly, 
from  the  vicinity  of  Cooperstown,  N.  Y.  I  know  that  you  will 
rejoice  at  this,  as  you  knowT  howr  much  I  needed  assistance." 

This  letter  would  indicate  that  the  Dentons  and  Gavin  fam- 
ilies were  in  the  habit  of  entertaining  the  people  at  Fort  Snelling 
as  well  as  other  guests  from  time  to  time.  The  Gavins  left  Red 
Wing  in  1845  on  account  of  the  ill  health  of  Mrs.  Gavin,  and  a 
year  later  the  Dentons  also  left  on  account  of  the  ill  health  of 
Mr.  Denton.  The  respect  in  which  these  missionaries  were  held 
by  the  Indians  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  mission  houses  re- 


mained  unmolested  for  two  years,  until  the  arrival  of  the  Rev. 
J.  F.  Aiton  in  1848.  J.  W.  Hancock  came  the  following  year. 
Revs.  Aiton  and  Hancock  were  sent  out  by  the  American  Board 
of  Foreign  Missions  and  moved  into  the  houses  abandoned  by 
their  predecessors,  the  Messrs.  Denton  and  Gavin.  Mr.  Aiton 
soon  afterward  departed,  having,  however,  rendered  future  gen- 
erations the  great  service  of  having' closely  examined  the  few 
stone  cairns  in  this  vicinity  and  established  their  identity  as 
burial  places. 


The  above  are  the  cold  historical  facts  as  we  find  them,  and 
as  I  am  supposed  to  write  only  of  those  things  that  transpired 
previous  to  1853,  and  while  our  old  friend,  the  Rev.  J.  AY.  Han- 
cock, will  receive  full  mention  in  this  work  by  persons  delegated 
to  that  duty,  yet  I  cannot  drop  my  pen  without  adding  a  few 
words  out  of  respect  to  the  man  whose  memory  all  the  old  pioneers 
delight  in  honoring. 

In  1852-53  I  was  a  member  of  Rev.  J.  W.  Hancock's  Sunday 
school,  when  it  was  held  in  the  little  log  cabin  that  stood  in  what 
is  now  Bush  street.  There  were  perhaps  six  or  eight  of  we  small 
white  children  and  fifteen  or  twenty  little  red  brethren  and  sis- 
ters.  While  Julia  Bevans  instructed  the  white  children  (in  the 
English  language)  how  to  walk  in  the  straight  and  narrow  way, 
so  that  when  we  had  passed  over  to  that  "bourne  from  whence 
none  return"'  Ave  might  be  worthy  to  wear  a  crown  of  glory.  Mr. 
Hancock  was  laboring  hard  with  the  little  Indians  (in  the  Sioux 
language),  endeavoring  to  impress  the  same  lesson  upon  their 
minds.  I  do  not  think  the  lesson  indelibly  impressed  on  my  mem- 
ory the  first  day  of  my  attendance  at  a  house  of  divine  worship 
will  ever  be  forgotten.-  The  plan  of  instruction  at  the  Sunday 
schools  in  those  early  days  was  different  from  the  course  now 
pursued  :  not  so  much  of  love  or  mercy  but  more  of  his  satanic 
majesty,  lakes  of  fire  and  everlasting  torment,  if  you  departed 
from  the  path  of  rectitude. 

AVhile  it  is  true  that  Mr.  Hancock  served  only  for  two  or  three 
years  as  a  missionary  to  the  Indians,  yet  he  remained  for  over 
sixty  years  in  administering  spiritual  grace  and  comfort  to  a 
class  of  whites,  who  were  as  much  in  need  of  a  saving  grace  as  the 
wild  Indians,  and  by  his  everyday  life  and  example  caused  men 
to  stop  and  consider,  thereby  making  them  better  men.  I  know 
that  Mr.  Hancock  had  many  trials  and  disappointments  in  his 
early  life  here  in  those  pioneer  days,  but  you  will  not  find  them 
mentioned  in  any  of  his  early  writings ;  neither  did  he  go  to  his 
neighbors  and  friends  with  a  tale  of  wroe.  but  always  with  a  smile, 
a  good  word  to  all,  satisfied  that  he  had  a  mission  to  fulfill ;  and 
by  the  everyday  life  he  led  in  our  midst  and  for  all  those  years  of 
trouble  and  privations  I  am  firm  in  the  belief  that  he  is  now 

m  skw  Yon 
PUW>1C  LIB***' 

Wm.  M.  Sweney,  M.  D. 


enjoying  the  reward,  in  the  fullest  extent,  that  he  so  justly  merits. 
Charles  Gould,  Snow  the  trader,  Calvin  Potter,  James  McGinnis, 
William  Freeborn  and  my  father,  Dr.  \\\  W.  Sweney,  thus  begin- 

Following  Mr.  Hancock,  or  possibly  in  one  or  two  cases  pre- 
ceding him,  came  John  Bush,  Benjamin  Young,  James  Wells, 
Charles  Gould,  Snow  the  trader,  Calvin  Potter,  James  McGinnis, 
William  Freeborn  and  my  father,  Dr.  W.  W.  Sweney,  'thus  begin- 
ning the  influx  of  modern  settlement. 

William  Montgomery  Sweney,  whose  studious  article  appears 
above,  was  born  in  Fulton  county.  Illinois,  November  6,  1849,  son 
of  William  Wilson  and  Maria  M.  Sweney,  and  was  brought  to 
this  village  with  his  parents  as  an  infant.  He  attended  Rev.  J.  W. 
Hancock's  mission  school  and  later  took  a  course  in  Hamline 
University,  at  that  time  located  in  Red  AVing.  Having  spent  the 
early  part  of  his  life  amid  pioneer  conditions,  he  early  accpiired 
a  love  of  nature,  which  has  since  resulted  in  exhaustive  studies  in 
archaeology  and  geology,  in  both  of  which  he  was  a  thorough 
student  and  able  writer.  In  1876  he  graduated  from  Bellevue 
Hospital  Medical  College,  in  New  York  City,  and  took  up  the 
practice  of  medicine  in  Red  Wing.  Yielding  to  the  solicitation  of 
his  friends,  he  has  served  the  city  as  alderman,  and  in  this  capac- 
ity has  been  an  earnest  advocate  of  purer  water  for  general  use 
in  the  city,  his  efforts  resulting  in  the  now  projected  municipal 
artesian  well  water  supply.  Dr.  Sweney  was  married  in  1880  to 
Delia  M.  Drew,  by  whom  he  has  four  children — William  M.,  born 
February  8.  1882;  James  H..  born  November  2,  1881:  Marjorie 
M.  born  May  11.  1893,  and  Edward  B.,  born  February  23,  1898. 



Landing1  of  Count  Frontenac — Building  of  Fort  Beauharnois  by 
Du  Boucher  in  1727 — Work  of  the  Jesuits — Disastrous 
Freshets — Capture  of  Father  Guingas — Linctot's  Stockade 
— St.  Pierre  and  His  Meeting  With  Washington — Abandon- 
ment of  Stockade — Marin's  Fort  in  1750 — Final  Evacuation 
by  the  French — Modern  Evidences. 

Goodhue  county  boasts  of  four  of  the  early  French  forts. 
The  one  built  in  16!)o  by  LeSueur  has  already  been  mentioned. 
The  three  at  Frontenac  are  worthy  of  extended  historical 

Tradition  declares  that  Counl  Frontenac,  in  conducting  his 
explorations  along  the  upper  Mississippi,  landed  at  practically 
the  present  site  of  Frontenac  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  hi  the  late  twenties  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the 
French,  who  had  some  twenty  years  previous,  abandoned  the 
forts  at  Prairie  Island  and  Wabasha,  sawJthe  necessity  of  again 
establishing  some  sort  of  ;i  sovereignty  over  the  territory  drained 
by  the  waters  of  the  upper  Mississippi,  the  French  government 
having  been  awakened  to  activity  in  the  matter  by  the  following 
communication  sent  from  the  governor  of  Canada. 

"It  is  more  than  obvious  that  the  English  are  endeavoring 
to  interlope  among  the  Indian  nations  and  attach  them  unto 
themselves.  They  entertain  constantly  the  idea  of  becoming 
masters  of  North  America,  and  are  persuaded  that  the  Euro- 
pean nation  which  shall  be  in  possession  of  the  territory  of  the 
Sioux  and  Chippewas  will  in  the  course  of  time  be  also  masters 
of  all  of  the  North  American  continent,  because  it  is  there  that 
men  live  in  health  and  produce  strong  and  robust  children."' 

Accordingly,  peace  having  been  concluded  by  the  French 
with  several  tribes  at  Green  Bay,  another  occupancy  of  the 
country  by  the  French  was  determined  upon,  and  Sieur  de  la 
Pierriere  (also  known  as  La  Perriere,  or  Pierrie,  du  Bouche  and 
Rene,  or  Reni,  Boucher),  with  a  company  which  included  two 
Jesuits.  Louis  Ignatius  Guignas  and  a  companion,  De  Ganor,  left 



Montreal  June  16,  1727,  and  reached  the  enlargement  of  the 
Mississippi,  now  known  as  Lake  Pepin,  September  17  of  the 
same  year.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  name  Pepin  is  first 
given  to  this  lake  in  the  journal  of  Le  Sueur  in  the  year  1700, 
and  was  probably  applied  in  honor  of  Stephen  Pepin,  who  was 
with  Le  Sueur  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Superior  as  early  as  1679. 
In  the  latter  part  of  September,  1727,  Boucher  arrived  at  Sand 
Point,  which  extends  into  Lake  Pepin  opposite  Maiden  Rock. 
Here  he  erected  a  stockade  one  hundred  feet  square,  within 
which  were  three  buildings,  subserving  probably  the  uses  of 
store,  chapel  and  living  quarters.  One  of  the  log  huts  was 
34  x  16,  one  30  x  16  and  the  last  26  x  16.  There  were  two 
bastions,  with  pickets  all  around,  twelve  feet  high.  The  fort 
was  named  in  honor  of  Charles  de  Beauharnois,  then  governor 
of  Canada.  The  Jesuits  called  their  mission  from  St.  Michael, 
the  Archangel.  Father  Guignas,  in  writing  from  the  new  fort, 
gave  the  following  description  of  a  celebration  held  there.  He 
says:  "On  the  morning  of  November  1  [1727]  we  did  not  forget 
that  it  was  the  General's  birthday.  In  the  morning,  mass  was 
said  for  him,  and  in  the  evening  some  very  fine  rockets  were 
displayed,  while  we  shouted  'Vive  le  Roy'  and  'Vive  Charles  de 
Beauharnois.'  What  contributed  much  to.  the  amusement  was 
the  terror  which  the  rockets  caused  to  some  lodges  of  Indians, 
at  that  time  near  the  fort.  When  these  poor  people  saw  the 
fireworks  in  the  air,  and  the  stars  apparently  falling  down  from 
the  heavens,  the  women  and  the  children  began  to  flee,  and  even 
the  most  courageous  of  the  men  to  cry  for  mercy,  begging 
earnestly  that  we  would  stop  the  astonishing  display  of  'fire 

During  the  following  spring,  in  the  month  of  April.  1728, 
the  water  rose  so  high  in  the  lake  that  the  floors  of  the  log 
buildings  were  submerged,  and  for  two  weeks  the  Frenchmen 
had  to  live  in  the  woods.  In  dispatches  sent  to  France  in  Octo- 
ber, 1729.  by  the  Canadian  government,  the  following  reference 
is  made  to  Fort  Beauharnois:  ''They  report  that  the  fort  built 
among  the  Sioux,  on  the  border  of  Lake  Pepin,  is  badly  situated 
on  account  of  the  freshets,  but  the  Indians  assure  them  that  the 
water  in  the  spring  of  1728  rose  higher  than  ever  before,  and 
this  is  credible,  inasmuch  as  it  did  not  so  much  as  reach  the 
fort  this  year."  Owing  to  the  hostility  of  the  Foxes  during  that 
summer,  traders  were  afraid  to  settle  at  the  post,  and  in  the  fall 
of  that  year  it  was  practically  abandoned.  In  the  spring  the 
abandonment  became  actual,  and  the  place  was  without 
occupants  for  several  years. 

In  going  to  Illinois,  during  the  month  of  October,  probably 
1728  or  1720.  the  zealous  Father  Guignas  attempted  to  visit  the 


place,  but  found  the  Sioux  unfriendly.  Continuing  his  way 
down  the  river  to  Illinois,  he  was  captured  by  some  allies  of  the 
Foxes,  and  was  only  saved  from  being  burned  by  the  friendly 
interposition  of  an  aged  Indian,  who  is  supposed  to  have  been 
one  of  his  converts  at  the  Frontenac  mission.  After  five  months 
of  bondage  he  was  set  free. 

In  the  early  thirties  of  the  eighteenth  century,  Sieur  Linctot 
selected  a  better  position  on  higher  ground  in  the  rear  of  the 
first  post,  a  few  hundred  feet  from  the  shore,  beyond  the  reach 
of  high  water,  on  and  near  the  bluff  edge  of  a  wide  plateaux, 
from  which  was  an  extensive  view,  both  above  and  below  the 
sandy  peninsula,  or  point.  Sieur  Linctot  was  appointed  com- 
mandant, and  Sieur  Portneuf  ranked  second.  The  new  stockade 
ordered  to  be  constructed  was  120  feet  square,  with  four 
bastions  and  accommodations  within  for  the  commandant. 
Linctot  passed  the  following  winter  at  Perrot's  first  establish- 
ment. "Montagne  qui  Trempe  dans  l'eau,"  now  corrupted  to 
"Trempeauleau;"  and  early  in  the  spring  he  ascended  to  the 
site  of  the  old  stockade  on  Sandy  Point,  where  he  found  a  large 
number  of  Sioux  awaiting  his  arrival. 

The  elder  Linctot's  request  to  be  relieved  of  the  command 
was  granted,  and  in  17:!.")  the  aide  officer,  Legardeur  (Captain 
de)  St.  Pierre,  was  made  his  substitute.  Upon  the  sixth  day  of 
May,  the  following  year  (1736),  Sioux  to  the  number  of  140 
arrived  at  the  fort  and  said  that  they  were  taking  back  to  the 
Puans  a  slave  who  had  tied  to  them.  St.  Pierre  told  them  that 
he  thought  it  a  large  guard  for  one  woman,  and  then  they 
alleged  that  they  were  going  to  hunt  turkeys  to  obtain  feathers 
for  their  arrows.  Continuing  their  journey  down  the  Missis- 
sippi, they  met  and  scalped  two  Frenchmen.  When  St.  Pierre 
was  on  a  visit  up  the  river,  still  searching  for  the  supposed  out- 
let to  the  Pacific,  and  to  build  another  post,  the  lawless  party 
returned,  and  for  four  days  danced  the  scalp  dance  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  fort. 

In  August  of  this  year  (1736)  St.  Pierre  was  informed  by 
letters  from  Lake  Superior  of  the  massacre  of  twenty-one 
Frenchmen  on  an  island  in  the  Lake  of  the  Woods  by  a  party  of 
Sioux.  Among  the  massacred  was  the  Jesuit  chaplain,  Anneau, 
who  was  found  with  an  arrow  in  his  brain,  and  the  son  of  Sieur 
Verendyre  lying  upon  his  back,  his  flesh  hacked  by  tomahawks, 
and  whose  head  had  been  removed,  and  was  ornamented  with 
garters  and  bracelets  of  porcupine  quills.  On  the  sixteenth  of 
September  five  Indians,  three  chiefs  and  two  young  braves, 
delivered  a  quantity  of  beaver  skins  to  St.  Pierre  as  a  pledge  of 
friendship,  and  declared  that  they  had  no  part  in  the  attack  at 
the   Lake   of   the   Woods.      Thev  wrere   then   asked   as   to   their 


knowledge  of  the  killing  of  the  two  Frenchmen  on  the  Missis- 
sippi. The  next  day  a  chief  came  with  three  young  men,  one 
of  whom  wore  in  his  ear  a  silver  pendant.  When  asked  how  he 
obtained  the  ornament,  he  smiled  but  would  not  answer.  St. 
Pierre  then  tore  it  from  his  ear,  and  found  it  was  similar  in 
workmanship  to  those  sold  by  the  traders,  and  placed  him  under 
guard.  Ouakantape,  an  insolent  Sioux  chief,  and  a  party  of 
thirty-six  men  and  their  families,  arrived  and  passed  the  fort, 
and  visited  some  Puans,  who  were  encamped  in  the  vicinity. 
Some  of  his  party  burned  the  pickets  around  Father  Guignas' 
garden.  In  May  of  1737  a  war  party  of  0  jib  ways  appeared 
from  the  St.  Louis  river  and  Lake  Superior  and  wished  the 
Puans  to  unite  with  them  against  the  Sioux,  and  threatened  St. 
Pierre.  Thus  encircled  by  menacing  foes,  St.  Pierre  found  pru- 
dence the  better  part  of  valor,  and  conferred  with  Sieur  Linctot, 
the  second  in  command  (and  son  of  the  elder  Linctot),  Father 
Guignas,  and  some  others,  in  regard  to  an  abandonment.  This 
consultation  resulted  in  a  conclusion  to  burn  the  fort,  which  wras 
done,  and  on  May  13,  the  French  made  their  second  abandon- 
ment and  sailed  down  the  river. 

St.  Pierre  did  not,  however,  pass  out  of  history,  he  being,  it 
is  believed,  the  commandant  at  Fort  Duquesne,  in  western  Penn- 
sylvania, who  is  knowm  to  every  schoolboy  in  America,  England 
and  France  as  having  been  the  officer  to  wrhom  George  Washing- 
ton, as  a  young  man,  bore  the  historic  demand  for  French  with- 
drawal from  the  Ohio  valley.  St.  Pierre  was  in  Montreal,  in 
October,  1753.  November  3,  of  that  year,  the  Marquis  Duquesne 
wrote  to  the  minister  of  war  in  France  that  he  had  sent  the 
Sieur  de  St.  Pierre  to  succeed  Marin  in  command  of  the  army 
of  the  Ohio.  St.  Pierre  reached  the  place,  near  where  Pittsburg 
now  stands,  and  where  Fort  Duquesne  was  built,  the  first  week 
in  December.  Seven  days  after  his  arrival  there,  young  George 
Washington  came,  bearing  a  letter  from  Governor  Dinwiddie, 
of  Virginia,  to  the  commander  of  the  fort.  After  courteous 
treatment  by  St.  Pierre  for  several  days,  Washington  wras  sent 
back  with  the  following  note  to  Governor  Dinwiddie : 

Sir : — I  have  the  honor  to  be  here  the  commander-in-chief. 
M.  Washington  delivered  to  me  the  letter  which  you  wrote  to 
the  commander  of  the  French  troops.  I  should  have  been  pleased 
had  you  given  him  the  order,  or  that  he  has  been  disposed  to  go 
to  Canada  to  see  our  general,  to  whom  it  better  belongs  than  to 
me,  to  set  forth  the  evidence  of  the  incontestable  rights  of  the 
king,  my  master,  to  the  lands  along  the  Ohio ;  and  to  refute  the 
pretentions  of  the  king  of  Great  Britain  thereto.  I  shall  transmit 
your"  letter  to  M.  le  Marquis  Duquesne.  His  reply  will  be  law  to 
me,  and  if  he  shall  order  me  to  communicate  with  you,  you  may 


be  assured  that  I  shall  not  fail  to  act  promptly.  As  to  the  sum- 
mons you  sent  me  to  retire,  I  do  not  think  I  am  obliged  to  obey. 
Whatever  may  be  your  instructions,  I  am  here  by  order  of  my 
general,  and  I  beg  you  not  to  doubt  for  a  moment  but  that  I  am 
determined  to  conform  with  the  exactness  and  resolution  that 
becomes  a  good  officer.  I  do  not  know  that  in  the  progress  of 
this  campaign  anything  has  passed  which  can  be  regarded  as  an 
act  of  hostility  or  contrary  to  the  treaties  between  the  two 
crowns,  the  continuation  of  which  pleases  us  as  much  as  it  does 
the  English.  If  you  had  been  pleased  to  enter  into  particulars 
as  to  the  facts  which  caused  your  complaint,  I  should  have  been 
honored  to  give  you  as  full  and  satisfactory  reply  as  possible. 
I  have  made  it  a  duty  to  receive  M.  Washington  with  distinction 
on  account  of  your  dignity  and  his  personal  worth.  I  have  the 
honor  to  be,  Monsieur,  your  very  humble  and  very  obedient 
servant.  "L.  DE  ST.  PIERRE. 

"At  the  Fort.  December  15,  1753." 

How  little  did  these  two  men,  who  so  thoroughly  appreciated 
the  personal  qualities  of  the  other,  realize  that  the  far-away 
wilderness,  in  which  St.  Pierre  had  built  a  fort  among  the  Sioux, 
was  one  day  to  be  a  rich  and  populous  part  of  a  great  nation, 
whose  sons  would  be  proud  to  honor  the  other  as  their  greatest 
hero.  In  the  French  and  Indian  war,  after  the  defeat  of  Brad- 
dock,  who  was  sent  against  Fort  Duquesne,  this  same  St.  Pierre, 
a  most  gallant  soldier  and  accomplished  gentleman,  was  fatally 
wounded  in  a  battle  near  Lake  George,  while  leading  the  Indian 
allies  of  the  French  army.  His  last  words  were:  "Fight  on, 
boys;  this  is  Johnson,  not  Braddock."  From  this  circumstance 
,  it  is  believed  that  St.  Pierre  had  the  distinction  of  meeting  Wash- 
ington on  the  field  of  battle,  when  the  latter  was  serving  under 
General  Braddock  in  his  unsuccessful  expedition  against  Fort 

In  1750  the  Sioux  begged  to  have  the  post  on  Lake  Pepin 
re-established,  and  the  governor  of  Canada  sent  Marin,  the 
Indian  fighter  whom  St.  Pierre  succeeded  in  the  valley  of  the 
Ohio,  to  take  command.  Later,  Marin  was  ordered  east,  leaving 
his  son,  the  chevalier,  in  command.  The  war  between  the  Eng- 
lish and  the  French  made  a  concentration  of  forces  advisable, 
and  the  fort  at  Lake  Pepin  was  abandoned.  This  time  it  was 
not  destroyed,  and  was  used  by  traders  for  a  year  or  so  after- 
ward. The  last  occupancy  of  which  anything  is  known  was 
in  1754. 

The  above  narrative  of  the  early  days  of  Frontenac  has  been 
written  after  a  study  of  authorities,  ancient  and  modern,  and  the 
consultation  of  various  manuscripts,  taken  together  with  a  con- 
sideration of  probabilities.    It  is  doubtless  as  correct  an  account 


as  ever  will  be  written,  and  is  substantiated  by  considerable 
evidence.  That  the  Captain  St.  Pierre,  who  had  command  of  the 
Lake  Pepin  fort,  is  the  same  as  the  Legardeur  St.  Pierre  who 
received  Washington,  is  proven  in  as  satisfactory  a  manner  as 
has  been  a  large  part  of  what  we  now  consider  authentic  history 
of  early  America.  Some  authorities  place  St.  Pierre  as  the  last 
commandant  of  the  third  fort  at  Frontenac,  and  declare  that  lie 
was  there  (probably  with  the  son  of  Marin)  in  1758.  and  that 
he  went  directly  from  there  to  Montreal,  thence  at  once  to  Fort 
Duquesne.  The  more  probable  statement  is  that  he  was  the 
commandant  of  the  second  fort  at  Frontenac,  and  that  it  was 
he,  who,  with  the  son  of  Linctot.  burned  and  abandoned  the 
second-built  fort  in  1737.  In  this  connection  the  thoughtful 
reader  will  consider  the  fact  that  the  commandant  of  the  fort 
in  western  Pennsylvania,  who  received  "Washington,  Mas  an  aged 
man,  while  this  St.  Pierre  of  Lake  Pepin  fame  was  a  man  of 
middle  age.  This  would  be  better  accounted  for  by  a  lapse  of 
sixteen  years,  allowed  by  those  who  place  him  as  the  com- 
mandant of  the  second  fort  at  Frontenac.  rather  than  by  the 
lapse  of  a  few  months,  allowed  by  those  who  place  him  as  the 
last  commandant  of  the  third  and  last  fort  built  at  Frontenac. 
The  building  of  this  third  fort  is  variously  placed  as  from  1747 
to  1750.  Whether  Marin  was  called  from  the  fort  to  take  charge 
of  the  army  in  the  Ohio  valley  in  the  early  fifties  of  the  eight- 
eenth century,  or  whether  he  did  not  leave  the  fort  at  Frontenac 
until  after  the  outbreak  of  the  French  and  English  hostilities, 
is  another  question  .that  has  never  been  solved,  although,  if  St. 
Pierre  succeeded  him  at  Fort  Duquesne,  the  former  is  probable. 

In  regard  to  the  early  exploration  of  the  French  in  this 
locality,  much  confusion  has  arisen  from  the  fact  that  the  early 
investigators  evidently  took  "LaSieur"  to  be  a  name,  whereas 
it  is  only  a  complimentary  title,  prefixed  to  names,  as  our  ' '  Esq. ' ' 
is  affixed  to  English  names,  and  the  result  is  much  the  same  as 
the  result  might  be  five  hundred  years  from  now,  should  investi- 
gators then  consider  "Esq."  a  name,  and  try  to  identify  with 
each  other  from  records  of  the  present  day  all  names  ending 
in  that  manner.  It  is  with  considerable  hesitancy  that  the  edi- 
tor advances  the  theory,  so  firmly  believed  by  the  earlier  his- 
torians, that  Le  Sieur  de  la  Pierriere  du  Bouche.  of  Frontenac 
fame,  is  the  de  la  Perriere  Boucher  known  in  history  as  the  one 
who  led  the  Indians  in  their  attack  on  Haverhill,  Mass..  when 
they  killed  the  Puritan  minister  of  the  village,  scalped  his  wife, 
and  then  clashed  out  his  infant's  brains  against  the  rocks. 

In  1766,  scarcely  more  than  a  decade  after  the  supposed  final 
abandonment  of  the  third  fort  at  Frontenac,  Captain  Jonathan 
Carver,  probably  the  first  English  traveler  to  the  Falls  of  St. 


Anthony,  in  1766,  describing  Lake  Pepin,  says:  "I  observed  the 
ruins  of  a  French  factory,  where  it  is  said  Captain  St.  Pierre 
resided  and  carried  on  a  great  trade  with  the  Naudowessies 
before  the  reduction  of  Canada." 

In  1805,  Lieutenant  Pike,  United  States  army,  passed  through 
Lake  Pepin,  and  described  the  position  of  the  ruined  post  as  it 
would  appear  to  him  going  up  the  lake,  and  in  view  before 
reaching  Point  no  Point,  as  being  on  the  west  shore  behind  the 

In  1887,  in  digging  for  a  foundation  for  a  cistern,  two  can- 
non balls  were  found  near  Frontenac  Station  at  a  depth  of  about 
five  feet.  One  was  a  four-pound  and  the  other  a  six-pound  ball. 
These  were  doubtless  buried  by  the  Indians,  shortly  after  the 
abandonment  of  the  fort,  as  being  useless  to  them,  and  possibly 
"bad  medicine." 

In  the  rear  of  the  low  lands  of  the  Point  is  an  eminence  of 
some  sixty  feet,  which  is  the  bluff  edge  of  a  wide  plateau,  from 
which  there  is  an  extensive  view  below  and  above  the  sandy 
peninsula.  It  is  the  most  suitable  spot  in  the  vicinity  for  a 
stockade,  and  there  is  evidence,  in  the  absence  of  very  aged 
trees,  that  there  had  once  been  a  clearing  there.  The  old  Indian 
trail  up  and  down  the  valley  crossed  this  plateau  and  the  valley 
of  the  Sandy  Point  creek,  now  Well's  creek,  affording  easy 
routes  for  the  Sioux  of  the  prairie  to  the  post.  Frontenac  Sta- 
tion is  overlooked  by  this  plateau,  and  an  enemy  approaching 
the  post  would  probably  be  met  at  that  point  by  the  artillery 
tire  of  the  defenders,  moving  out  a  short  distance  from  the 

The  Graham  Family  has,  since  the  earliest  days,  occupied  an 
important  place  in  the  life  of  the  county,  and  the  name  will  be 
remembered  so  long  as  the  county  exists.  Hon.  Christopher  C. 
Graham  was  one  of  the  best-known  citizens  of  the  state.  He 
was  born  in  Augusta  county,  Virginia,  in  October,  1806,  and 
removed  with  his  parents,  when  three  months  old,  to  Lincoln 
county,  Kentucky.  In  1816  the  family  removed  to  Booneville, 
Ind.  During  his  boyhood  he  attended  such  schools  as  were  pro- 
vided in  his  neighborhood,  and  later  went  to  the  academy  at 
Montgomery,  Ohio,  where  he  completed  his  school  education. 
Mr.  Graham  was  elected  to  the  Indiana  legislature  in  1835,  and 
served  until  1841.  The  following  year  he  was  elected  to  the 
senate,  which  position  he  occupied  until  1846.  At  the  outbreak 
of  the  Mexican  war  he  was  appointed  by  President  Polk  as  com- 
missary of  subsistence  for  the  Second  Indiana  Infantry,  but  later 
resigned  after  one  year's  service.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the 
convention  which  framed  the  constitution  of  Indiana.  During 
the   campaign  preceding  the   election   of  President  Pierce,  Mr. 


Graham  was  a  prominent  candidate  for  the  nomination  to 
Congress,  but  gave  way  to  another  prominent  candidate.  In 
1854  he  was  appointed  to  the  land  office  as  receiver  at  Red  Wing, 
and  at  once  removed  to  that  place,  his  family  following  a  year 
later,  the  register  being  W.  W.  Phelps,  also  a  prominent  old- 
timer.  In  1858  the  land  office,  having  been  removed  to  Hender- 
son, Minn.,  Mr.  Graham  went  to  that  place,  and  remained  three 
years,  afterward  returning  to  Red  Wing,  where  he  remained 
until  his  death,  in  the  middle  of  May,  1891.  A  newspaper  obitu- 
ary of  his  life  said:  "In  politics,  Mr.  Graham  was  an  unswerv- 
ing Democrat,  and  yet  he  was  liberal  in  his  political  views,  as  in 
everything  else.  He  served  as  mayor  of  Red  Wing  for  one  year, 
and  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace  in  1869,  since  which  he  was 
almost  unanimously  re-elected  every  two  years.  In  1872  he  was 
a  candidate  for  Congress  on  the  Democratic  ticket,  but  was 
defeated  by  a  small  majority.  He  was  a  member  of  the  Episco- 
pal church  of  Red  Wing,  and  for  a  number  of  years  was  one  of 
the  vestrymen.  He  •  was  also  a  member  of  Red  Wing  Lodge, 
No.  8,  A.  F.  and  A.  M.  Mr.  Graham  was  a  man  of  the  strictest 
integrity,  a  Christian  in  the  highest  sense  of  the  term,  of  superior 
talent,  and  one  of  the  best  public  speakers  in  the  state.  He  was 
very  domestic  in  all  Ids  tastes,  and  no  father  was  ever  happier 
than  he  when  surrounded  by  his  children.  He  was  phenomenally 
quick  at  repartee,  and  no  one  ever  enjoyed  a  joke  better  than  he 
or  could  see  the  ridiculous  side  of  a  proposition  quicker  than  he, 
and  his  sayings  became  common  property  throughout  this  com- 
munity. He  did  not  have  an  enemy  in  the  world,  and  though  a 
man  of  strong  convictions,  yet  he  never  interfered  in  the  belief 
of  any  one."  Mr.  Graham  was  married  July  7,  1837,  to  Louise 
H.  Hargrave;  born  February  14.  1814,  and  died  in  January,  1895. 

Florence,  the  oldest  child  of  Christopher  C.  Graham,  now 
lives  at  Red  Wing.  In  her  honor  the  township  of  Florence,  this 
county,  was  named.  She  was  married  January  8,  1872,  to  David 
M.  Taber;  born  June  26,  1840,  in  Massachusetts.  Mr.  Taber  was 
a  lawyer,  served  as  city  and  county  attorney,  and  had  a  promis- 
ing career  ahead  of  him  when  cut  off  by  death  in  the  prime  of 
life,  April  1,  1880,  pneumonia  being  the  cause  of  his  decease. 
To  this  union  was  born  one  child,  Christopher  G.  Mrs.  Florence 
Taber  has  taken  up  the  work  left  by  her  father,  and  is  known 
for  her  interest  in  all  matters  which  tend  toward  the  betterment 
of  the  city  and  county.  Ralph  G.,  son  of  Mr.  Taber  by  a  former 
marriage,  married  Henrietta  S.  Pratt.  He  has  been  manager  of 
the  T.  B.  Sheldon  Auditorium,  and  has  met  with  much  success 
as  a  magazine  writer.  Isabella,  the  second  child  died  at  the  age 
of  three  years. 

John   A.   Graham,   deceased,   the   third   child   of  the   Graham 


family,  was  born  in  Boonville,  Ind.,  and  came  to  Red  Wing  with 
his  parents  in  1854  at  the  age  of  fourteen  years.  A  printer  by 
trade,  he  established  here  a  printing  establishment,  and  was  on 
the  high  road  of  success  when  the  Civil  War  broke  out.  He 
enlisted  in  the  Union  army  October  10,  1861,  was  mustered-in 
November  7,  1861;  served  three  years;  was  discharged  for  pro- 
motion; re-enlisted  February  4,  1864;  was  promoted  to  sergeant; 
discharged  for  promotion  September  17,  1864;  promoted  to  lieu- 
tenant and  honorably  discharged  at  the  close  of  the  conflict. 
Returning  to  Red  Wing,  he  entered  the  wholesale  store  of  Fred- 
rich,  Kempe  &  Co.,  and  also  served  as  postal  clerk.  He  died  in 
1903  at  the  hospital  in  Minnehaha.  His  wife,  Amelia  Lunenburg, 
whom  he  married  at  Galesburg,  111.,  in  November,  1872,  now 
lives  in  Red  Wing. 

Mary,  the  fourth  child  of  Christopher  Graham,  is  deceased. 
She  married  Charles  L.  Davis,  formerly  editor  of  the  "Argus," 
who  served  as  captain  in  the  Union  army,  and  is  now  postmaster 
at  the  capital. 

William,  the  fifth  child,  worked  as  a  bank  clerk  in  St.  Paul 
and  Red  Wing.    He  died  in  187'.i. 

Helen  0..  the  sixth  child,  occupies  an  important  place  in  this 
community,  and  lives  in  the  old  homestead  at  625  Fifth  street. 
A  musician  of  no  little  ability,  she  serves  as  organist  in  St. 
Joseph's  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and  her  philanthropic  and 
religious  work  is  widely  known. 

M attic  Graham,  the  seventh  child,  is  Mrs.  J.  S.  Coughlin,  a 
well-known  resident  of  Minneapolis. 

Jennie  is  Mrs.  John  Maginnis,  of  Portland,  Ore.,  and  Emma, 
the  youngest,  was  a  singer  of  considerable  note,  and  received 
her  musical  education  in  Boston  and  in  Europe.  She  is  now 
Mrs.  E.  W.  White,  also  of  Portland,  Ore. 



French  and  English  Claims — Spanish  Rule — The  Louisiana  Pur- 
chase— A  Part  of  Louisiana  Territory — Under  Successive 
Jurisdiction  of  Missouri,  Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  Iowa — No 
Man's  Land — General  Sibley's  Duties — Minnesota  a  Terri- 
tory— In  Statehood  Days — A  Full-Fledged  County. 

To  trace  the  earl}'  political  history  of  Goodhue  county,  from 
the  time  of  the  undisputed  possession  by  the  Indians,  is  a  some- 
what difficult  task,  owing  to  the  fact  that  in  the  early  days  boun- 
daries, as  given  in  treaties,  and  sometimes  even  in  territorial 
acts,  were  rather  indefinite,  and  sometimes  obviously  incorrect. 
The  French  and  the  English,  who  for  so  long,  and  for  so  many 
varied  reasons,  had  caused  Europe  to  flow  with  the  blood  of 
their  rivalries,  early  became  contestants  for  supremacy  on  the 
newly  explored  continent.  By  reason  of  the  early  explorations 
of  De  Soto,  La  Salle  and  others,  both  from  the  Gulf  up  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  from  the  St.  Lawrence  down  the  Great  Lakes,  and 
thence  overland,  the  French  claimed  as  their  possession  the 
entire  Mississippi  valley,  extending  as  far  east  as  the  Alleghany 
mountains,  and  westward  indefinitely.  The  British  claims  to 
sovereignty  was  based  on  the  fact  that  the  early  English 
explorers  along  the  Atlantic  coast  had,  in  planting  the  English 
standard,  laid  claim  to  the  country  "from  sea  to  sea,"  as  was 
the  recognized  custom  among  the  explorers  sent  out  by  the  civi- 
lized nations  of  that  day.  This  claim  was  further  strengthened 
by  the  activities  in  the  disputed  territory  of  the  Hudson  Bay 
and  Northwest  Fur  companies,  more  or  less  connected  with  the 
English  government,  who  had  established  outposts  to  their  Cana- 
dian trading  stations,  extending  well  into  the  Mississippi  valley. 
These  rival  claims  were  the  cause  of  the  early  French  and  Indian 
wars  of  the  New  England  colonies,  and  it  will  be  remembered 
were  the  cause  of  Braddock's  memorable  trip  to  Fort  Duquesne,  in 
which  is  now  western  Pennsylvania,  upon  which  occasion  Washing- 
ton took  a  part,  and  which  has  now  become  a  portion  of  the  annals 
of  early  United  States  history.    At 'the  close  of  these  wars,  1763, 



the  Mississippi  became  the  dividing  line,  and  France  ceded  the 
entire  tract  west  of  the  river  to  Spain.     By  the  treaty  follow- 
ing the  American  Revolution,  practically  all  of  what  is  now  that 
portion  of  the  United  States  lying  east  of  the  Mississippi,  with 
the  exception  of  Florida,  which  was  later  purchased  from  Spain, 
was    virtually    acknowledged   as   a  part   of   the   new   American 
republic,  Spain  retaining  her  claim  to  the  territory  west  of  the 
Mississippi.     In  1800,  Spain  restored  the  territory  to  France,  and 
in   1803  Napoleon  ceded  it  to  the  United  States.     This  tenure  of 
nearly  forty  years  by  Spain  made  no  impress  upon  what  is  now 
Minnesota.     The   precarious   grip   of  the   French   kings  left  no 
political  or  racial  influence,  but  the  brave  and  courageous  French 
explorers  have  bequeathed  their  names,  written  in  fearless  char- 
acters  in  the  cognomens  applied  to  cities  and  rivers;  and  their 
deeds,    set    forth    in    manuscripts    still    preserved,    will    form    a 
romantic  page  in  the  history  of  the  state  for  all  time  to  come. 
During   these   changes   of  possession,   which   were   but  moves   in 
the  game  played  on  the  checkerboards  of  European  polities,  the 
territory  now   known  as  Goodhue  county  remained  in  the  prac- 
tical  possession   of  the   Indians,  and   untrod   by  white  men,  save 
as  here  and  there  an  adventurer  or  trader  landed  upon  the  Mis- 
sissippi shore;  or  a  band  of  hardy  soldiers  established  for  a  time 
their  stockades.     The  task  of  dividing  the  great  Louisiana  pur- 
chase, of  which  the  present  Goodhue  county  was  a  part,  became 
an     important    one.      In    1812,    Louisiana    was    admitted    as    a 
state,  and  the  rest  of  the  purchase  was  reorganized  as  Missouri 
territory.      In   181!).   Missouri  framed  a  slate  constitution,  and   in 
1834  the  district  north  of  Missouri  and  west  of  the   Mississippi 
river  was  a    pari    of  the  land  placed   under  the  jurisdiction  of 
Michigan    territory.      When  "Wisconsin    territory   was   organized, 
from  the  western  part  of  Michigan,  in  1836,  the  present  states 
of  Iowa  and  Minnesota  were  a  part  of  it,  and  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment was  fixed   at  Burlington,     dune   12,  1838,  Congress  passed 
4n  act  separating  Iowa  from  Wisconsin,  what  is  now  Minnesota, 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  being  included  in  the  territory  of  Iowa. 
In  Iowa  territorial  days  the  greater  part  of  southern  and  south- 
eastern Minnesota  was  within  the  jurisdiction  of  Clayton  county. 
Henry  II.  Sibley  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  in  that  county.     The 
county  seat  was  250  miles  distant,  and  his  jurisdiction  extended 
over  a  region  of  country,  which,  as  he  expressed  it,  was  "as 
large  as  the  empire  of  France."     General  Sibley  lived  in  Men- 
dota,  from  1835  to  1862,  and  in  that  time,  without  leaving  home, 
he  had  lived  in  the  territories  of-  Michigan,  AVisconsin,  Iowa  and 
Minnesota,    and    in    the    state    of   Minnesota.      From    1846   until 
March  3,  1849,  when  Minnesota  was  admitted  as  a  territory,  the 
state   was    practically   a   no-man's  land,   being   in    a   vague   way 


attached  to  Prairie  du  Chien,  of  Crawford  county,  Wisconsin, 
for  judicial  purposes,  and  having  such  law  and  order  as  could 
be  enforced  from  Fort  Snelling.  Various  bills  were  presented  to 
Congress  calling  for  the  organization  of  the  territory,  all  of 
which  failed  until  1849.  Goodhue  county,  being  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  Sioux  Indians,  was  little  affected  by  the  various 
changes  in  state  and  territorial  ownership.  With  the  inaugura- 
tion of  President  Zachary  Taylor,  March  5,  1849,  the  land  now 
known  as  Goodhue  county,  having  successively  passed  under  the 
rule  of  France,  Spain- — and  then  France  again — Louisiana,  Mis- 
souri, Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  Iowa,  became  a  part  of  the  terri- 
tory of  Minnesota,  of  which  political  division  it  was  designed 
later,  in  statehood  days,  to  become  so  important  a  part.  Mention 
of  the  fact  that  in  the  earliest  days  of  Minnesota  territory,  Good- 
hue county  was  a  part  of  the  county  of  Wabasha,  completes  the 
territorial  claim  of  title. 



Prairie  du  Chien  in  1825— Second  Treaty  in  1830— Treaty  of 
1837— Doty  Treaty  in  1841— Treaty  of  Mendota  in  1851— 
Land  Open  to  Settlement — Prairie  Island  Indians. 

While  the  whites,  at  their  own  inclination,  were  shifting  the 
sovereignty  of  the  vast  tract  including  within  its  scope  what  is 
now  Goodhue  county,  the  Indians,  nevertheless,  had  claims  which 
the  nations  had,  in  a  measure  at  least,  to  acknowledge.  The 
Sioux  were  not  only  in  practical,  but  in  actual  possession,  and  it 
was  only  after  long  negotiations  that  the  country  was  opened  for 
permanent  white  settlement. 

The  treaty  of  Prairie  du  Chien,  signed  in  1825,  was  important 
to  the  Sioux  living  in  this  vicinity,  in  that  it  fixed  certain  boun- 
daries. The  eastern  boundary  of  the  Sioux  territory  was  to  com- 
mence on  the  east  bank  of  the  Mississippi,  opposite  the  mouth  of 
the  "Ioway"  river,  running  back  to  the  bluffs,  and  along  the 
bluffs  to  the  Bad  Ax  river;  thence  to  the  mouth  of  Black  river, 
and  thence  to  "half  a  day's  march"  below  the  falls  of  the  Chip- 
pewa. The  boundary  lines  were  certainly,  in  some  respects,  quite 
indefinite,  and  whether  this  was  the  trouble  or  not,  at  any  event, 
it  was  but  a  few  months  after  the  treaty  when  it  was  evident  that 
neither  the  Dakotas  nor  Ojibways  were  willing  to  be  governed 
by  the  lines  established — and  hardly  by  any  others.  The  first 
article  of  the  treaty  provided :  ' '  There  shall  be  a  firm  and  per- 
petual peace  between  the  Sioux  and  the  Chippewas ;  between  the 
Sioux  and  the  confederated  tribes  of  Sacs  and  Foxes ;  and 
between  the  Ioways  and  the  Sioux.*'  But  this  provision  was 
more  honored  in  the  breach  than  the  observance,  and  in  a  little 
time  the  tribes  named  were  flying  at  one  another's  throats  and 
engaged  in  their  old-time  hostilities.  On  the  part  of  the  Sioux 
this  treaty  was  signed  by  Chiefs  Wabasha,  Little  Crow,  Standing 
Buffalo.  Sleepy  Eye,  Two  Faces,  Tah-sah-ghee,  or  "His  Cane;" 
Black  Dog.  Wah-ah-na-tah,  or  "The  Charger;"  Red  Wing, 
Shakopee,  Penishon  and  Eagle  Head,  and  also  by  a  number  of 
head  soldiers  and  "principal  men."     The  Chippewa  signers  were 



Shingauba  Wassa,  Gitche  Gaubow,.Wis  Coup,  or  "Sugar,"  and  a  * 
number  of  sub-chiefs  and  principal  men. 

In  1830,  a  second  treaty  with  the  Northwest  Indian  tribes 
was  held  at  Prairie  du  Chien.  Delegates  were  present  from  four 
bands  of  the  Sioux,  the  Medawakantons,  the  Wapakootas,  the 
Wahpatons  and  the  Sissetons,  and  also  from  the  Sacs,  the  Foxes 
and  Iowas,  and  even  from  the  Omahas,  Otoes  and  Missouris,  the 
homes  of  the  last  three  tribes  being  on  the  Missouri  river.  At 
this  treaty  the  Indian  tribes  represented  ceded  all  of  their  claims 
to  the  land  in  western  Iowa,  northwestern  Missouri,  and 
especially  the  country  of  the  Des  Moines  river  valley.  The  lower 
bands  bad  a  special  article  inserted  in  the  treaty  for  the  benefit 
of  their  half-blood  relatives : 

"The  Sioux  bands  in  council  have  earnestly  solicited  that  they 
might  have  permission  to  bestow  upon  the  half-breeds  of  their 
nation  the  tract  of  land  within  the  following  limits,  to-wit : 
Beginning  at  a  place  called  the  Barn,  below  and  near  the  village  of 
the  Red  Wing  chief,  and  running  back  fifteen  miles;  thence,  in  a 
parallel  line,  with  Lake  Pepin  and  the  Mississippi  river  about 
thirty-two  miles,  to  a  point  opposite  Beef,  en*  O'Boeuf,  river, 
thence  fifteen  miles  to  the  Grand  Encampment,  opposite  the  river 
aforesaid,  the  United  States  agree  to  suffer  said  half  breeds  to 
occupy  said  tract  of  country,  they  holding  by  the  same  title,  and 
in  the  same  manner  that  other  Indian  titles  are  held." 

Certificates,  or  "script,"  were  issued  to  many  half-breeds,  and 
there  was  much  speculation  in  them,  and  litigation  over  them, 
in  subsequent  years,  a  matter  of  which  will  be  treated  later  in 
this  history.  The  Sioux  also  ceded  a  tract  of  land  twenty  miles 
wide  along  the  northern  boundary  of  Iowa  from  the  Mississippi 
to  the  Des  Moines,  the  consideration  for  which  was  $2,000  in  cash 
and  $12,000  in  merchandise.  Iron  Cloud,  of  the  Red  AVing 
village,  was  among  the  signers  of  this  treaty. 

In  the  spring  of  1837,  Agent  Taliaferro,  who  had  in  charge 
much  of  the  early  negotiation  between  the  Indians  and  the 
United  States,  was  instructed  to  organize  an  authoritative  and 
reliable  delegation  of  the  lower  bands  of  Sioux,  to  proceed  to 
Washington  and  make  a  treaty  ceding  the  lands  claimed  by  them 
in  what  are  now  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota.  These  lands  were 
the  islands  in  the  Mississippi  and  a  strip  of  land  of  a  few  miles, 
varying  in  width  from  the  mouth  of  the  Broad  Axe  to  the  mouth 
of  the  "Watab.  The  expedition  as  it  started  from  Fort  Snelling 
consisted  of  a  number  of  Indian  chiefs  and  head  men,  and  several 
whites.  At  Red  Wing  the  boat  stopped  to  take  on  Wacoota  and 
his  head  soldier;  and  at  Winona,  Wabasha  and  Thin  Face  joined 
the  expedition.  The  treaty  was  concluded  and  signed  Septem- 
ber 29  by  Joel  R.  Poinsett,  then  secretary  of  war.     For  some 


*  reason,  which  at  the  present  time  is  not  known,  none  of  the  rep- 
resentatives of  Wabasha's  and  Wacoota's  bands,  as  shown  by  the 
record,  signed  the  treaty,  although  both  chiefs  were  present,  and 
Wabasha  was  head  chief  of  the  Medawakanton  band.  A  consid- 
erable portion  of  the  country  ceded  along  the  Wisconsin  shore 
of  the  Mississippi  was  only  across  the  river  from  their  own  lands, 
and  they  certainly  had  an  interest  in  its  disposition;  but  in  the 
printed  copies  of  the  United  States  treaties  their  signatures  do 
not  appear. 

The  Doty  treaty,  made  at  Traverse  des  Sioux,  in  July,  1841, 
failed  to  be  ratified  by  the  United  States  Senate.  This  treaty 
embodied  a  Utopian  dream  that  a  territory  of  Indians  could  be 
established,  in  which  the  redmen  would  reside  on  farms  and  in 
villages,  living  their  lives  after  the  style  of  the  whites,  having  a 
constitutional  form  of  government,  with  a  legislature  of  their 
own  people  elected  by  themselves,  the  governor  to  be  appointed 
by  the  president  of  the  United  States,  much  along  the  plan  still 
followed  in  the  Indian  Territory,  except  that  it  embodied  for  the 
Indians  a  much  higher  type  of  citizenship  than  is  found  in  the 
Indian  Territory*  The  Indians  were  to  be  taught  the  arts  of 
peace,  to  be  paid  annuities,  and  to  be  protected  by  the  armies  of 
the  United  Slates  from  their  Indian  enemies  on  the  west.  In 
return  for  these  benefits  to  be  conferred  upon  the  Indians,  the 
United  States  was  to  receive  all  the  lands  in  what  is  now  Minne- 
sota, the  Dakotas  and  northwestern  Iowa,  except  small  portions, 
which  were  to  be  reserved  for  the  redmen.  This  ceded  land  was 
for  the  most  pari  to  be  opened  to  the  settlement  of  the  whites, 
although  the  plan  was  to  have  some  of  it  reserved  for  Indian 
tribes  from  other  parts  of  the  country  who  should  sell  their  lands 
to  the  United  Stales,  and  who.  in  being  moved  here,  were  to 
enjoy  all  the  privileges  which  had  been  so  beautifully  planned 
for  the  native  Indians.  But  no  one  can  tell  what  would  have  been 
the  result  of  this  experiment,  for  the  Senate,  for  political  rea-i 
sons,  refused  to  ratify  the  treaty,  and  it  failed  of  going  into 

Prior  to  1851,  only  the  land  on  the  east  of  the  Mississippi,  with 
a  few  islands  in  that  river,  were  open  to  white  settlement.  The 
agitation  started  in  the  late  forties  resulted  in  the  treaties  which 
opened  what  is  now  Goodhue  county  and  surrounding  territory 
to  settlement.  July  22,  the  treaty  of  Traverse  des  Sioux  was 
signed,  and  on  July  29,  1851,  the  deliberations  preceding  the 
treaty  at  Mendota  with  the  Wah-pa-koota  and  Medawakanton 
bands  of  Sioux  were  started.  The  chiefs  and  head  men  of  these 
two  bands  were  thoroughly  conversant  with  the  proceedings  of 
the  Indians  and  the  representatives  of  the  United  States  at  Tra- 
verse des  Sioux,  and  all  were  on  hand,  ready  for  the  negotiations 


at  Mendota.  The  first  session  was  held  in  the  warehouse  of  the 
Fur  Company  at  that  place,  but  the  Indians  found  the  atmos- 
phere stilling-,  and  not  in  accord  with  their  usual  method  of 
outdoor  councils,  so  the  consideration  of  the  treaty  was  taken  up 
under  a  large  brush  arbor,  erected  by  Alexis  Bailly,  on  an  ele- 
vated plain  near  the  high  prominence  known  as  Pilot  Knob.  Dr. 
Thomas  Foster  was  secretary  for  Commissioners  Lea  and  Ram- 
sey; the  interpreters  were  Alexander  Faribault,  Philander 
Preseott  and  Rev.  G.  II.  Pond;  the  white  witnesses  were  David 
Olmsted,  \V.  ('.  Henderson,  Alexis  Bailly,  Richard  Chute.  Henry 
Jackson,  A.  L.  Carpenter,  W.  II.  Randall.  A.  S.  II.  White,  H.  L. 
Dousman,  Fred  ('.  Sibley.  Martin  McLeod,  George  N.  Faribault 
and  Joseph  A.  Wheelock.  On  the  opening  of  the  first  day's 
session  the  object  of  the  gathering  was  fully  explained  to  the 
assembled  Indians  by  the  white  commissioners.  For  the  Indians,. 
Wabasha,  of  the  Medawakantons,  replied  as  follows: 

The  chiefs  and  braves  who  sit  here  have  heard  what  you 
have  said  from  our  Great  Father.  I  have  but  one  thing  to  say  to 
you.  fathers,  and  then  we  will  separate  for  the  day.  I  was  among 
those  who  went  to  Washington  and  brought  home  the  wTords  of 
our  Great  Father.  Some  of  those  here  were  there  also,  and  some 
who  went  are  now  dead.  According  to  what  our  Great  Father 
then  said,  we  have  some  funds  lying  back  in  his  hands.  We 
spoke  of  these  funds  to  our  fathers,  the  commissioners,  who  were 
here  fall  before  last.  These  men  you  see  around  you  are  anxious 
to  get  that  which  is  due  them  before  they  do  anything.  That  is 
all  I  have  to  say  now." 

The  Leaf  Shooter  (Wacoota).  of  the  Red  Wing  band,  rose 
and  displayed  the  medal  formerly  worn  by  Chief  AVambde  Yah 
Kapi  (War  Eagle  That  May  Be  Seen),  who  was  killed  by  the 
Sacs  and  Foxes  on  the  Des  Moines  river  in  July,  1849.  He  said: 
"My  race  had  four  chiefs,  but  they  have  passed  away  from  us. 
The  last- one  (War  Eagle  That  May  Be  Seen)  was  made  chief  by 
my  father,  Governor  Ramsey,  who  placed  this  medal  about  his 
neck.  Father,  I  wish  to  have  those  who  have  killed  the  owner 
of  this  medal,  pay  for  it.  The  fall  before  last,  you  spoke  of  this; 
the  medal  wras  then  all  bloody,  and  if  you  will  look  at  it  you  will 
see  that  it  is  still  so.  I  wish  you  to  wash  that  blood  off.  I  return 
it  to  you,  and  if  you  will  wipe  off  the  blood,  I  will  be  glad." 

The  commissioners  reminded  the  Indians  that  in  regard  to 
the  money  which  was  due  them  under  the  treaty  of  1837,  a  por- 
tion of  which  was  being  withheld,  the  treaty  provided  that  it  was 
to  be  paid  to  them  at  the  direction  and  pleasure  of  the  Great 
Father,  the  president;  that  the  Indians  had  agreed  to  this  wdien 
they  signed  the  treaty,  twelve  years  previous,  and  had  never  com- 
plained before.    But  Colonel  Lea  said  that  if  the  Indians  would 


come  to  an  agreement  in  regard  to  the  treaty,  there  would  be  no 
trouble  about  the  back  money.  In  regard  to  the  medal,  which  is 
known  in  history  as  the  bloody  medal,  owing  to  the  Leaf  Shoot- 
er's poetic  and  figurative  allusion  to  its  ensanguined  condition, 
Governor  Ramsey  said  that  he  had  demanded  from  the  president 
that  $1,000  should  be  taken  from  the  annuities  of  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes  and  used  as  an  emollient  to  cleanse  the  blood  from  the 
medal;  and  that  $1,000  should  be  taken  from  the  Sac  and  Fox 
fund  for  every  Sioux  killed  by  them,  and  the  amount  turned  over 
to  the  relatives  of  the  victims.  He  further  said  that  in  the  exer- 
cise of  his  discretion,  the  president  had  concluded  that  the  money 
he  was  keeping  ought  to  be  expended  in  the  education  of  the 
Indian  children,  but  that  the  matter  could  be  settled  amicably  if 
the  treaty  were  speedily  signed.  The  next  day  a  brief  council 
was  held  under  Alexis  Bailly's  large  brush  arbor,  which  had  been 
well  appointed  with  stands,  tables  and  seats  for  the  chiefs.  At 
this  session,  Wabasha,  without  comment,  returned  a  draft  of  the 
treaty  which  on  the  previous  day  had  been  presented  to  the 
Indians  for  their  consideration.  There  was  an  embarrassing 
silence  for  a  time,  and  Colonel  Lea  said  he  hoped  the  treaty  would 
soon  be  concluded,  for  he  was  at  a  great  distance  from  his  home, 
and  having  been  a  long  time  away,  was  most  anxious  to  return. 
Chief  Wacoota  replied:  "Our  habits  are  different  from  those 
of  the  whites,  and  when  we  have  anything  important  to  consider 
it  takes  us  a  long  time.  To  this  diplomatic  remark,  Colonel  Lea 
rejoined:  "That  is  true;  but  this  subject  has  been  before  you  a 
long  time.  You  are  chiefs,  not  women  and  children ;  you  can 
certainly  'give  us  an  answer  tomorrow."  The  council  then 
adjourned  for  the  day. 

The  next  day,  at  the  opening  of  the  council,  AVabasha  arose 
and  said  he  had  listened  to  the  words  sent  them  by  the  Great 
Father  and  which  the  commissioners  had  delivered;  "but,"  con- 
tinued he,  "these  other  chiefs  around  me  may  have  something  to 
say  also.  I  will  sit  and  listen  to  what  is  said."  After  a  long, 
constrained,  and  doubtless  uncomfortable  silence,  Little  Crow, 
graceful  and  deliberate,  arose,  and  addressed  the  council.  Little 
Crow,  chief  of  the  Kaposia  band,  was,  without  doubt,  according 
to  the  evidence  of  his  contemporaries,  the  brainiest,  shrewdest 
and  most  influential  Indian  then  west  of  the  Mississippi.  Dressed 
elaborately  for  the  occasion,  with  a  white  shirt  and  collar,  a 
gaudy  neckchief,  his  tastefully  embroidered  medicine  bag  sus- 
pended from  his  neck,  a  red  belt,  with  a  silver  buckle,  about  his 
waist,  and  wearing  a  pair  of  elaborately  beaded  trousers  and 
moccasins,  his  long,  black,  curling  hair,  soft  and  almost  as  silken 
as  a  white  woman's,  flowing  over  his  shoulders,  and  with  his  keen 
black  eyes  alight — he  was  indeed  a  striking  and  attractive  fig- 


lire.  His  voice,  attuned  to  the  forests  and  the  waterfalls,  had 
nature's  own  musical  intonations,  and  when  he  began  to  speak 
even  the  little  Indian  children,  playing  about  the  outskirts  of  the 
council,  were  silent.  As  reported  by  Alexander  Faribault,  the 
chieftain  said : 

"Fathers:  These  chiefs  and  soldiers,  and  others  who  sit  here, 
have  something  they  wish  said  to  you,  and  I  am  going  to  speak 
it  for  them.  There  are  chiefs  here  who  are  older  than  myself, 
and  I  would  rather  they  had  spoken ;  but  they  have  put  it  upon 
me  to  speak,  although  I  feel  as  if  my  mouth  was  tied.  These 
chiefs  went  to  Washington  long  ago  and  brought  back  a  good 
report  concerning  the  settlement  of  our  affairs  in  the  treaty 
made  there,  and  they  and  we  were  glad.  But  things  that  were 
promised  in  that  treaty  have  not  taken  place.  This  is  why  these 
men  sit  still  and  say  nothing.  You  perhaps  are  ashamed  (or  dis- 
graced; "ishtenya"  in  Sioux)  of  us;  but  you,  fathers,  are  the 
cause  of  it's  being  so.  They  speak  of  money  that  is  due  them;  it 
was  mentioned  the  other  day  to  Governor  Ramsey,  and  we  spoke 
about  it  last  fall,  but  we  have  not  yet  seen  the  money.  We  desire 
to  have  it  laid  down  to  us.  It  is  money  due  on  the  old  treaty, 
and  I  think  it  should  be  paid;  we  do  not  want  to  talk  about  a 
new  treaty  until  it  is  all  paid." 

The  commissioners  again  declared  that  under  the  treaty  the 
money  which  had  been  withheld  was  to  be  expended  by  the  direc- 
tion of  the  president,  and  he  had  decided  to  apply  it  to  the  edu- 
cation of  the  Indian  children.  Perhaps,  they  said,  there  has  been 
a  misunderstanding  as  to  what  the  other  treaty  meant.  They 
desired  now  to  make  a  treaty  that  would  be  so  plain  that  there 
could,  and  would  be  no  doubt,  as  to  its  meaning.  Governor  Ram- 
sey then  said:  "If  this  treaty  can  be  arranged,  as  much  money 
will  be  paid  down  to  you  as  will  be  equal  to  your  usual  cash 
annuities  for  three  years."  The  governor  then  thought  to  bring 
matters  to  an  immediate  conclusion.  "Do  you  wish,"  he  asked, 
"that  this  amount  be  paid  to  you  as  your  other  annuities  have 
been?"  The  chiefs  made  a  murmur  of  apparent  assent,  and  the 
governor  continued:  "Do  all  the  people  want  it  paid  in  that 
way?"  Little  Crow  replied  that  if  it  were  divided  for  the 
Indians  by  the  whites  it  would  probably  be  best;  if  the  Indians 
undertook  to  divide  it  there  might  be  some  difficulty.  Governor 
Ramsey  replied  that  the  money  was  in  "money  boxes,"  and  a 
long  time  would  be  required  to  count  the  money  and  get  it  ready, 
and  in  the  meanwhile  they  would-  go  ahead  with  the  treaty.  But 
Little  Crow  said:  "We  will  talk  of  nothing  else  but  that  money, 
if  it  is  until  next  spring.  That  lies  in  the  way  of  a  treaty.  I 
speak  for  others,  and  not  for  myself." 

After  some  protests  against  further  delay  on  the  part  of  the 


commissioners,  the  Indians  saying  nothing,  the  council  adjourned 
until  it  should  be  called  by  the  Indians.  The  next  day  the  Indi- 
ans remained  in  their  quarters  until  late  in  the  afternoon,  when 
messengers  came  saying  that  the  chiefs  were  all  assembled  at  the 
council  house  and  wished  their  white  fathers  to  attend.  Very 
soon  the  council  was  in  session,  but  after  the  opening  there  was 
a  long  silence.  Finally  Anah-ga-nahzhee  (Stands  Astride),  the 
second  chiefs  or  head  soldier  of  the  band  of  his  brother,  Shako- 
pee,  remarked  that  it  had  been  decided  in  council,  the  Indian 
council,  that  Wacoota  should  speak  to  the  Indians.  But  Wacoota 
asked  to  be  excused,  and  that  some  other  Indian  should  speak. 
"I  am  of  the  same  mind  with  my  friend  here,  Wabasha,  and  will 
sit  and  listen,"  said  Wacoota.  There  was  no  response.  After 
a  long  wait  the  commissioners  went  over  the  whole  subject 
again,  and  the  Indians  yet  remaining  silent,  Colonel  Lea  at  last 
said:  "It  is  plain  that  the  Medawakantons  do  not  wish  to  sell 
their  lands.  I  hope  they  will  not  regret  it.  This  grieves  my 
heart,  and  I  know  it  will  make  the  heart  of  your  Great  Father 
sad.  Say  to  the  chiefs  and  head  men  that  we  are  all  ready  to 
meet  them  here  tomorrow,  or  at  any  other  time  and  place  they 
desire."  The  commissioners  now  hastily  adjourned,  apparently 
in  great  ill  humor,  leaving  the  chiefs  still  on  the  benches, 
astounded  at  the  conduct  of  their  white  brothers.  There  was  an 
interregnum  in  the  proceedings  for  four  days.  The  time  was 
spent  by  the  whites  in  privately  preparing  a  treaty  which  would 
be. acceptable  to  the  Indians.  The  Medawakantons  had  become 
partially  reconciled.  The  head  chief,  "Wabasha,  was  still  opposed 
to  any  treaty  as  it  had  been  proposed,  but  Little  Crow  and  other 
sub-chiefs  were  in  favor  of  one  if  the  terms  were  fairly  liberal 
and  the  assent  of  their  bands  could  be  obtained.  Little  Crow 
was  particularly  for  a  treaty  and  the  sale  of  the  big  expanse  of 
land  to  the  westward,  which,  he  said,  did  his  people  no  good, 
which  but  very  few  of  his  band  had  ever  visited,  and  which  he 
himself  had  never  seen.  He  disliked  to  abandon  his  old  Kaposia 
home,  because  of  its  associations.  Here  were  the  graves  of  his 
father  and  mother  and  other  kinspeople ;  here  was  the  site  of  his 
birthplace  and  of  his  boyhood,  and  here  he  had  been  chief  of  the 
old  and  noted  band  of  his  ancestors  for  more  than  four  years. 
But  Little  Crow  was  shrewd  and  intelligent,  and  knew  that  the 
whites  were  pressing  upon  his  people  as  they  had  pressed  upon 
the  other  red  people,  and  that  the  result  would  be  the  same  as  it 
had  been — the  Indians  would  be  compelled  to  leave  their  country 
and  move  on.  The  wise  course,  therefore,  it  seemed  to  him,  was 
to  obtain  the  best  terms  possible — to  get  all  of  the  money  and 
other  supplies  and  the  best  permanent  reservation  to  be  had.  It 
was    asserted    that    Little    Crow    had    been    well   bribed   by   the 


traders,  and  by  the  commissioners,  too,  and  that  his  opinions 
were  the  result  of  substantial  considerations.  If  the  charge  were 
true,  the  conduct  of  Little  Crow  was  somewhat  strange.  He 
spoke  against  considering  the  treaty  until  the  money  that  was 
being  held  hack  should  be  paid  in  hand.  He  demanded  a  reserva- 
tion that  should  come  down  the  Minnesota  to  Traverse  des  Sioux, 
and  he  wanted  all  the  money  and  goods,  and  the  most  favorable 
terms  generally  that  could  be  had.  He  was  in  frequent  consulta- 
tion with  the  commissioners  during  the  days  of  waiting,  and  at 
the  last  announced  that  he  was  ready  to  sign  the  treaty,  although 
some  of  the  Indians  had  sworn  that  they  would  shoot  the  first 
man  of  their  tribe  who  put  his  hand  to  the  goose  quill  prepara- 
tory to  subscribing  to  the  hated  contract. 

Monday,  August  5.  was  an  eventful  day  in  the  deliberations. 
The  council  met  at  11  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  Chief  Good 
Road,  of  one  of  the  bands  about  Fort  Snelling.  was  the  first 
speaker.  He  said:  "We  have  several  things  to  say  about  the 
various  matters  before  we  sign  this  treaty.''  Colonel  Lea  replied: 
"The  treaty  has  been  prepared  after  we  have  all  agreed  as  to  its 
terms,  and  it  is  best  not  to  delay  any  further.  We  will  have  the 
treaty  read  in  English  and  explained  in  the  Dakotah  language, 
so  that  all  can  see  that  it  is  a  good  treaty."  Rev.  S.  R.  Riggs, 
the  missionary,  read  the  treaty  slowly,  and  explained  it  in  Sioux 
very  fully.  Governor  Ramsey  then  said:  'The  chiefs  and  head 
men  have  heard  the  treaty  in  their  own  language.  Who  will 
sign  first  .'"  There  was  a  silence  of  some  minutes,  when  Colonel 
Lea  indicated  that  Little  Crow  should  be  the  first  to  sign,  but  the 
chief  smiled  and  shook  his  head.  At  last  Wabasha  arose  and 
said : 

"You  have  requested  us  to  sign  this  paper,  and  you  have  told 
these  people  standing  around  that  it  is  for  their  benefit;  but  I  do 
not  think  so.  In  the  treaty  you  have  read  you  mention  a  lot 
about  farmers,  schools,  physicians,  traders  and  half-breeds,  who 
are  to  be  paid  out  of  the  money.  To  all  of  these  I  am  opposed. 
You  see  these  chiefs  sitting  around  here.  They  and  some  others, 
who  are  dead,  went  to  Washington  twelve  years  ago  and  made 
a  treaty  in  which  some  things  were  said ;  but  we  were  not  bene- 
fited by  them,  and  I  want  them  struck  out  of  this  one.  We  want 
nothing  but  cash  for  our  lands.  Another  thing :  You  have 
named  a  place  for  our  home,  but  it  is  a  prairie  country.  I  am  a 
man  used  to  the  woods,  and  do  not  like  the  prairies ;  perhaps 
some  of  these  who  are  here  will  name  a  place  we  would  all  like 
better.  Another  thing;  when  I  went  to  Washington  to  see  our 
Great  Father,  he  asked  us  for  our  land,  and  we  gave  it  to  him. 
and  he  agreed  to  furnish  us  with  provisions  and  goods  for  twenty 
years.    I  wish  to  remain  in  this  country  until  that  time  expires. 


Colonel.  Lea  made  an  indignant  and  severe  reply  to  AVabasha, 
although  as  a  matter  of  fact  Wabasha's  request  was  not  perhaps 
so  very  unreasonable.  The  colonel  declared  that  the  chief  had  a 
forked  tongue,  and  was  neither  the  friend  of  the  white  man  or 
the  Indians.  "We  know  that  the  treaty  does  not  meet  his  views, 
and  we  do  not  expect  to  be  able  to  make  one  that  will  suit  him," 
said  Colonel  Lea.  "We  know  that  he  tried  to  deceive  the  Indi- 
ans and  us.  He  wanted  to  have  the  Medawakantons  and  Wah- 
pakootas  make  a  treaty  by  themselves — a  separate  treaty — and 
leave  out  the  upper  bands  altogether.  He  did  not  want  them  to 
have  a  good  treaty  unless  he  could  dictate  just  how  it  should  be. 
He  advised  you  to  ask  $6,000,000  for  the  land,  which  he  knew 
was  a  foolish  proposition.  We  are  surprised  to  find  a  chief  like 
him,  whose  father  and  grandfather  were  great  chiefs.  We  have 
talked  much  about  this  treaty,  and  we  have  written  and  signed 
it,  and  now  it  is  too  late  to  talk  of  changing  it."  After  Colonel 
Lea  had  finished  this  stinging  rebuke.,  which  must  have  gone  deep 
to  the  heart  of  the  proud  old  chief,  there  was  evident  dissatis- 
faction among  the  Indians.  Governor  Ramsey  quickly  asked: 
"Will  either  of  the  principal  chiefs  sign?  Do  they  say  yes  .or 
no?"  But  they  said  neither.  They  were  silent  for  a  time,  and 
•evidently  displeased.  For  a  while  it  looked  as  though  the  papers 
would  not  receive  a  single  Indian  signature.  At  last  Bad  Hail, 
the  second  chief  of  Gray  Iron's  band,  arose  and  said  that  if* 
two  claims  against  the  whites  could  be  settled,  he  and  others 
would  sign.  Chief  Shakopee  then  came  forward  and  laid  before 
the  commissioners  a  written  deed,  made  and  signed  by  the 
Indians  in  1837.  and  conveying  to  their  kinswoman,  Mrs.  Lucy 
Bailly  (nee  Faribault),  the  wife  of  Alexis  Bailly,  three  sec- 
tions of  land,  including  the  present  site  of  the  town  of  Shakopee. 
The  chief  said  the  Indians  desired  that  this  land  be  secured  to 
Mrs.  Bailly  by  the  treaty,  or  that,  instead,  the  sum  of  $10,000  in 
cash  be  paid  her.  Bad  Hail  presented  another  paper,  providing 
that  a  provision  be  made  in  the  treaty  for  the  reservation  of  sev- 
eral hundred  acres  for  the'heirs  of  Scott  Campbell,  the  noted  old 
interpreter  at  Fort  Snelling.  Stands  Astride,  the  second  chief 
of  Shakopee 's  band,  demanded  that  the  request  made  in  both 
papers  be  complied  with.  But  Colonel  Lea  replied:  "Our  Great 
Father  will  not  allow  us  to  write  such  things  in  treaties.  If  you 
wish  to  pay  Mrs.  Bailly  $10,000  you  can  do  so  out  of  your  own 
money  when  the  treaty  is  ratified,  and  you  can  pay  Scott  Camp- 
bell's heirs  as  much  as  you  please;  the  money  will  be  yours." 
Little  Crow  again  spoke,  and  was,  as  before,  listened  to  with  the 
deepest  attention.  He  said  he  had  been  raised  in  a.  country 
where  there  were  plenty  of  trees  and  extensive  woods,  in  which 
wild  game  could  be  found.    If  the  Indian  reservations  were  made 


hi  extend  eastward  to  Traverse  des  Sioux,  there  would  be  plenty 
of  woods,  and  he  would  be  satisfied.     The  land  provided  for  the 
future    home    of   his   band    was   too    much   prairie.      Shakopee's 
brother  now  came  forward,  and  speaking  very  loudly  and  earn- 
estly, and  to  the  point,  said  he  represented  the  Indian  soldiers, 
or  braves,  and  was  one  of  the  owners  of  the  land.     "The  chiefs 
don't  seem  to  do  anything,"  he  said,  "and  we  must  be  heard." 
Like  Little  Crow,  he  thought  the  east  line  of  the  proposed  reser- 
vation was  too  high  vip  in  the  prairies,  and  he  indicated  Lake 
Minnetonka    and    Minnehaha    creek    as    the    locality    where    he 
thought  the  Medawakantons  would,  in  the  future,  be  willing  to 
live  and  die,  to  make  it  the  perpetual  home  of  the  band.    He  said 
the  soldiers  were  satisfied  with  the  other  parts  of  the  treaty. 
Governor  Ramsey  saw  a  valuable  opportunity.    He  began  flatter- 
ing not   only  the  warrior  who  had  spoken,  but   also  the  other 
Indian  soldiers,  saying  they  had  spoken  out  boldly  and  like  men. 
The  commissioners,  he  said,  have  been  waiting  to  hear  what  the 
warriors  wanted.     "Now,"  said  the   governor,   "we  will  come 
down  with  the  reservation  to  the  Little  Rock  river,  where  it 
empties   into   the   Minnesota;   this   line   will   certainly   give   you 
timber  enough."     Another  soldier  arose  and  demanded  that  the 
treaty  with  the  Chippewas  be  abrogated  so  that  he  and  the  other 
Sioux  could  go  to  war  against  them  whenever  they  pleased.    No 
attention  was  paid  to  this  speech  except  to  laugh  at  it.     Then 
( !hief  AVacoota.  the  mild  mannered,  gentle  hearted  head  of  the 
Red  Wing  band,  arose,  and  speaking  somewhat  slowly  and  delib- 
erately, made  a  somewhat  lengthy  speech,  in  which  he  said  that 
the  treaty  was  all  right  upon  its  face,  but  the  Indians,  and  he 
among  them,  feared  that  when  it  was  taken  to  Washington  it 
would  be  changed  to  their  great  injury,  just  as  the  treaty  of 
1837  had  been  changed.     "I  say  it  in  good  feeling,"  declared 
Wacoota,  "but  I  think  you  yourselves  believe  it  will  be  changed 
without   our   consent,   as   the   other   treaty  was."     He   said   as 
to  future  reservation,  he  wanted  it  south  of  where  he  and  his 
band  then  lived  (in  the  Cannon  river  country),  or  he  would  like 
his  particular  reservation  to  be  at  Pine  Island  or  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi, which  locality,  he  asserted,  was  a  good  place  for  the 
Indians.     He  wanted  this  condition  put  in  the  treaty  if  it  was 
right  and  just,  but  if  not,  then  "say  no  more  about  it."     He 
declared  he  was  pleased  with  the  treaty  generally,  but  hoped  that 
the  farming  for  the  Indians  would  be  better  done  than  it  had 
been.     Governor  Ramsey  complimented  "Wacoota  "as  a  man  I 
always   listen   to   with   great  respect."     Wacoota,   it   will  thus 
be  seen,  wanted  the  reservation  in  the  south  part  of  what  is  now 
Minnesota,  practically  in  what  is  now  Goodhue  county,  others 
wanted  it  in  other  places,  in  fact  there  was  so  wide  a  diversity 


of  opinion  that  the  red  men  would  probably  never  have  agreed 
among  themselves,  even  if  the  matter  had  been  left  entirely  to 
them.  The  commissioners  honestly  considered  that  they  had 
selected  a  good  place  for  the  Indian  reservation.  There  would 
be  plenty  of  wood  and  water,  and  the  Indians  could  continue  to 
hunt  in  the  big  woods  and  elsewhere  in  their  former  hunting 
grounds  as  usual  until  the  whites  should  come  in  and  settle 
upon  the  lands. 

Wabasha  now  arose  and  asked  whether  or  not  is  was  designed 
to  distinguish  the  chiefs  and  second  chiefs  by  marks  of  distinc- 
tion, and  to  allow  them  more  money  than  the  common  Indians 
should   receive.     Colonel  Lea  answered:     "Wabasha  now  talks 
like  a  man."    The  colonel  said  that  it  was  due  to  the  station  and 
responsibility   of  the   chiefs   that  they  should   be   distinguished 
from  the  other  Indians.    He  said  that  each  chief  ought  to  have  a 
medal  and  a  good  house  to  live  in,  so  that  when  his  friends  came 
to  see  him  they  could  be  accommodated  properly.   Wabasha  again 
arose.      This   time   he   turned  his   back  upon   the   commissioners 
and  spoke  to  his  warriors  somewhat  vehemently,  but  with  dignity. 
"Young  men,"  he  said,  "you  have  declared  that  the  chief  who 
got  up  first  to  sign  the  treaty,  you  would  like  killed;  it  is  this 
talk  that  has  caused  all  the  difficulty.     It  seems  that  you  have 
agreed  among  yourselves  that  you  will  sell  the  land,  and  you 
have  done  it  in  the  dark.    I  want  you  to  say  now  outright,  before 
all' the  people  here,  whether  you  are  willing  to  sell  the  land." 
Shakopee's  brother,  the  speaker  for  the  warriors,  sprang  to  his 
feet   and   called   out   excitedly:     "Wabasha  has   accused  us   of 
something  we  never  thought  of.     The  warriors  heard  that  the 
chiefs  were  making  a  treaty  and  they  did  not  like  it,  for  the 
land  really  belongs  to  the  warriors  and  not  to  the  chiefs;  but  they 
never  spoke  of  killing  the  chiefs.     It  was  true  that  the  soldiers 
have  got  together  and  agreed  to  sell  the  land ;  they  have  told 
him  so,  and  now  I  have  said  so."     Governor  Ramsey,  seeing  his 
opportunity,   quickly  said:     "This,  then,  being  the  understand- 
ing, let  the  soldiers  tell  us  what  chief  shall  sign  first."    Medicine 
Bottle,  the  head  soldier  of  Little   Crow's  Kaposia  band,  arose 
and  said:     "To  the  people  who  did  not  go  to  Washington  and 
make  the  treaty — to  them  belongs  the  land  on  this  side  of  the  river. 
There  is  one  chief  among  us  who  did  not  go  to  Washington  at 
that  time,  and  the  soldiers  want  him  to  sign  first.     He  has  been 
a  great  war  chief,  and  he  has  been  our  leader  against  the  Chip- 
pewas.     It  is  Little  Crow.     We  want  him  to  sign  first."     Little 
Crow  promptly  arose.    Without  a  tremor  he  faced  the  scowling 
warriors  who   had  opposed  the   treaty,   and  in   his   well  known 
clarion  voice,  keyed  to  a  high  pitch,  he  thus  addressed  them : 

"Soldiers,  it  has  been  said  by  some  of  you  that  the  first  that 


signs  this  treaty  you  will  kill.  Now  I  am  willing  to  be  first, 
but  I  am  not  afraid  you  will  kill  me.  If  you  do,  it  will  be  all 
right.  A  man  has  to  die  sometime,  and  he  ean  die  but  once. 
It  matters  little  to  me  when  my  time  comes,  nor  do  I  care  much 
how  it  comes,  though  I  would  rather  die  fighting  our  enemies. 
I  believe  this  treaty  will  be  best  for  the  Dakotas,  and  I  will 
sign  it,  even  if  a  dog  kills  me  before  I  lay  down  the  goose  quill." 
Then  turning  to  the  commissioners,  he  said:  "Fathers,  I  hope 
you  will  be  willing  to  let  our  new  reservation  come  down  to  the 
Traverse  des  Sioux,  so  that  our  people  can  be  comfortable  and 
not  crowded,  and  have  plenty  of  good  hunting  and  fishing 
grounds.  The  Swan  lake  and  other  lakes  have  plenty  of  fish 
and  wild  rice  and  there  is  plenty  of  wood.  Rock  creek  is  not 
far  enough  down  for  us.  I  am  glad  that  we  can  hunt  in  the  big 
woods  as  heretofore,  but  I  hope  you  will  bring  our  new  home 
down  to  Traverse  des  Sioux.*'  If  Little  Crow's  request  had  been 
granted,  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  new  reservation  would  have 
extended  about  forty  miles  below  Rock  creek,  or  two  miles  east 
of  St.  Peter,  and  Would  have  included  the  present  sites  of  that 
city,  New  Ulm  and  Mankato.  The  commissioners  declined  the 
request.  Colonel  Lea  said:  "The  reservation  is  all  right  as  if 
is."  Governor  Ramsey  said:  "We  have  marked  out  a  large 
piece  of  land  for  your  home ;  the  soldiers  asked  us  for  more  and 
we  gave  it.  It  is  all  that  we  can  do."  Colonel  Lea  added :  "No 
man  puts  any  food  in  his  mouth  by  much  talk,  but  often  gets 
hungry  if  he  talks  too  long.  Let  the  Little  Crow  and  the  other 
chief's  step  forward  and  sign."  Finding  the  commissioners  firm, 
Little  Crow  now  stepped  to  the  table  and,  being  handed  a  chair, 
sat  down  and  signed  each  of  the  duplicate  copies  of  the  treaty. 
It  has  been  said  that  Little  Crow  was  taught  to  write  by  the  Rev. 
Briggs  at  Lac  cpii  Parle,  and  another  account  declares  with 
equal  assurance  that  his  teacher  was  the  Rev.  Dr.  AVilliamson, 
at  Kaposia.  To  the  treaty  Little  Crow  signed  his  original  name, 
Tah  O-ya-te  Duta,  meaning  His  Red  Nation.  Wabasha  was  the 
next  to  sign,  making  his  mark.  Then  the  other  chiefs,  head 
soldiers  and  principal  warriors  crowded  around  to  affix  their 
marks.  In  all  there  were  sixty-five  Indian  signatures.  Of  Wa- 
coota  's  band,  the  following  affixed  their  signatures  :  Chief  Wah- 
koo-tay,  the  Shooter;  his  head,  soldier,  Iron  Cloud;  and  his 
principal  warriors.  Good  Iron  Voice,  Stands  on  the  Ground, 
Stands  Above,  Sacred  Fire,  Red  Stones,  Sacred  Blaze  and  Iron 

At  Mendota,  as  at  Traverse  des  Sioux,  when  the  treaty  was 
concluded,  each  Indian  signer  stepped  to  another  table  where 
lay  another  paper  which  he  signed.  This  was  called  the  traders' 
paper,  and  was  an  agreement  to  pay  the  "just  debts,"  so  called, 


of  the  Indians,  including  those  present  and  absent,  alive  and 
dead,  owing  to  the  traders  and  the  trading  company.  Some  of 
the  accounts  were  nearly  thirty  years  old,  and  the  Indians  who 
had  contracted  them  were  dead;  but  the  bands  willingly  assumed 
the  indebtedness  and  agreed  that  it  might  be  discharged  out  of 
the  first  money  paid  them.  The  territory  ceded  by  the  two 
treaties  was  declared  to  be:  "All  their  lands  in  the  state  of 
Iowa,  and  also  all  their  lands  in  the  territory  of  Minnesota  lying 
east  of  the  following  line,  to-wit :  Beginning  at  the  junction  of 
Buffalo  river  with  the  Red  River  of  the  North  (about  twelve 
miles  north  of  Morehead,  at  Georgetown  station,  in  Clay  county), 
thence  along  the  western  bank  of  said  Red  River  of  the  North, 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Sioux  Wood  river;  thence  along  the  western 
bank  of  said  Sioux  "Wood  river  to  Lake  Traverse;  thence  along 
the  western  shore  of  said  lake  to  the  southern  extremity  thereof; 
thence,  in  a  direct  line,  to  the  juncture  of  Kampeska  lake  with 
the  Tehan-Ka-Sna-Duka,  or  Sioux  river ;  thence  along  the  western 
bank  of  said  river  to  its  point  of  intersection  with  the  northern 
line  of  the  state  of  Iowa,  including  all  islands  in  said  rivers  and 

The  lower  bands,  in  which  designation  were  included  Wa- 
coota's  and  Wabasha's  bands,  were  to  receive  $1,410,000,  to  be 
paid  in  the  manner  and  form  following:  For  settling  debts  and 
removing  themselves  to  the  new  reservation,  $220,000.  one-half  to 
the  Medawakanton  bands,  and  one-half  to  the  single  Wahpa- 
koota  band;  for  schools,  mills,  and  opening  farms.  $30,000.  Of 
the  principal  of  $1,410,000,  the  sum  of  $30,000  in  cash  was  to  be 
distributed  among  the  two  bands  as  soon  as  the  treaty  was 
ratified,  and  $28,000  was  to  be  expended  annually  under  the 
president's  direction  as  follows:  To  a  civilization  fund.  $12,000; 
to  an  educational  fund.  $6,000;  for  goods  and  provisions,  $10,000. 
The  balance  of  the  principal,  or  $1,160,000,  was  to  remain  in  trust 
with  the  United  States  at  five  per  cent  interest,  to  be  paid 
annually  to  the  Indians  for  fifty  years,  commencing  July  J, 
1852.  The  $58,000  annuity  interest  was  to  be  expended  as  the 
first  installment— $30,000  in  cash,  $12,000  for  civilization,  $6,000 
for  education,  and  $10,000  for  goods  and  provisions.  The  back 
annuities  under  the  treaty  of  1837  remaining  unexpired  were 
also  to  be  paid  annually.  Their  reservation  was  to  extend  from 
the  mouth  of  the  Yellow  Medicine  and  Hawk  creek  southeasterly 
to  the  mouth  of  Rock  creek,  a  tract  twenty  miles  wide  and  about 
forty-five  miles  in  length.  The  half-breeds  of  the  Sioux  were 
to  receive  in  cash  $150,000  in  lieu  of  the  lands  allowed  them 
under  the  Prairie  du  Chien  treaty  of  1830,  but  which  they  had 
failed  to  claim. 

The  written   copies  of  the  Traverse  des  Sioux  and  the  Men- 


dota  treaties,  duly  signed  and  attested,  were  forwarded  to  Wash- 
ington to  be  acted  upon  by  the  senate  at  the  ensuing  session  of 
Congress.     An  unreasonably  long  delay  resulted.     Final  action 
was   not   had   until   the   following   summer,    when,    on   July   23, 
the   senate   ratified   both   treaties   with   important   amendments. 
The  provisions  for  reservations  for  both  the  upper  and  lower 
bands  were  stricken  out,  and  substitutes  adopted,  agreeing  to 
pay  ten  cents  an  acre  for  both  reservations,  and  authorizing  the 
president,  with  the  assent  of  the  Indians,  to  cause  to  be  set  apart 
other  reservations,   which   were   to  be  within  the  limits   of  the 
original   great  session.     The   provision   to  pay  $150,000   to  the 
half-bloods    of   the    lower    bands    was    also    stricken    out.     The 
treaties,  with  the  changes,  came  back  to  the  Indians  for  final 
ratification  and  agreement  to  the  alterations.     The  chiefs  of  the 
lower  bands  at  first  objected  very  strenuously,  but  finally,  on 
Saturday,   September  1,   1852,  at  Governor  Ramsey's  residence 
in  St.  Paul,  they  signed  the  amended  articles,  and  the  following 
Monday  the  chiefs   and  head  men   of  the  upper  bands  affixed 
their    marks.      As    amended,    the    treaties    were    proclaimed   by 
President  Fillmore  February  24,  1853.    The  Indians  were  allowed 
to  remain  in  their  old  villages,  or  if  they  preferred,  to  occupy 
their  reservations   as   originally  designated,   until   the  president 
selected  their  new  homes.     That  selection  was  never  made,  and 
the  original  reservations  were  finally  allowed  them.    The  removal 
of  the   lower  Indians  to   their  designated  reservation   began  in 
1853,   but    was   intermittent,   interrupted,    and   extended   over   a 
period  of  several  years.     The  Indians  weat  up  in  detachments,, 
as  they  felt  inclined.    After  living  on  the  reservation  for  a  time, 
some  of  them  returned  to  their  old  hunting  grounds  about  Men- 
dota,    Kaposia,    Wabasha,    Red    Wing    and    the    Cannon    river 
country,  where  they  lived  continuously  for  some  time,  visiting 
their  reservation  and  agency  only  at  the  time  of  the  payment 
of  their  annuities.     Finally,  by  the  offer  of  cabins  to  live  in,  or 
other  substantial  inducements,  nearly  all  of  them  were  induced 
to  settle  on  the  Redwood  Reserve,  so  that  in  1862,  at  the  time 
of  the  outbreak,  less  than  twenty  families  of  the  Medawakantons 
and  Wahpakootas  were  living  off  their  reservation.     AA'ith  the 
subsequent  history  of  these  Indians  this  volume  will  not  deal  in 
detail;  the  purpose  of  dealing  with  the  Indians  thus  far  in  this 
chapter  having  been  to  show  the  various  negotiations  by  which 
Goodhue   county  and  the  surrounding  territory  came  into   the 
possession  of  the  whites  and  was  thus  opened  for  settlement  and 

A  few  of  the  descendants  of  the  original  Goodhue  county 
Sioux  now  live  at  Prairie  Island,  where  they  have  a  settlement 
of  their  own  and  a  small  Episcopal  chapel.     It  will  be  recalled 


that  after  the  signing  of  the  treaty  ceding  this  and  other  counties 
to  the  whites  the  Indians  moved  to  the  designated  reservation. 
After  the  Indian  outbreak  of  1862  they  were  removed  to  the 
Santee  reservation  in  Nebraska.  For  several  years  after  the  out- 
break an  Indian's  life  was  not  safe  in  this  county,  among  the 
indignant  whites.  The  intense  feeling  after  a  time  died  away, 
and  a  few  Indians  wandered  back.  Their  hearts  longed  for 
the  scenes  of  their  youth,  and  one  by  one  they  located  on 
Prairie  Island.  Finally  several  families  relinquished  their  rights 
in  the  Santee  country,  and  in  return  the  government  built  them 
houses  and  made  them  as  comfortable  as  possible  at  Prairie 
Island.  The  annuities  have  now  expired,  and  these  descendants 
of  the  original  owners  earn  their  living  on  their  little  farms  and 
do  various  work  for  the  farmers  of  the  county.  Their  children 
attend  the  public  schools,  and  the  families  evidently  live  in  con- 
tentment and  happiness,  although  in  their  hearts  they  still  long 
for  the  old  days  of  hunting  and  fishing  and  the  free,  wild  out- 
door life,  when  the  country  was  all  theirs  and  the  demands  of 
conventionality  unknown. 

Hon.  William  C.  Williston,  now  deceased,  was  one  of  the  most 
eminent  of  Minnesota  jurists,  occupying  the  bench  of  the  First 
Judicial  distrid  from  1891  until  the  time  of  his  death,  June  22, 
1909.  He  was  bora  at  Cheraw,  Chesterfield  county,  South  Caro- 
lina, June  22.  1830,  son  of  William  K.  and  Annis  (Chapman) 
Williston,  the  former  of  whom  was  a  native  of  Simsbury,  Conn., 
and  the  latter  of  South  Hampton.  Mass.  The  parents  went  to 
South  Carolina  in  the  late  twenties,  and  Ihere  the  father  engaged 
in  the  mercantile  business.  In  1834  the  family  removed  to  Char- 
don.  Geauga  county.  Ohio.  There  the  mother  died  in  1863,  and 
the  father  came  to  Red  YVing,  where  he  ended  his  days.  During 
his  boyhood,  William  was  an  ap1  pupil  in  the  schools  of  his  neigh- 
borhood, and  early  entertained  the  idea  of  studying  for  the  legal 
profession.  Such  an  opportunity  later  presented  itself,  and  after 
several  years  of  training  in  the  office  of  Riddle  &  Thrasher,  of 
Chardon.  Ohio,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1854.  His  first 
practice  was  as  a  junior  partner  in  the  office  of  his  preceptors, 
the  firm  name  being  Riddle,  Thrasher  &  Williston.  Two  years 
later  Mr.  Williston  left  Chardon  and  came  to  Red  W^ing,  becom- 
ing a  partner  in  the  firm  of  Wilder  &  Williston  in  1859.  In  1862 
the  Civil  WTar  had  broken  out,  and  repeated  calls  for  volunteers 
were  being  sent  to  the  northern  states.  Desiring  to  be  of  service 
to  his  country,  Mr.  AVilliston  raised  a  company  of  volunteers,  of 
which  he  was  elected  captain.  This  company  was  organized  in 
August,  1862.  with  the  expectation  of  doing  service  in  the  South, 
but  the  outbreaking  of  the  Indian  outrages  caused  a  demand  for 
fighting  nearer  home.    Going  into  service  as  Company  G,  Seventh 

PUBLIC    I  *Y 

Lrrr**  so 


/htax-vfy.  /7z/t^^^_ 

PUWM      ' 


■J- J 


.Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  Captain  Williston 's  command  was 
ordered  with  the  rest  of  the  regiment  on  an  expedition  against 
the  Indians.  The  regiment  engaged  in  the  battle  of  Wood  Lake, 
September  22,  1862,  and  was  stationed  at  frontier  posts  until 
May,  1863,  when  again  ordered  on  an  Indian  expedition,  engaging 
the  Reds  in  battle  July  24,  26  and  28,  1863.  Company  G  was  then 
ordered  to  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  October  7,  1863,  where  Captain  Willis- 
ton  remained  till  the  spring  of  '64,  when  he  tendered  his  resigna- 
tion and  after  its  acceptance  returned  to  Red  Wing,  where  he 
resumed  his  practice  with  Judge  Wilder.  In. 1872  he  entered  into 
partnership  with  0.  M.  Hall,  this  arrangement  continuing  for 
several  years.  His  first  appointment  as  district  judge  came  in 
1891  from  Governor  William  R.  Merriam.  He  was  elected  to  the 
position  in  1892,  and  then  successively  re-elected  until  his  death. 
His  associate  on  the  bench  was  the  Hon.  F.  M.  Crosby,  of  Hast- 
ings. Judge  Williston  represented  the  county  in  the  legislature 
in  1873-74,  served  in  the  senate  in  1876-77,  was  clerk  of  the  city 
schools  seventeen  years,  and  city  attorney  several  terms  at  vari- 
ous times.  He  was  an  independent  voter,  a  communicant  of  the 
Episcopal  Church  for  fifty  years,  and  a  member  of  the  Masons. 
William  C.  Williston  was  married  in  1854,  at  Chardon,  Ohio,  to 
Mary  E.  Canfield,  of  that  place,  daughter  of  Austin  and  Lodemia 
(Benton)  Canfield.  To  this  union  were  born  two  sons  and  two 
daughters.  William  F.  C.  is  deceased.  Julia  W.  is  the  wife  of 
John  H.  Rich  of  Red  AYing.  Annie  C.  is  the  wife  of  Louis  Phelpsr 
now  of  Wyoming.     Eugene,  the  youngest  son.  died  in  infancy. 



Half-Breed  Tract — The  Location  and  Purpose — Issue  of  Scrip — 
Difficulties  Which  Ensued — Threats  and  Recourse  to  Wash- 
ington Finally  Settle  the  Matter — Spirit  Lake  Massacre 
— Investigation  by  Red  Wing  Men — Uprising  of  1862. 

The  difficulty  in  regard  to  the  "Half-breed  tract,"  so  called, 
was  a  source  of  much  inconvenience  to  the  early  settlers  in 
Goodhue  county.  As  has  previously  been  mentioned,  the  lower 
hands  of  Sioux  had  succeeded  in  having  set  off  a  certain  tract 
of  land,  lying  largely  in  the  present  Goodhue  county,  for  the 
benefit  of  their  half-bloods.  There  is  little  doubt  that  the  Indian 
traders  and  those  in  their  employ  were  the  chief  instruments 
in  having  such  a  reservation  made.  The  persons  who  would  be 
entitled  to  share  in  the  tract  were  at  that  time  chiefly  children 
under  age.  This  land  was  not  laid  off  into  townships  and 
sections  by  the  surveyors  until  about  a  year  after  the  other  parts 
of  the  county  had  been  surveyed.  A  few  settlors,  however,  had, 
by  permission  of  some  of  the  relatives  of  the  Indians,  settled 
within  the  tract.  Some  had  .purchased  rights  of  some  mixed 
bloods  and  had  made  a  claim  accordingly.  "When  the  United 
States  survey  was  finally  made,  no  attention  was  paid  to  previous 
boundaries,  the  townships  and  sections  being  laid  down  in  the 
usual  order,  and  in  conformity  with  the  adjacent  lands.  Soon 
after  the  land  office  was  opened  in  Red  Wing,  a  list  of  the 
names  of  all  persons  entitled  to  a  share  in  the  reserved  tract 
was  made  out  and  sent  to  the  general  land  office  in  Washington. 
Scrip  was  immediately  issued  to  each  name,  designating  the 
number  of  acres  the  person  named  was  entitled  to.  General 
Shields  brought  the  scrip  to  Minnesota  for  distribution.  A  great 
portion  of  this  scrip  passed  into  the  hands  of  parents  or  guard- 
ians of  children,  and  from  them  it  passed  into  the  hands  of 
speculators.  About  this  time  there  were  probably  two  hundred 
families  of  whites  settled  upon  this  tract.  Many  of  them  held 
quit  claims  from  individual  half-breeds  for  a  certain  number  of 
acres.     But  the  land  office  could  not  recognize  the  quit  claims, 



for  obvious  reasons.  Nothing  but  the  scrip  from  the  general 
land  office  would  avail  in  filing  an  entry  upon  any  portion  of  this 
land.  Speculators  saw  their  opportunity  and  began  to  take  up 
the  land  by  "laying  the  scrip,"  as  the  act  was  called,  in  the 
land  office.  The  choicest  locations  were  already  occupied  by 
settlers,  and  those  who  held  scrip  could  enter  the  lands  these 
settlers  had  chosen,  in  many  cases  where  extensive  improvements 
had  been  made,  the  soil  broken,  crops  raised,  and  buildings  and 
fences  erected.  The  actual  settlers  had  the  sympathy  of  all  the 
surrounding  population,  but  holders  of  the  scrip  had  the  legal 
advantage  of  the  situation,  and  commenced  to  obtain  titles  to 
farms  already  improved.  This  caused  the  settlers  to  rally  in 
self-defense.  Red  Wing,  in  particular,  was  a  scene  of  excite- 
ment, for  here  was  located  the  land  office,  and  the  eastern  part 
of  the  township  was  included  in  this  troublesome  tract.  Meetings 
were  held  by  the  actual  settlers  and  counsel  taken  as  to  methods 
of  procedure.  They  assessed  upon  themselves  a  tax,  raised 
money,  and  "sent  one  man  to  Washington  to  demand  justice,  as 
they  called  it,  in  their  behalf.  They  secured  from  the  land 
office  correct  copies  of  plats  of  all  the  townships  and  fractional 
townships  included  within  the  tract,  and  upon  whatever  quarter- 
section  a  settler  had  made  his  improvements,  that  quarter-section 
was  definitely  marked.  Holders  of  scrip  were  publicly  warned 
against  filing  upon  such  land.  At  a  meeting  of  those  interested 
in  the  cause  of  the  settlers,  which  was  held  at  the  Kelley  House 
m  Red  Wing,  March  17.  1856.  a  vigilance  committee  was  chosen 
to  prevent  any  more  scrip  being  laid  upon  land  already  occu- 
pied. This  committee  was  empowered  to  demand  that  in  every 
case  where  scrip  had  been  laid  on  the  land  of  actual  settlers 
said  scrip  should  immediately  be  raised.  This  committee  was 
composed  of  twenty-one  members.  They  were  men  of  dauntless 
courage  and  muscular  power,  and  devoted  their  whole  time  and 
energy  to  the  work  appointed  until  it  was  accomplished.  Two 
of  them  stood  as  sentinels  at  the  land  office,  armed  with  loaded 
revolvers,  constantly  watching  every  transaction  therein,  being 
relieved  by  another  two  at  stated  times.  In  the  meantime  the 
majority  of  the  committee  were  acting  as  detectives,  arresting 
and  bringing  to  trial  those  who  had  offended,  the  trial  not  being 
before  a  court  of  justice,  but  before  the  committee.  There  was 
at  that  time  no  court  house  and  no  jail,  and  the  lawyers  knew 
that  the  scrip  holders  were  acting  within  their  legal  rights.  The 
kind  of  justice  meted  out  is  shown  by  the  following  case,  related 
by  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Hancock : 

"A  former  Indian  trader  lived  on  Lake  Pepin.  He  had  been 
a  member  of  the  territorial  legislature,  was  a  man  of  some 
notoriety,  whose  well  known  character  has  procured  for  him  the 


title  of  'Bully.'  He  had  succeeded  in  'laying'  some  half-breed 
scrip  upon  land  occupied  by  a  settler.  The  committee  watched 
his  movements,  knowing  that  his  family  was  entitled  to  a  large 
amount  of  scrip,  and  waited  for  his  next  visit  to  the  land  office, 
which  was  not  many  days  after.  He  came  as  far  as  the  door 
of  the  land  office,  when  he  was  taken  into  the  custody  of  a 
strong  guard  of  armed  men.  whose  leader  commanded  him  to 
march  into  the  office  forthwith  and  raise  the  entry  he  had  made 
upon  a  settler's  land  by  scrip.  He  utterly  refused  to  comply  with 
this  demand  and  defied  the  committee  to  compel  him  to  do  so. 
Meantime  preparations  were  made  for  his  trial  and  its  conse- 
quences. "Witnesses  were  summoned  and  he  was  convicted  of 
refusing  to  obey  the  mandate  of  the  committee.  He  was  then 
escorted  down  to  the  river,  which  was  still  covered  with  ice, 
although  it  was  near  the  close  of  March.  Very  near  the  middle 
of  the  stream  a  hole  had  been  cut  big  enough  to  put  a  good 
sized  man  into.  He  was  there  told  to  take  his  choice  either 
to  go  immediately  to  the  land  office,  and  in  the  presence  of  the 
members  of  the  committee,  raise  that  entry  of  scrip  or  be  put 
down  through  the  ice.  He  looked  into  the  faces  of  those 
determined  men  a  moment,  and  made  up  his  mind  to  go  and  do 
as  they  had  ordered  in  relation  to  the  scrip." 

There  were  several  cases  of  this  kind,  disposed  of  by  threats, 
but  it  is  said  thai    uo   personal   injury  was  inflicted  on  anyone 
A  few  weeks  later  a  decision  from  the  land  office  at  Washington 
obviated  the  need  of  such  a  committee.     By  this  decision,  those 
who  had  settled  upon  a  tract    and  made  improvements  thereon 
had  the  preemption  and  homestead  rights,  the  same  as  on  other 
government    lands.      The   same   decision   granted   to   the   holders 
of  half-breed   scrip  the  privilege   of  laying  the  same  upon  any 
other    government    land    not    previously    claimed    by    an    actual 
settler.     All  the  vacant  land  on  the  half-breed  tract  was  taken 
very  soon  after  this  decision,  the  situation  near  the  river  enhanc- 
ing its  value.    The  disadvantage  of  a  distance  of  a  few  miles  from 
market  was  considered  a  great  drawback  in  those  days,  before 
the  advent  of  the  railroads.     Few  or  none  of  the  mixed  bloods 
ever  cared  to  settle  on  the  land  thus  set  apart  for  them.     Occa- 
sionally, a  decade  or  so  afterward,  there  was  an  echo  of  this 
half-breed  affair,  when  some  half-blood  whose  guardian  had  sold 
his    (the   half-breed's)    scrip   rights   would,   upon   attaining   his 
majority,  demand  of  the  settler  on  the  property  that  he,  too,  he 
paid.     In   most   cases   these   demands  were   complied   with,   the 
farmers,  whose  land  had  greatly  enhanced  in  value,  deeming  it 
wiser   to   pay  a    small   sum   than   to   undergo   the   expense   of  a 

Thus  passed  the  last  vestige  of  Indian  title  to  the  rich  valleys 


and    plains   of  this   county,    which   was   once,   and  for   countless 
generations,  a  camping  and  hunting  ground  of  the  red  men. 

Any  account  of  the  relations  between  the  Indians  and  Good- 
hue county  whites  would  be  incomplete  without  mention  of  the 
Spirit  Lake  massacre.  The  Sioux  of  Red  Wing's  village  used  to 
I  mast  that  although  they  had  killed  the  Chippewas  whenever 
they  had  found  any,  they  nor  any  of  their  tribe  had  ever  killed 
a  white  person.  But  this  was  in  1850  that  they  so  proudly  made 
their  boast  of  their  peaceable  inclination  toward  the  wmites. 
In  the  spring  of  1856  Red  Wing  enterprise  fitted  out  a  company 
of  men  consisting  of  G.  W.  Granger,  Barton  Snyder  and  Isaac 
Harriett,  and  sent  them  down  to  Spirit  lake  to  select  land  claims 
and  found  a  town.  In  the  fall  of  1856  there  were  seven  cabins 
around  the  lake,  all  of  which  were  occupied.  The  occupants 
were  a  man  named  Thatcher  and  family.  Marble  and  family, 
Judge  Howe  and  family,  Mattox  and  family,  and  Isaac  Harriett, 
Barton  Snyder  and  G.  W.  Granger,  the  three  last  named  occupy- 
ing one   cabin   and   keeping   ■"bachelor's   hall." 

For  some  years  previous  to  this,  a  few  Dakota  Indians  and 
outlaws,  under  the  lead  of  an  excommunicated  Dakota  Indian 
named  Inkpadootah,  had  been  roving  through  that  part  of  Iowa. 
They  had  been  driven  away  from  their  own  people  and  were  a 
band  unto  themselves — insolent,  devilish,  murderous  wretches; 
and  on  Sunday.  March  8,  1856,  they  came  to  Spirit  Lake,  and 
almost  immediately  commenced  their  hellish  work.  Mr.  Neill 
says  they  proceeded  to  a  cabin  occupied  only  by  men.  and  asked 
for  beef.  LTnderstanding.  as  they  afterward  asserted,  that  they 
received  permission  to  kill  one  of  the  cattle,  they  did  so.  and  com- 
menced cutting  it  up.  when  one  of  the  white  men  went  out  and 
knocked  the  Dakota  down.  In  retaliation  the  white  man  was 
shot  and  killed,  and,  surrounding  the  house,  the  Indians  set  fire 
to  the  thatched  roof  and  killed  the  occupants  as  they  attempted 
to  escape  from  the  burning  building — eleven  in  all. 

Other  authorities  say  there  was  no  beef  demanded  by  the 
Indians,  no  beef  killed,  and  that  Inkpadootah  wTas  not  assaulted 
hy  any  of  the  white  men,  but  that  the  attack  was  instigated  solely 
and  simply  by  Indian  treachery  and  thirst  for  blood.  This  ver- 
sion of  the  affair  is  maintained  by  Isaac  Lauver,  W.  W.  DeKay, 
George  Huntington  and  a  Mr.  Patten,  who  went  down  to  Spirit 
Lake  from  Red  "Wing  about  the  31st  of  March,  as  soon  as  they 
beard  of  the  massacre,  to  bury  the  remains  of  the  murdered 
victims  and  look  after  the  claim  interests. 

At  about  the  same  time  the  murdering  wretches  went  to  a 
cabin  occupied  by  a  man  named  Gardner  and  his  family,  and 
asked  for  something  to  eat.  Everything  in  the  house  was  given 
them.     While  they  were  disposing  of  Gardner's  hospitality,  his 


son-in-law  and  another  man  who  was  there  went  out  to  see 
if  everything  was  right  at  the  neighboring  cabin — the  one  just 
mentioned  as  being  set  on  fire.  It  was  their  last  mission,  for 
some  of  the  Indians  were  in  ambush,  and  shot  and  killed  them 
also.  The  Indians  left  Gardner's  after  securing  all  the  food 
the  cabin  contained,  but  returned  in  the  latter  part  of  the  after- 
noon and  killed  Gardner,  his  wife,  two  daughters  and  his  grand- 
children, and  carried  away  as  a  prisoner  one  other,  named  Abbey. 
That  night  or  the  next  morning  they  visited  the  homes  of  Noble 
and  Thatcher,  who  had  settled  there,  and  carried  Mrs.  Noble  and 
Mrs.  Thatcher  prisoners  to  their  camp.  On  Monday  a  man 
named  Markham  went  to  Gardner's  on  some  errand,  and  found 
the  murdered  bodies  of  the  entire  family.  Markham  hid  himself 
until  darkness  came  on,  and  then  went  to  Springfield  and 
reported  the  murder. 

The  following  Thursday.  March  12,  an  Indian  called  at 
Marble's  cabin,  three  miles  above  Thatcher's,  and  told  her  that 
the  white  people  down  the  lake  had  been  nipped  (killed)  a  day 
or  two  before.  This  intelligence  alarmed  the  Marbles,  the  more 
so  as  the  great  depth  of  snow  then  on  the  ground  had  prevented 
communication  with  the  settlement  below  for  some  days;  but, 
fearing  the  worst,  it  was  impossible  for  the  Marble  family  to 
inaugurate  any  measures  for  flight,  or  other  means  of  safety. 
The  next  morning,  Friday,  the  13th,  four  Indians,  with  friendly 
bearing,  came  to  Marble's  and  bantered  him  to  trade  rifles. 
The  trade  was  made,  after  which  they  prevailed  on  Marble  to  go 
out  on  the  lake  and  shoot  at  a  mark.  After  a  few  shots  they 
turned  in  the  direction  of  the  house,  and  managing  to  get  Marble 
in  advance  of  them,  the  Indians  shot  him,  and  he  fell 
dead  in  his  tracks.  Mrs.  Marble,  who  had  been  watching  the 
maneuvering  of  the  fiends,  saw  her  husband  fall,  and  ran  to  him, 
when  the  bloody  wretches  seized  her  and  told  her  they  would  not 
kill  her,  but  that  they  would  take  her  with  them,  and  she  was 
carried  to  the  camp,  where  they  had  previously  taken  Mrs.  Noble 
and  Mrs.  Thatcher  and  Miss  Gardner. 

Inkpadootah  and  his  followers  next  went  to  Springfield, 
where,  a  week  or  two  later,  they  butchered  the  entire  settlement. 
The  alarm  was  sent  to  Fort  Ridgely,  and  a  detachment  of  soldiers 
was  sent  out  in  pursuit.  They  found  and  buried  two  bodies,  and 
the  Iowans,  who  had  volunteered  and  started  out  to  avenge  the 
murders  and  outrages  as  soon  as  they  heard  of  their  perpetration, 
found  and  buried  twenty-nine  others.  Besides  these  thirty-one 
bodies  that  were  found  and  buried,  others  were  still  missing. 

Learning  that  soldiers  were  in  pursuit  of  them,  the  outlaws 
made  haste  to  leave  the  vicinity  of  their  depredations,  carrying 
the  four  women  along  with  them.     They  were  forced  to  carry 


heavy  burdens  by  day,  and  to  cut  wood,  build  fires  and  do  other 
camp  duty  when  night  came.  In  consequence  of  poor  health 
and  recent  childbirth,  Mrs.  Thatcher  became  burdensome,  and  at 
Big  Sioux  river,  when  attempting  to  cross  on  the  trunks  of 
trees  fallen  from  the  opposite  banks,  she  was  pushed  off  into  the 
deep,  cold  water  by  one  of  the  Indians.  She  swam  to  the  shore, 
when  they  pushed  her  back  into  the  current,  and  then  shot  at 
•her,  as  if  she  were  a  target,  until  life  was  extinct. 

In  May  two  men  from  Lac  qui  Parle,  who  had  been  taught 
to  read  and  write,  while  on  their  spring  hunt  found  themselves 
in  the  neighborhood  of  Inkpadootah  and  his  party.  Having 
heard  that  they  held  some  American  women  in  captivity,  the 
two  brothers  visited  the  camp,  though  this  was  at  some  risk  of 
their  own  lives,  since  Inkpadootah 's  hand  was  now  against  every 
man,  and  found  the  outlaws  and  succeeded  in  bargaining  for 
Mrs.  Marble,  whom  they  conveyed  to  their  mother's  mission 
and  reclothed  in  civilized  costume.  From  thence  she  was  con- 
veyed to  St.  Paul,  where  the  citizens  welcomed  her  and  made 
up  a  purse  of  $1,000.  with  which  she  was  presented. 

The  rescue  of  the  other  two  women  was  now  resolved  upon, 
and  Flandrau,  the  Dakota  agent,  commissioned  a  ''good  Indian" 
named  Paul  by  the  whites  to  accomplish  their  redemption.  He 
was  fitted  out  with  a  wagon,  two  horses  and  some  valuable 
presents,  and  started  on  his  mission.  He  found  Inkpadootah 
and  his  iniquitous  cut-throats  with  a  band  of  Yanktons  on  the 
James  river.  Only  Miss  Gardner  was  living.  Mrs.  Noble  had 
been  murdered  a  few  nights  before.  She  had  been  ordered 
to  go  out  and  be  subject  to  the  wishes  of  the  party,  and  refusing 
to  go,  a  son  of  Inkpadootah  dragged  her  out  by  the  hair  of 
her  head  and  killed  her.  The  next  morning  a  Dakota  woman 
took  Miss  Gardner  out  to  see  the  corpse,  which  had  been  horribly 
treated  after  death.  By  perseverance  and  large  presents,  Paul 
succeeded  in  redeeming  Miss  Gardner,  and  she  was  taken  to  the 
mission  house.  From  there  she  was  taken  to  St.  Paul,  from 
whence  she  was  sent  to  her  sister  in  Iowa. 

The  same  year,  about  the  last  of  June  or  first  of  July.  Ink- 
padootah's  son,  said  to  have  been  the  murderer  of  Mrs.  Noble, 
was  killed  while  seeking  to  escape  arrest  for  that  cruel  butchery. 
Keports  became  current  that  he  was  in  camp  on  l^ellow  Medicine 
river.  Flandrau  and  a  detachment  of  soldiers  from  Fort  Ridgely, 
acompanied  by  some  Indian  guides,  started  for  the  camp  to  arrest 
him.  As  they  approached  the  camp  the  alarm  was  given  and 
the  murderer  ran  from  his  lodge  and  concealed  himself  in  the 
brush  near  the  river,  but  was  soon  uncovered  and  shot  by  United 
States  soldiers.  The  rest  of  the  gang  managed  to  escape,  and 
are  said  to  have  taken  refuge  beyond  the  Missouri  river. 


The  Red  Wing  party  who  went  down  to  Spirit  Lake  to  bury 
the  dead,  etc,  as  already  mentioned,  found  the  remains  of 
Granger  by  the  side  of  the  cabin  he  occupied  in  common  with 
Snyder  and  Harriett.  Granger  had  first  been  shot,  and  then 
his  head  cut  off  from  above  the  mouth  and  cars  with  a  broadaxe. 
The  remains  of  Harriett  and  Snyder  were  found  about  forty  rods 
distant,  with  several  bullet  holes  through  their  bodies.  The 
presumption  was  they  had  started  out  to  defend  one  of  the  other 
cabins  and  that  they  were  shot  and  killed  where  their  bodies 
were  found. 

Aside  from  the  scare,  which  was  general  up  and  down  the 
state,  the  people  of  Goodhue  county  did  not  suffer  during  the 
outbreak  of  1862,  although  a  number  of  men  from  the  county 
participated  in  General  Sibley's  expedition  against  the  murderers. 

Judge  Eli  T.  Wilder,  whose  name  will  always  stand  for  that 
which  was  sturdy  and  good  in  pioneer  life,  was  born  in  Hart- 
land.  Conn..  November  27,  1813.  There  he  spent  his  early  boy- 
hood, and  attended  the  district  schools.  In  1837,  at  the  age  of 
nineteen,  he  moved  to  Ashtabula,  Ohio,  later  going  to  Paynes- 
ville.  in  the  same  state,  where  he  commenced  the  practice  of  law. 
In  the  early  fifties  he  was  elected  judge  of  the  court  of  common 
pleas  of  that  district,  a  position  he  filled  faithfully  and  honor- 
ably. In  1855  he  started  a  real  estate  office  in  Dubuque,  Iowa, 
with  offices  in  several  adjoining  A'illages  and  town.  It  was 
in  1856  that  he  took  up  his  home  in  Red  Wing.  Arriving 
here,  he  continued  the  land  business  and  again  took  up  the  prac- 
tice of  laAv.  In  this  profession  he  associated  himself  with  Judge 
AY.  A.  Williston,  the  firm  name  being  Wilder  and  Williston.  He 
was  one  of  the  first  members  of  Christ  church,  of  Red  Wing, 
presented  that  church  with  a  beautiful  altar,  and  devoted  the 
latter  years  of  his  life  largely  to  church  work.  He  was  one  of 
the  first  wardens  and  continued  in  that  position  until  the  time  of 
his  death.  At  one  time  Judge  Wilder  was  persuaded  to  run  for 
congress  on  the  Democratic  ticket,  to  which  party  he  paid  his 
political  allegiance.  He  died  at  his  home  here,  June  3,  1904. 
Judge  Wilder  was  first  married  to  Julia  W.  AVakefield,  of  Con- 
necticut, who  died  in  1866.  In  1868,  at  Waterloo,  X.  Y.,  he  was 
married  to  Larissa  Kendig,  who  survived  him.  At.  the  time  of 
his  death  it  was  said  of  him:  "Judge  Wilder  was  an  ideal  citi- 
zen, honest  and  upright  in  all  his  dealings,  and  always  taking  a 
deep  interest  in  the  welfare  and  progress  of  the  city.'' 

Hon.  E.  T.  Wilder 


THE   *RW 






Boundary  Lines  Given — First  Election — "Judge"  Young  and  His 
Ballot  Box — Imported  Voters — County  Officers  Appointed — 
First  Session  of  Board — Court  House  Resolution — School 
Districts — A  Few  Early  Sessions — Court  House  Contract — 

The   first  legislature   of   the   new  territory  met   at   St.   Paul, 
September  3,  1849.  and  adjourned  November  1  of  the  same  year. 
This  legislature  at  once  set  about  performing  the  highly  impor- 
tant work  of  dividing  the  territory  into  counties.    Those  created 
at  that  time  were  AVashington,  Ramsey,  Benton,  Itaska,  "Wabasha, 
Dakota,  Cass  and  Pembina.     The  land  designated  as  comprising 
the  first  three   counties  named  had  been   ceded  to  the  United 
States  by  the  Indians,  who  still  remained  in  practical  possession 
of  the  rest  of  the  territory.     It  was  therefore  declared  in  the 
act  that  the  other  named  counties  were  organized  for  the  purpose 
of  the  appointment  of  justices  of  the  peace,  constables,  and  such 
other  judicial  officers  as  might  be  specially  provided  for.     The 
county  of  Wabasha,  as  defined  by  that  legislature,  included  all 
that  part  of  the  territory  lying  east  of  a  line  running  due  south 
from  Pine  Bend,  on  the  Mississippi  river,  to  the  Iowa  line,  which 
tract  has  since  been  divided  into  eight  counties,  namely,  Wa- 
basha, Winona,  Olmsted,  Fillmore,  Houston,  Mower,  Dodge  and 
Goodhue.     March  5,  1853,  when  the  present  counties  of  Dakota 
and  Goodhue  were  set  off,  the  boundaries  were  rather  vaguely 
and  indefinitely  outlined,  on  account  of  the  absence  of  United 
States  surveys.     Goodhue  county  was  then  bounded  as  follows: 
Beginning  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Dakota  county,  thence  due 
southeast  on  a  line  twenty-five  miles,  thence  on  a  due  line  to 
Lake  Pepin,  at  a  point   on  said  lake  seven  miles  below  Sand 
Point,  thence  up  the  middle   of  said  lake   and  the  Mississippi 
river  to  the  boundary  line  of  Dakota  county,  thence  along  the 
line  of  said  county  to  the  place  of  beginning.     These  boundaries 
were  modified  by  subsequent  legislation,  February  23,  1854,  and 
made  to  conform  with  the  United  States  survey.     The  county  of 



Goodhue  was  attached  to  Wabasha  for  judicial  purposes,  and  the 
legislature  further  enacted  that   at  any  general  election  after 
March,  1853;  the  county  of  Goodhue  might  he  organized  for  all 
county  purposes,  provided  that  at  the  election  there  should  be 
not   less  than  fifty  legal  votes  cast.     The  law  under  which  the 
county    was   organized   authorized    the    governor   to   appoint   all 
county  officers  until  the  next  general  election  thereafter.     The 
first   Tuesday   in   October   was   named   as   the   day  for    general 
election,  and  as  the  only  two  questions  upon  which  the  people  of 
the  county  could  vote  were  for  the  location  of  the  county  seat 
and   for   a   representative    to    the   territorial   legislature,    party 
feeling  did  not  run  very  high.     There  was.  however,  a  necessity 
for  calling  out  the  fifty  voters  required  by  the  legislative  ad 
which    created   the    county.      AVacoota    and   Red    AVing   at   once 
became  rivals  for  the  location  of  the  county  scat.    It  was  a1  thai 
time  supposed  that  AVacoota  was  designed   to  become  a  great 
city,  and  the  lumbermen  who  had  made  it  their  headquarters 
were  anxious  to  have  the  county  seat  located  there.     The  people 
of  Red  AVing.  just  as  confident   in  the  future  of  their   village, 
were  just  as  anxious  as  were  their  brethren  down  the  river.     A 
discussion  of  "ways  and  means"  by  the  citizens  of  Red  AATing 
resulted  in  the  hiring  of  some  twenty  unmarried  men  from   St. 
Paul.     These  young  men  were  at   once  set  at  work   at  various 
occupations.     The  law  required  six  months'  residence  in  the  ter- 
ritory, but  ten  days  in  the  precinct  gave  to  a  citizen  of  the  terri- 
tory the  right  to  vote.     These  young  men  being  already  citizens 
of  the  territory,  it  can  easily  be  seen  that  ten  days'  employment 
in  Red  AVing  duly  qualified  them  to  become  voters  in  the  new 
county.    The  fateful  first  Tuesday  in  October,  1853,  duly  arrived, 
and  great  preparations  were  made  for  the  election.     There  being 
no  one  in  Red  Wing  at  that  time  qualified  to  administer  the  oath 
of  office  to  the  judges  of  election,  one  Benjamin  Young,  a  French 
half-blood,  who  had  been  selected  as  one  of  the  judges,  journeyed 
to  Point  Douglass   and  found  a  justice  who   administered  the 
legally  required  oath.     Thus  equipped  with  the  dignity  of  the 
law.   "Judge"  Young  returned   fully   prepared  to   act   and   to 
qualify  the  others  to  act.    It  was  found  that  there  was  no  ballot 
box,  and  Young,  having  already  covered  himself  with  immortal 
glory  as  the  first  judge  of  election  in  Goodhue  county,  proved 
equal  to  the  second  emergency  and  provided  for  the  deficiency 
an  empty  tea  chest.    A  conspicuous  feature  of  the  decorations  on 
this  chest  was  a  dove  of  peace  with  red  wings — surely  a  fitting 
emblem   for  the  village  in  wThich  the  election  was   held.     The 
statutes  of  the  state  of  AViseonsin  were  used  as  the  authority 
as   to    the   manner   of    conducting  the    election,    and    "Judge" 
Young  proved  fully  appreciative  of  the  solemnity  of  the  occasion. 


He  guarded  the  purity  of  the  ballol  box  with  great  caution,  and 
was  more  Hum  particular  in  regard  to  any  votes  which  favored 
Wacoota  as  the  county  scat.    At  that  time  a  number  of  men  were 
employed   in  cutting  wood  for  steamboats  at  various  points  up 
and  down  the  river.     Thej    Lived  in  their  respective  wood  yards, 
and  as  the  Line  between  the  slate  of  Wisconsin  and  the  territory 
of  Minnesota  was  not  clearly  understood  by  the  judges,  it  seemed 
necessary  for  them   to  challenge  every  woodchopper  and  oblige 
him   to   swear   in   his  -vote.     This   perhaps   seemed   all   the  more 
necessary  by  reason  of  the  fact   that  these  lumbermen  were  more 
or   less   connected   in    a    business    way   with   the   lumbermen   at 
Wacoota    and   were   likely   to   favor   that  place   as   county  seat. 
Men  in  citizens7  dress,  on  the  other  hand,  were  more  likely  to 
favor  Red  Wing,   and   of   course   to   the   Red  Wing   judges  the 
honor  and  qualifications  of  these  gentlemen  were  above  suspicion. 
James  Wells,  who  lived  on  the  border  of  Lake  Pepin,  was  tlie 
candidate  for  the    Legislature.     Having  no   opposing  candidate,. 
he  was  elected.     He  was  not  an  educated  man,  and  the  pre-elec- 
tion speech  which    he    made  in  Red  Wing  is  said  to  have  been 
very  rare  and  racy,  but  unfortunately  no  notes  remain  to  give  the 
present   generation   an   inkling  of  what  was  the   subject-matter 
of  that  first  political  speech  delivered  in  Goodhue  county.     The 
necessary  fifty  votes  were  cast,  and  Red  Wing,  receiving  a  ma- 
jority, became  the  county  seat.     In  the  spring  of  the  following 
year   Governor   Ramsey   appointed    county   officers,    as   follows : 
Sheriff,  P.  S.  Fish;  treasurer,  Calvin  Potter;  register  of  deeds, 
J.   W.   Hancock;   district   attorney,   Charles   Gardner;    clerk   of 
district  court,,  P.  Sandford;  justice  of  the  peace,  James  Akers; 
county    commissioners,    William    Lauver,    H.    L.    Bevans.    Rezin 

The  first  session  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  was 
held  at  3  o'clock  on  the  afternoon  of  June  16,  1854,  on  a  pile 
of  lumber  at  what  is  now  the  intersection  of  Main  and  Bush 
streets,  in  the  city  of  Red  Wing.  H.  L.  Bevans  was  chosen  as 
chairman  of  the  board  and  Joseph  W.  Hancock,  register  of  deeds, 
was  ex-officio  clerk  of  the  board.  But  little  business  was  trans- 
acted. L.  Bates,  John  Day  and  M.  Sorin  were  named  as  assessors 
and  the  following  districts  were  assigned  them :  The  northern 
district,  including  that  portion  of  the  county  between  the  north- 
ern boundary  and  Hay  creek,  was  assigned  as  Mr.  Bates'  district. 
The  middle  district,  including  that  portion  of  the  county  between 
Hay  creek  and  Bullard's  creek,  was  assigned  as  Mr.  Day's  dis- 
trict. The  southern  district,  including  that  portion  of  the  county 
not  included  in  the  other  two  districts,  and  the  whole  of  Wabasha 
county,  was  assigned  as  Sorin 's  district. 

The  next  meeting  was  held  June  28,  and  several  bills  were 

Ot*#^*  r%  ~-  m  a  . 


presented,  as  follows :  W.  S.  Combs,  blank  books,  $23.85 ;  Leman 
Bates,  assessor,  $6;  John  Day,  assessor,  $16;  total,  $45.85.  The 
returns  made  by  the  assessors  showed  the  assessed  valuation 
of  taxable  property  in  the  first  and  second  districts  to  be  $63,305. 
The  estimated  expenses  of  the  county  for  the  year  1851  were 
$551.09,  and  it  Avas  ordered  that  a  tax  of  one  per  cent  be  raised 
on  the  assessment  to  meet  the  same.  Charles  Spates  was  ap- 
pointed road  supervisor  of  road  district  Xo.  1,  which  extended 
east  to  the  west  side  of  Hay  creek  and  embraced  all  the  north- 
western portion  of  the  county  from  that  line.  T.  J.  Smith  was 
appointed  supervisor  of  road  district  No.  2,  which  extended  from 
the  west  side  of  Hay  creek  to  Bullard's  creek,  embracing  the 
middle  portion  of  the  county.  ( 'harles  Reed  was  appointed  super- 
visor of  road  district  No.  3.  embracing  all  the  southern  portion 
of  the  county  from  the  line  of  Bullard's  creek.  William  Free- 
born. P.  Sandford  and  Leman  Bates  were  appointed  judges  of 
election  in  the  Red  Wing  precinct,  and  Al'exis  Bailey,  Charles 
Reed  and  F.  S.  Richardson  in  the  Wabasha  precind.  Wibasha 
having  attached  to  this  county  for  judicial  purposes. 

The  following  resolution  was  passed :  Resolved,  To  raise  $600 
toward  the  erection  of  county  buildings  next  year;  Provided, 
that  the  legal  voters  of  the  county,  by  a  majority  of  votes  con- 
sent to  the  same.  The  location  of  the  court  house  was  discussed 
at  some  length,  and  the  subject  finally  laid  over  until  the  fol- 
lowing meeting.  At  the  next  meeting,  held  July  22.  the  following 
resolution  was  passed:  Resolved,  That  the  court  house  for  Good- 
hue county  be  located  on  the  block  marked  and  known  as  "  Court 
House  Block"  on  the  town  plat  of  Red  Wing,  according  to  the 
survey  of  the  same  made  by  J.  Knauer,  June  23,  1853.  The 
next  meeting  was  held  November  18,  and  the  consideration  of 
bills  against  the  county  was  taken  up.  Bills  were  allowed  to  the 
amount  of  $84.60,  and  sheriff  and  justice  fees  to  the  amount  of 
$84.60  were  ordered  paid.  At  the  closing  session,  in  December, 
the  amount  of  $61  additional  was  allowed,  making  the  total 
expenses  of  the  county  for  the  year  $336.90. 

On  the  second  Tuesday  in  October,  1854,  the  people  elected 
a  full  board  of  county  officers :  Commissioners,  Rezin  Spates, 
A.  W.  Post,  P.  S.  Fish ;  sheriff,  Harry  C.  Hoffman ;  treasurer,  M. 
Sorin ;  district  attorney,  P.  Sandford ;  judge  of  probate,  A.  D. 
Shaw;  county  surveyor,  S.  A.  Hart;  clerk  of  the  court,  P.  San- 
ford  ;  register  of  deeds,  J.  W.  Hancock.  The  first  meeting  of  the 
regularly  elected  board  of  county  commissioners  was  held  Jan- 
uary 1,  1855.  No  business  was  transacted  at  this  meeting.  The 
members  simply  subscribed  to  the  oath  of  office  and  elected  P. 
S.  Fish  as  chairman.  At  their  second  meeting,  held  January  .8, 
the    board    examined    and    approved    the    following    accounts: 


Charles  Spates,  for  services  as  supervisor,  $5;  H.  S.  Simmons, 
burial  expenses  of  a   German  pauper,  $6;  total,  $11.     At  this 
session  of  the  board  the  first  grand  and  petit  juries  were  selected, 
the  former  consisting  of  fifty  members  and  the  latter  of  seventy- 
two  members.     The  jurors  were  divided  between  Goodhue  and 
Wabasha  counties  according  to  population,  the  two  counties,  as 
previously  noted,  being  attached  together  for  judicial  purposes. 
A  readjustment  of  the  assessment  districts  was  also  agreed 
upon.      The   first    district   included   that   portion   of   the    county 
between  Hay  creek  and  the  northwestern  line  of  the  county;  the 
second   district   included   that   portion   between   Hay    creek   and 
Potter's  creek;  the  third  district  was  composed  of  the  remaining 
portion  of  the  county.     A  vacancy  was  declared  to  exist  in  the 
second  district,  which  was  filled  by  the  appointment  of  P.  Van- 
denberg.     Wacoota  precinct  was   established.     It  embraced  the 
southeastern  portion  of  the  county  and  was  separated  from  Red 
"Wing  precinct  by  a  line  commencing  at  the  mouth  of  Potter's 
creek,  thence  along  that  creek  to  its  head,  and  thence  on  a  line 
due  south  to  the  county  line.     J.  0.  Weatherby  was  appointed 
justice  of  the  peace  for  Red  Wing,  and  W.  R.  Culbertson  and 
Joseph  Middaugh  were  named  as   constables  in  the  Red  Wing 
precinct.     The  clerk  of  the  court  and  the  register  of  deeds  were 
directed  to  procure  a  case  for  each  of  their  offices  suitable  for 
filing  papers.    The  register  of  deeds  was  also  directed  to  procure 
blank  books  for  the  use  of  the  county,   one  for  his  own  office 
and  one  for  the   clerk  of  the   court.     Provisions  were  made  to 
secure  permanent  offices  for  the  use  of  the  county  officials.     In 
the  months  of  May  and  June  P.  Sandford  erected  a  small  frame 
building  next  west  of  his  residence  on  Main  street  in  the  preseiit 
city  of  Red  Wing,  for  a  laAv  office,  this  being  the  first  law  office 
erected  in  the   city.     This  building  was  used  by  Mr.   Sandford 
himself,  as  clerk  of  the  court,  and  by  the  register  of  deeds,  the 
treasurer  when  he  had  official  business  to  transact,  and  by  the 
board  of  county  commissioners  when  they  held  their  meetings. 
The  sheriff  and  the  treasurer  for  the  most  part  "carried  their 
offices  in  their  hats."    This  pioneer  lawyer's  office  was  also  used 
as  a  court  house  for  the  first  term  of  court  held  in  the  county 
in   1854.     It  was  also  occupied  by  the  United  Stales  hind   office 
in  the  spring  of  1855,  and  until  more  commodious  quarters  could 
be  secured.     It  was  in  this  building  that   the   first   government 
sale  of  lands  was  made  in  the  county. 

The  next  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  was 
held  on  the  second  day  of  April,  Avhen  Florence  precincl  was 
established,  bounded  as  follows:  "Commencing  at  the  mouth 
of  Wells  creek,  on  Lake  Pepin,  and  running  up  that  creek  to  the 
main  bluff:  thence  south  to  the  county  line;  thence  along  the 


county  line  to  Lake  Pepin ;  thence  up  the  lake  to  the  place  of 
beginning."  John  Keller  was  appointed  justice  of  the  peace, 
and  Samuel  Corey,  R.  S.  Phillips  and  Hamilton  Gudley  were 
named  as  judges  of  election.  Vermillion  precinct  was  also  estab- 
lished: "Commencing  where  the  line  between  sections  12  and 
13  strikes  the  Mississippi  river,  and  running  theme  west  until 
it  strikes  the  Dakota  county  line;  thence  along  said  line  to  the 
river,  thence  down  the  river  to  the  place  of  beginning."  Eli 
Preble.  Silas  Harper  and  J.  R.  Niles  were  appointed  to  be  judges 
of  elections.  The  clerk  of  the  district  court  was  allowed  $12 
per  quarter  for  furnishing  his  own  other. 

The  establishment  of  schools  districts  was  next  considered. 
District  No.  1  included  that  portion  of  the  county  between  the 
valley  of  Hay  creek  and  Potter's  creek,  bordering  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi river  and  extending  back  from  the  same  six  miles. 
Districl  No.  2  included  that  portion  of  the  county  within  the 
following  bounds:  Commencing  at  the  mouth  of  Potter's  creek 
on  the  Mississippi  river;  thence  down  the  river  and  Lake  Pepin 
to  Point  No-Point;  i  hence  due  south  to  Wells'  creek;  1  hence 
up  the  valley  of  the  same  to  the  mouth  of  Rock  creek;  thence 
west  to  the  precinct  line;  thence  along  said  line  to  the  place  of 
beginning.  District  No.  3  included  thai  portion  of  the  county 
within  the  following  bounds:  Commencing  at  the  Cannon  river 
bridge;  thence  due  south  three  miles:  thence  east  to  Hay  creek 
valley;  thence  down  said  valley  to  the  Mississippi;  thence  up 
the  Mississippi  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cannon  river;  thence  up 
the  Cannon  river  to  the  place  of  beginning.  It  was  also  resolved 
that  the  clerk  of  the  hoard  be  instructed  to  obtain  the  opinion 
of  Rice.  Hollingshead  and  Becker,  of  St.  Paul,  in  relation  to  the 
legality  of  the  jurisdiction  of  Goodhue  county  over  Wabasha 
county,  particularly  in  regard  to  taxes.  The  hoard  then 
adjourned  until  May  12. 

A  special  session  was  held  April  14.  with  R.  Spates  and  P. 
S.  Fish  in  attendance,  but  these  two  seemed  to  have  managed  to 
transact  as  much  business  as  a  much  larger  board  would  be 
expected  to. 

At  this  session  school  district  No.  4  was  established,  as  fol- 
lows: ■•Commencing  on  the  west  between  Sillman  Harrison's 
and  John  Kelley's;  thence  southwest  to  the  Sugar  Loaf,  includ- 
ing the  valley  south  and  west  of  the  Sugar  Loaf;  thence  west 
to  Lake  Pepin;  thence  up  the  lake  to  the  place  of  beginning. 
R.  L.  Phillips  was  appointed  a  justice  of  the  peace,  and  Abner 
Dwelly  a  judge  of  election  in  Florence  precinct. 

May  12  R.  Spates  and  A.  W.  Post  were  present.  The  first 
road  petition  of  which  any  record  is  found  was  considered  at 
this  session,  and  L.  Bates  and   Charles  Spates  were  appointed 

HIST0B"5    OF  GOODHUE  (DIM  X  103 

viewers  or  examiners.  The  petition  was  presented  by  Hans 
Mattson  and  others.  School  district  No.  5  was  established,  with 
the  following  boundaries:  Beginning  at  Poplar  Grove  on  the 
Cannon  Palls  road,  about  ten  miles  from  Rod  Wing,  and  running 
southwest  to  the  south  fork  of  the  Cannon,  so  as  to  include  the 
claim  of  Ross  and  Champe;  thence  down  the  south  fork  to  its 
mouth,  thence  down  the  Cannon  river  two  miles;  thence  in  a 
southeasterly  direction  to  the  place  of  beginning. 

A  special  session  was  called  June  9,  with  the  full  board  in 
attendance.  A  petition  signed  by  E.  Westervelt  and  others  was 
presented,  asking  for  the  erection  of  a  new  eleetion  precinct, 
which  after  some  consideration  was  dismissed.  The  residents  of 
Westervell  also  presented  ;i  petition  asking  for  a  new-  school 
district.  This  was  granted  and  the  district  established  as  school 
district  Xo.  6.  Its  boundaries  were  given  as  follows:  Commenc- 
ing at  a  point  on  Lake  Pepin  above  Westervelt 's,  running  in  a 
southwesterly  direction  to  the  divide  of  t he  creek  near  Maham- 
mon  Drum's  claim:  thence  in  a  southeasterly  direction  along 
the  range  of  bluffs  to  tin'  district  below;  thence  east  to  the  lake; 
and  thence  up  the  river  to  the  place  of  beginning.  Two  other 
districts  were  also  established.  Distriel  Xo.  7  was  outlined  as 
follows:  Commencing  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Ingram's  claim 
on  Wells'  creek,  thence  north  to  the  top  and  center  of  the  bluff 
dividing  the  valley  of  Wells'  creek  from  the  military  road  valley; 
thence  to  the  head  of  Rock  creek ;  thence  embracing  the  Rock 
creek  settlement  to  Wells'  creek  and  the  AVells'  creek  settlement 
to  the  place  of  beginning.  A  study  of  these  boundaries  will  show 
that  a  part  of  this  district  was  taken  from  the  original  No.  2. 
District  No.  8,  as  established,  had  the  following  boundaries : 
Commencing  in  the  middle  of  section  10,  township  113,  range 
15  west,  and  running  south  to  the  district  line  of  district  No.  5 ; 
thence  along  said  line  west  three  miles  ;  thence  north  to  the  north- 
west side  of  Brownson's  claim;  thence  east  to  the  place  of 
beginning.    This  district  was  taken  in  part  from  district  No.  3. 

At  the  session  of  the  board  held  June  25  Cannon  Falls 
precinct  was  established.  In  the  language  of  the  resolution 
passed  it  "comprised  the  whole  of  township  No.  112,  range  17 
west,  and  so  much  of  township  No.  112,  range  18  west,  as  lies 
within  the  county  of  Goodhue,  being  formed  out  of  a  portion  of 
Red  Wing  precinct.  The  voting  place  was  established  at  Du- 
rand's  hotel.  The  board  then  agreed  to  raise  a  tax  of  one  per 
cent  on  the  total  valuation  of  property,  for  territorial,  school  and 
county  purposes,  for  the  year  1855.  The  total  valuation  of  tax- 
able property  was  $144,521 ;  the  wdiole  amount  to  be  raised  being 
$1,455.21.     The   increase  of  taxable  property   in  one  year  v<as 


$79,216.      The    increase    in    expenses,    including    territorial    and 
school  tax,  was  $901.12. 

The  full  board  was  present  at  the  special  session  held  August 
4.  A  petition  was  presented  from  the  citizens  of  the  Florence 
precinct,  asking  that  the  boundaries  of  that  precinct  be  changed. 
After  some  discussion  this  matter  was  laid  on  the  table,  and  at 
a  subsequent  meeting  dismissed.  A  new  precinct,  called  Sackton, 
was  established,  including  three  townships — No.  109  in  ranges 
15,  16  and  17  west.  Abram  Pierce  was  appointed  justice  of  the 
peace ;  Simon  Sackett,  constable ;  and  Joseph  P.  Rutherford, 
James  Haggard  and  Robert  T.  Freeman  were  named  as  judges 
of  elections.  The  resignations  of  J.  Middaugh,  constable,  and 
F.  D.  Clark,  justice  of  the  peace,  Red  Wing,  were  received  and 
accepted.  The  clerk  of  the  board  was  directed  to  obtain,  if 
possible,  printed  blanks  for  county  orders  and  poll  books.  Pre- 
vious to  this  time  printed  blanks  were  not  used,  and  all  forms 
were  written  out  with  the  pen.  The  county  surveyor  was 
directed  to  procure  a  proper  book  and  to  copy  into  the  same 
the  field  notes  of  the  United  States  survey  of  the  county. 

At  the  September  meeting  the  precinct  of  Dunkirk  was  estab- 
lished, embracing  townsbips  No.  110  in  ranges  17  and  18  west, 
and  township  No.  119,  range  18  west.  There  was  also  established 
the  precinct  of  Belle  Creek,  embracing  townships  111  in  ranges 
15  and  16  west,  and  township  No.  112,  range  16  west.  Anders 
Knutson,  Ole  Oleson  and  Gunder  Oleson  were  appointed  to  be 
judges  of  election  in  Dunkirk  precinct,  and  the  election  was 
ordered  to  be  held  at  the  home  of  Anders  Knutson.  Walter 
Doyle,  Hans  Mattson  and  S.  P.  Chandler  were  appointed  judges 
of  election  in  Belle  Creek,  and  the  election  was  ordered  to  be 
held  at  the  house  of  Walter  Doyle.  Townships  No.  Ill,  in  ranges 
17  and  18,  were  added  to  Cannon  Falls  precinct,  and  townships 
110  in  ranges  15  and  16  to  Sackton  precinct.  The  consideration 
of  road  petitions,  appointment  of  viewers  and  the  perfecting  of 
arrangements  for  the  October  election,  together  with  the  exam- 
ination of  sundry  accounts,  occupied  the  remainder  of  the 

A  session  of  one  day  was  held  October  1,  being  devoted 
mainly  to  the  examination  and  allowance  of  accounts.  The 
Spring  Creek  Valley  and  White  Rock  road  was  declared  to  be 
established  and  the  clerk  was  directed  to  notify  the  supervisors 
of  the  same.  The  Wacoota  and  Wells'  Creek,  and  the  Wells y 
Creek  and  Florence  roads  were  also  declared  to  be  established, 
and  a  like  order  directed  to  be  issued  to  the  supervisors  of  the 
several  districts  through  which  the  roads  were  located.  The  last 
session  of  the  year  was  held  December  5,  when  school  district 
No.  9  was  established  with  boundaries  as  follows:     Commencing 


at  the  southwest  corner  of  section  31,  township  109,  range  15 
east ;  thence  east  three  miles ;  thence  north  two  and  a  half  miles ; 
thence  west  three  miles;  thence  south  two  and  a  half  miles  to 
the  place  of  beginning.  It  appears  that  the  people  did  not  vote 
in  favor  of  raising  money  for  county  buildings,  and  nothing 
further  was  done  by  the  board  of  commissioners  toward  that 
object  until  1857,  except  to  discuss  the  matter. 

The  first  session  of  the  board  in  1856  was  held  January  7. 
The  time  of  that  and  the  immediate  subsequent  session  was 
devoted  to  roads,  auditing  accounts,  revising  and  re-establishing 
the  assessors'  districts  and  doing  like  business.  At  a  session 
commencing  April  8,  1856,  the  following  named  citizens  were 
appointed  judges  of  elections:  Red  Wing— Seth  Washburn,  R. 
C.  Todd,  T.  J.  Smith;  Wacoota— H.  F.  Simmons,  George  Post, 
Abner  W.  Post;  Belle  Creek— Hans  Mattson,  Walter  Doyle,  S. 
P.  Chandler;  Florence — Samuel  Corey,  Henry  Phillips,  J.  L. 
Dixon;  Sackton — Simon  Sackett,  D.  F.  Stevens,  P.  G.  Wilson; 
Cannon  Falls — Andrus  Durand,  E.  N.  Sumner,  Alonzo  Dibble; 
Dunkirk— Ole  Oleson,  Samuel  Knutson,  Guncler  Oleson.  School 
districts  numbered  10,  11.  12,  13  and  14  were  established,  the 
rapid  influx  of  immigration  making  the  re-establishment  of  the 
districts  necessary.  The  total  valuation  returned  by  the  assessors 
was  $630,227.  Previous  to  this  taxes  had  been  laid  on  personal 
property  alone.  This  year  real  estate  became  also  taxable.  The 
business  transacted  this  year  was  practically  the  same  as  that 
of  the  previous  year,  and  a  detailed  description  would  prove 
too  lengthy  for  the  confines  of  this  history.  Those  interested 
in  any  particular  detail  can  find  the  minutes  of  these  early 
meetings  still  on  record  among  the  county  archives.  In  the 
year  1857  action  was  taken  in  earnest  to  provide  county  build- 
ings. The  county  board  consisted  of  S.  P.  Chandler,  S.  J.  Hasler 
and  A.  W.  Post.  S.  J.  Hasler  was  elected  chairman.  At  a  meet- 
ing held  April  10  the  following  action  was  taken  :  Whereas,  It 
is  the  duty  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  to  provide  for 
the  erecting  and  repairing  of  court  houses,  jails,  and  other  neces- 
sary public  buildings  for  the  use  of  the  county;  and  whereas, 
this  county  has  no  court  house  or  jail;  Resolved,  That  this  board 
provide  for  the  erection  of  suitable  buildings  for  the  use  of  the 

Several  resolutions  followed  in  regard  to  the  issue  of  bonds, 
their  negotiation,  etc.  Then  they  resolved  to  receive  plans  and 
specifications  for  a  court  house,  to  be  furnished  on  or  before 
the  first  of  May,  at  the  register  of  deeds'  office,  and  directed  the 
clerk  to  have  these  resolutions  printed  three  successive  weeks 
in  the  "Red  Wing  Gazette."  It  was  the  opinion  of  this  board 
that  the  court  house  block  was  too  far  from  the  river,  and  they 


resolved  that  the  block  now  occupied  by  the  Episcopal  church 
should  be  the  site  of  the  county  buildings,  provided  a  good  title 
could  be  obtained.  But  nothing  came  of  the  above  resolves  of 
the  commissioners,  probably  on  account  of  the  great  stringency 
in  money  matters  which  prevailed  throughout  the  country  that 

The  next  reference  to  the  building  of  the  court  house  found 
in  the  minutes  of  the  board  is  under  date  of  February  2,  1858, 
when,  upon  motion  of  petition  of  T.  J.  Smith,  it  was  voted  to 
erect  county  buildings  according  to  plans  and  specifications  pre- 
sented by  the  Messrs.  Chaffee,  provided  that  sufficient  county 
bonds  could  be  negotiated  at  a  sum  not  less  than  ninety  cents  on 
the  dollar,  the  cost  of  said  building  not  to  exceed  $30,000.  S. 
P.  Chandler  and  S.  J.  Hasler  voted  in  favor  of  this,  and  M.  S. 
Chandler  voted  in  the  negative.  It  will  be  remembered  that  at 
that  time  Goodhue  county  bonds  were  worth  from  sixty  to 
seventy-five  cents  on  the  dollar.  On  the  third  Monday  in  May 
the  bids  were  opened  and  the  contract  awarded  to  Messrs.  Sim- 
mons, Hill  and  Stevens,  at  $24,000,  that  being  the  lowest  and 
best  offer  and  included  the  entire  completion  of  the  building. 
Monday.  May  17.  the  board  voted  to  notify  the  contractors  that 
the  court  house  and  jail  were  to  be  erected  on  the  block  known 
and  designated  as  "court  house  block"  square,  in  the  city  of 
Red  "Wing.  Tuesday.  June  8,  the  board  voted  to  accept  the 
sureties  given  by  Daniel  C.  Hill  and  others  for  the  completion 
of  the  contract  for  building  the  court  house  and  jail,  and  ordered 
that  bonds  be  placed  on  file  in  the  county  clerk's  office.  It  was 
also  voted,  to  quote  the  minutes,  "that  the  contract  entered  into 
by  the  county  commissioners  of  said  county  of  Goodhue  county, 
Minn.,  parties  of  the  first  part,  and  Daniel  C.  Hill  and  others, 
parties  of  the  second  part,  to  build  the  county  buildings,  and  to 
receive  in  pay  therefor  the  bonds  of  the  said  county  of  Goodhue, 
Minn.,  to  the  amount  of  twenty-six  thousand,  six  hundred  and 
sixty-six  dollars  ($26,666.00)  be  placed  on  file."  Old  settlers 
interviewed  are  unable  to  account  for  this  difference  in  $2,666 
above  the  original  contract  price,  but  it  may  have  been  due  to 
the  fact  that  the  pay  was  to  be  accepted  in  bonds  which  were  not 
at  par  value. 

Jesse  M.  Hodgman,  deceased,  for  several  years  mayor  of  Red 
AVing.  and  one  of  the  early  merchants  of  the  city,  was  born  in 
Hartland,  Windsor  county,  Vermont,  February  17,  1818.  As  a 
boy  he  received  his  education  in  the  district  schools  of  his  native 
county,  in  a  seminary  at  Meriden,  N.  H.,  and  in  a  state  military 
school  at  Norwich,  Vt.,  remaining  on  the  farm  until  1854.  In 
the  fall  of  that  year  he  arrived  in  Red  Wing  for  the  first  time. 
Although  there  was  little  here  at  that  time  to  indicate  the  future 

.A  J/, 


h^  ^a^ 

km : 



prosperity  of  the  city,  he  became  fired  with  the  enthusiasm  of 
the  other  pioneers  of  those  days,  and  returning  east,  he  settled 
up  his  business  affairs  there,  again  coming  to  Red  Wing  in  the 
spring  of  1856.  Here  he  remained  from  that  date  until  the  time 
of  his  death,  with  the  exception  of  some  trips  he  made  for 
the  benefit  of  Ins  health.  lie  first  became  engaged  in  the  mer- 
cantile business,  which  he  continued  for  some  time,  working  also 
in  the  store  of  Mclntire  &  Sheldon.  In  1860  he  became  a  partner 
with  T.  1-5.  Sheldon  in  the  forwarding  and  commission  business, 
in  which  he  remained  until  IstiT.  when  failing  health  necessi- 
tated his  partial  retirement.  He  became  a  director  in  the  First 
National  bank  and  continued  in  this  capacity  until  1880.  In 
1887.  with  B.  B.  Herbert  and  others,  he  started  the  Red  Wing 
Building  Association,  of  which  he  was  secretary.  First  elected 
mayor  of  Red  Wing  in  1868,  he  was  several  times  re-elected,  and 
filled  flic  position  with  dignity  and  ability.  Aside  from  his 
other  interests  he  was  a  stockholder  in  the  local  potteries.  In 
1880  lie  went  to  California  in  search  of  health,  and  three  years 
later  returned  someAvhat  benefited.  His  death,  April  11,  1887, 
at  his  home  in  Red  Wing,  was  the  occasion  of  the  following 
obituary  notice,  which  expresses  the  feelings  of  those  with  whom 
he  w^as  associated:  "Until  compelled  by  failing  health  to  retire, 
he  was  actively  employed  in  some  department  of  practical  busi- 
ness in  which  the  prosperity  of  tin1  city  was  more  or  less  directly 
identified.  Never  a  strong  man,  he  had  the  time  and  the  energy 
and  the  pluck  to  devote  to  the  public  as  wTell  as  to  his  private 
interests,  when  that  public — as  on  more  than  one  occasion  it 
did — demanded  his  services.  As  mayor  of  the  city  for  successive 
terms,  and  in  the  discharge  of  other  public  trusts,  his  labors  are 
remembered  with  gratitude.  They  were  uniformly  in  the  direc- 
tion of  public  interests,  intelligently  understood  and  appreciated, 
and  from  that  line  of  action  nothing  could  swerve  him.  In 
public,  as  in  private,  those  who  knew  him  best  esteemed  him 
best.  In  the  family  and  home  circle  he  was  ever  the  kind,  con- 
siderate husband,  father  and  friend,  thoughtful  for  others  to  the 
last.  A  true  and  noble  and  manly  man  has  gone  from  among  us. 
The  world  is  better  for  such  as  he."  Mr.  Hodgman  was  married 
May  13,  1862,  at  Red  Wing,  to  Harriet  Kellogg,  one  of  the  first 
music  teachers  of  Red  Wing,  a  musician  of  much  ability  and  a 
graduate  of  the  Young  Ladies'  Seminary  of  Music,  at  Coopers- 
town,  N.  Y.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Joseph  and  Harriet 
(Kingsley),  Kellogg,  natives  of  New  York  state.  Her  father,  a 
harness  maker  by  trade,  died  in  his  native  state  in  1850,  and  his 
widow  came  to  St.  Paul  with  her  family  in  1853.  In  1856  they 
came  to  Red  Wing,  where  she  died  in  May.  1S65.  To  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Hodgman  was  born  one  son,  Leonard  W..  July  13.  1863,  at 


Red  Wing.  He  married  Ellen  Graves,  of  St.  Paul.  November  7, 
1908.  For  many  years  he  has  been  treasurer  of  the  State  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Deaf. 

James  Cox,  a  pioneer  resident  of  this  county,  now  many  years 
deceased,  is  a  native  of  Long  Island,  born  April  30,  1812,  son  of 
Oliver  and  Zipporah  Cox,  natives  of  New  England,  who  crossed 
the  sound  and  settled  on  one  of  the  productive  Long  Island  farms 
in  the  early  days.  Here  James  was  reared,  living  the  life  of 
the  other  boys  of  his  period,  and  receiving  such  education  as  the 
schools  of  his  neighborhood  afforded.  He  went  to  Ohio  as  a 
young  man.  and  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business,  until  failing 
health  made  it  advisable  for  him  to  seek  employment  which 
would  allow  him  to  be  out-of-doors  more.  At  Burlington,  Iowa, 
he  conducted  a  real  estate  office,  and  here  his  health  so  greatly 
improved  that  he  was  enabled  to  open  a  hardware  establishment 
in  St.  Paul.  During  the  year  1856,  when  the  wonderful  possi- 
bilities of  Goodhue  county,  then  recently  opened  to  settlement, 
were  being  discussed  on  every  street  corner  in  St.  Paul,  he  be- 
came enthused  with  the  prospects,  and  coming  to  Lean  township, 
secured  a  farm  and  carried  on  agricultural  operations  for  ten 
years.  In  1865  he  located  in  Red  Wing,  remaining  until  his 
death,  January  6.  1888.  He  was  a  man  of  acute  business  judg- 
ment and  staunch  New  England  integrity,  handicapped  how- 
ever, through  life,  by  a  lack  of  robust  health.  The  family  still 
resides  in  the  house  lie  occupied  when  first  locating  in  Red  Wing. 
This  building  is  one  of  the  earlier  residences  of  the  city,  and 
within  its  Avails  much  of  the  early  court  business  of  the  county 
was  transacted.  The  old  farm-house  at  Leon,  with  its  surround- 
ing acres,  also  remains  in  the  possession  of  the  family  even  to 
the  present  day.  Mt.  Cox  was  married  in  1842,  at  Piqua,  Miami 
county.  Ohio,  to  Anna  E.  Caldwell,  daughter  of  Matthew  and 
Harriet  V.  (Kemper)  Caldwell,  natives  of  Kanawha,  W.  Va.,  at 
that  time  a  part  of  Virginia.  The  father  was  a  large  land  owner 
and  possessed  the  acres  upon  which  the  flourishing  city  of  Piqua, 
Ohio,  is  now  located.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cox  were  born  six  chil- 
dren :  Edwin  was  born  at  Piqua,  served  as  corporal  in  Company 
F.  First  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry,  and  was  killed  in  the 
battle  of  Antietam;  Oliver  C.  deceased;  Alice  C,  born  at  Piqua, 
is  also  deceased;  Eleanor  Z.,  also  born  at  Piqua,  married  Fred- 
erick ('.  Boynton,  head  miller  of  the  Cataract  mills,  and  fourth 
owner  of  the  Goodhue  mills  at  Cannon  Falls.  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Boynton  have  three  children:  Gertrude,  now  Mrs.  G.  C.  Ansley, 
and  has  one  child.  Jeanette :  James  C,  married  Myrle  Morowitz; 
Bessie  is  deceased.  Harriet,  the  fourth  child  of  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Cox,  was  born  at  Burlington,  Iowa,  married  H.  T.  Eames,  lives 
at  Fergus  Falls.  Minn.,   and  has  three   children.  Maude  E.  and 


James  Cox 


AST  a  a 




— ^ 


Ray  T.j  living,  and  Jessie,  deceased.  Anna  Belle,  the  fifth  child 
of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cox,  was  born  at  St.  Paul,  May  14,  1856,  mar- 
ried W.  H.  Brink,  a  St.  Paul  contractor,  and  has  ♦four  children: 
Harry  LeRoy  married  Mabel  Wallace  and  has  two  children,  Dor- 
othy E.  and  Barbara.  Nellie  C.  married  Louis  Nienaber,  of  St. 
Paul.  Charlotte  M.  married  George  K.  Fargo,  of  Oregon,  by 
whom  she  has  one  child,  Stevens.  Drake  is  the  youngest  son. 
Nina  F..  born  in  Red  Wing,  youngest  child  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Cox, 
resides  at  home.  The  family  faith  is  that  of  the  Methodist 
Kpiseopal  church. 



An  Experiment  in  County  Government — Members  of  First  Board 
of  Supervisors — Two  Chairmen — Party  Feeling  High — 
Sheriff  Preserves  Order — Another  Version — Court  House 
Trouble — Meeting  of  Second  Board — Resumption  of  County 
Commissioner  System — History  of  Court  House — County 
Poor  Farm — Political  History. 

In  1858  began  an   era  which   in  this  state  continued  but  a 
short  time,  that  of  county  government  by  a  board  of  supervisors 
consisting   of   the    chairmen   of   the    different   townships.      This 
change  came  near  discontinuing  the  work  of  the  contractors  on 
the  new  county  buildings  for  a  time.     The  new  law  was  passed 
by  the  legislature  on  March  20,  to  go  into  effect  July  12.     The 
county  was  thus  divided  into  twenty-one  townships,  an  account 
of  which  will  be  found  elsewhere.     The  board  of  supervisors, 
which  held  its  first  meeting  on  the  second  Monday  in  July,  1858, 
consisted  of  the  following  members :    Belle  Creek,  S.  P.  Chandler; 
York     (now    Belvidere),    Cyrus    Crouch;    Zumbrota,    Isaac    C. 
Stearns;    Union    (now    Burnside),    "W.    S.    Grow;    Featherstone, 
"William  Freyberger ;  Red  Wing,  A.  B.  Miller  and  P.  Vandenberg, 
Orrin  Densmore ;  Wanamingo,  J.  G.  Brown;  Pine  Island,  C.  R. 
White;  Holden,  Knut  Knutson ;  Roscoe,  Oliver  "Webb;  Central 
Point.  Robert  L.  Phillips;  "Warsaw,  N.  L.   Townsend;  Stanton, 
John  Thomas ;  Hay  Creek,  S.  A.  Wise ;  Wacoota,  Leonard  Gould ; 
Cannon  Falls,  C.  W.  Gillett;  Kenyon,  Addison  Hilton;  Cherry 
Grove,   D.   M.   Haggard    (vice  Woodward,   resigned)  ;   Florence, 
Dr.  J.  Kelly;  Vasa,  Charles  Himmelman ;  Leon,  E.  Stone.     Of 
the  opening  session  of  this  board  two  accounts  are  given.     An 
historian  of  the  late  seventies  relates  the  incidents  as  follows: 
"In  those  days  the  Democratic  party  held  the  balance  of  power 
in  Goodhue  county.     The  Republican  party  was  just  beginning 
to  assume  strength  and  power.     In  the  selecting  of  a  presiding 
officer  for  the  board,. both  parties  sought  to  gain  advantage  and 
secure  the  chairmanship.     S.  P.  Chandler  was  the  Democratic 
candidate  for  chairman,  and  I.  C.  Stearns  was  the  Republican 



•candidate.  There  was  a  tie  vote,  both  men  claimed  the  right  to 
the  chair  and  both  assumed  to  preside.  One  of  them  sat  upon 
one  side  of  the  table  and  the  other  one  sat  upon  the  other  side. 
When  a  motion  was  submitted — and  any  number  of  motions  were 
made — both  men  wrould  'put  the  question.'  Party  feeling  ran 
high,  and  extended  outside  of  the  hall  in  which  the  board  held 
its  sessions.  A  fight  was  expected  and  'Deacon'  DeKay,  wTho  was 
deputy  sheriff  at  the  time,  was  directed  by  his  superior  officer 
to  'take  up  a  position'  in  the  supervisors'  room  and  preserve 
order  at  all  hazards,  even  if  it  took  the  last  man  and  the  last 
dollar  in  the  baliwick.  He  obeyed  orders,  and  for  two  or  three 
days  maintained  a  position  between  the  two  chairmen ;  but  the 
fight  didn  't  '  come  off. '  The  troubled  waters  were  finally  quieted 
by  the  giving  way  of  J.  G.  Brown,  of  Wanamingo,  who  came 
over  to  the  support  of  Mr.  Chandler,  making  a  rousing  speech 
in  explanation  of  his  action.  A  record  of  those  turbulous  days, 
writh  the  motions,  explanations,  etc.,  covers  several  pages  of  the 
journal  and  makes  rather  humorous  reading." 

Of  these  same  days,  another  writer,  who  was  present  at  this 
meeting  says:  "The  facts,  briefly,  are  these:  At  the  first  meet- 
ing of  the  county  board  in  July,  referred  to,  S.  P.  Chandler  was 
chosen  chairman  and  acted  as  such,  without  any  sign  of  opposi- 
tion from  any  one.  The  annual  meeting  of  the  board  was  fixed 
by  law  on  the  second  Monday  in  September,  and  the  board 
adjourned  to  meet  at  that  time.  The  board  so  met,  and  it  was 
the  understanding  of  the  entire  board  that  at  this  annual  meeting 
a  newr  election  of  officers  should  take  place.  Accordingly  the 
board  proceeded  to  the  election  of  a  chairman,  and  I.  C.  Stearns 
was  elected  by  nearly,  if  not  quite,  a  two-thirds  majority.  He 
took  the  chair  without  any  opposition,  and  a  large  amount  of 
business  was  transacted  at  that  forenoon  session.  During  the 
adjournment  of  two  hours  for  the  afternoon  session  the  matter 
was  taken  up  in  town,  and  it  was  the  opinion  of  the  lawyers 
that  the  new  election  of  officers  was  illegal,  and  that  the  officers 
elected  at  the  first  meeting  held  over  for  the  ensuing  year.  S. 
P.  Chandler  was  advised  by  them  to  again  assume  the  chair  and 
claim  his  right  as  chairman.  So  at  the  commencement  of  the 
afternoon  session  both  officers  called  the  meeting  to  order  simul- 
taneously and  both  put  motions  as  they  were  made  and  seconded. 
This,  however,  continued  but  a  short  time,  for  as  the  voice  of 
the  new  chairman  was  stronger  and  the  board  paid  attention 
to  him  rather  than  to  the  other,  the  old  chairman  subsided,  and 
said  he  appointed  the  other  to  act  for  him  until  the  matter  was 
settled.  The  board  then  proceeded  to  discuss  the  question  at 
length.  The  house  wTas  crowded  with  the  talent  of  Red  Wing 
and  the  excitement  was  at  a  high  pitch;  for  it  was  understood 


that  the  validity  of  the  bonds  issued  for  the  building  of  the 
court  house  would  be  affected  by  this  decision,  as  the  chairman 
of  the  board  must  sign  the  bonds.  Hon.  AY.  AY.  Phelps  was 
invited  to  address  the  board  on  the  subject,  and  he  made  a 
lengthy  argument  in  favor  of  the  continuance  of  the  old  officers. 
This  discussion  occupied  nearly  the  entire  afternoon.  It  was 
finally  decided  by  the  board  that  the  old  officers  held  over,  and 
Mr.  Chandler  was  allowed  quietly  to  resume  his  seat  as 

The  first  meeting  of  this  board  was  held  in  the  office  of  the 
register  of  deeds,  but  almost  equal  in  number  to  the  territorial 
legislature,  the  room  was  found  to  be  too  small,  and  a  committee 
consisting  of  Messrs.  Crouch.  Stearns  and  Brown  was  appointed 
to  secure  a  suitable  room,  which  was  found  and  obtained  in  Todd 
and  Hasler's  block  on  Main  street,  the  hall  being  then  designated 
as  "Hasler's  Hall."  When  the  board  was  full  organized,  cre- 
dentials examined  and  passed  upon,  etc.,  the  following  commit- 
tees were  appointed:  Equalization,  C.  R.  White,  0.  Densmore, 
I.  C.  Stearns.  R.  S.  Phillips.  C.  AY.  Gillett;  claims.  AY.  S.  Grow, 
J.  G.  Brown.  S.  A.  Wise;  ways  and  means,  A.  B.  Miller,  C.  R. 
White.  L.  N.  Gould;  roads  and  bridges,  0.  Webb,  J.  Kelley, 
('.  Crouch:  appropriations,  P.  Arandenberg,  I.  C.  Stearns,  C.  W. 
Gillett;  justices  and  constables,  R.  L.  Phillips.  C.  R.  White, 
AY.  S.  Grow  :  sheriff  and  jailer,  I.  C.  Stearns,  C.  AY.  Gillett,  John 
Thomas;  to  settle  with  treasurer,  E.  Stone,  P.  Vandenberg,  R.  L. 
Phillips;  printing,  A.  B.  Miller,  P.  Aranderbergh,  0.  Densmore; 
Poor,  Robert  L.  Phillips,  Knut  Knutson,  D.  M.  Haggard;  per 
diem  and  mileage,  J.  Thomas,  A.  Hilton,  N.  D.  Townsend;  public 
buildings,  0.  Densmore,  I.  C.  Stearns.  AY.  S.  Grow,  C.  AY.  Gillett, 
R.  L.  Phillips.  This  committee  was  elected  by  the  board  by 
acclamation.  James  T.  Chamberlain,  deputy  register  of  deeds, 
was  elected  clerk  of  the  board,  and  the  supervisors  proceeded  to 

AYednesday  morning,  July  14,  a  resolution  regarding  the 
court  house  was  offered  by  A.  B.  Miller,  and  after  some  discussion 
the  following  was  adopted:  "Whereas,  There  exists  a  diversity 
of  opinion  in  reference  to  the  binding  force  upon  Goodhue  county, 
of  a  certain  contract  entered  into  by  the  county  commissioners 
of  Goodhue  county,  with  certain  other  parties  for  the  erection 
of  courthouse  and  jail,  and  Whereas,  Any  action  pending  the 
uncertainty  which  now  exists  would  be  very  imprudent  and 
hazardous;  therefore,  Resolved,  That  this  board  by  a  committee 
of  three  of  its  members,  to  be  elected  by  the  board,  proceed  at 
once  to  ascertain  our  liability  under  said  contract,  by  presenting 
the  case,  without  delay,  to  the  judge  of  the  Fifth  Judicial  Dis- 
trict of  this  state  for  his  decision  upon  the  validity  of  said  con- 


tract,  or  to  obtain  the  besl  possible  legal  advice  on  the  matter. 
The  resolution  was  especially  considered  at  a  meeting  held  at 
2  o'clock  that  afternoon. 

A  communication  having  been  received  from  the  senator  and 
representatives  in  the  state  legislature  in  regard  to  the  passage 
of  a  hill,  authorizing  the  hoard  of  supervisors  to  issue  bonds  for 
the  erection  of  county  buildings,  Mr.  Grow  offered  the  following 
resolution:  Kesolved.  By  the  Hoard  of  Supervisors  of  Goodhue 
county,  that  onr  senator  and  our  representatives  he  requested  to 
secure  the  passage  of  a  hill  introduced  by  Senator  Hudson, 
July  0,  1858,  entitled  •"An  ad  to  authorize  the  board  of  super- 
visors of  Goodhue  county  to  issue  county  bonds  for  the  erection 
of  county  buildings."  This  was  passed  with  an  amendment  to 
the  effect  that  in  making  this  request  the  board  expressed  no 
opinion  as  to  the  issuing  of  the  bonds  or  the  erecting  of  the 
buildings.  It  might  here  be  explained  that  there  was  some  oppo- 
sition to  the  erection  of  these  buildings,  but  the  outlying  town- 
ships, who  believed  that  the  new  buildings  would  give  Red  Wing 
an  undue  advantage  over  the  other  villages.  Orrin  Densmore 
and  J.  ('.  Stearns  were  appointed  on  the  committee  to  secure 
legal  opinion,  and  a  statement  was  secured  from  Judge  D.  Cooper, 
of  St.  Paul,  in  which  he  declared  that  in  his  opinion,  the  contract 
made  by  the  previous  board  of  county  officers  was  binding  upon 
the  county.  Efforts  were  then  made  to  persuade  the  Messrs. 
Hill,  Simmons  &  Co.  to  relinquish  their  contract.  This  they 
refused  to  do,  saying  that  they  had  sub-let  much  of  the  work,  had 
ordered  materials,  and  been  to  other  expense.  They  offered,  how- 
ever, to  accept  for  consideration  a  written  proposition  of  the 
terms  of  a  compromise. 

In  the  meantime,  on  July  15,  the  board  found  that  a  still  more 
commodious  room  was  necessary,  and  Harmony  Hall,  at  the 
corner  of  Main  and  Fulton  streets,  was  secured.  This  hall  the 
hoard  occupied  July  16,  and  at  subsequent  meetings.  In  after 
years  this  building  was  destroyed  by  fire.  Efforts  at  a  compro- 
mise with  the  contractors  failed,  and  it  "was  finally  voted  to 
assume  the  obligation  laid  on  the  county  by  the  previous  board, 
and  proceed  with  the  work  on  the  courthouse.  In  passing  this 
vote,  the  supervisors  strongly  censured  the  previous  board  for  so 
heavily  loading  the  county  in  debt,  and  expressed  its  regret  that 
the  county  should  be  bound  by  such  an  act,  and  the  same  time 
declaring  that  there. seemed  no  way  in  which  the  present  super- 
visors could  legally  cancel  the  contract  of  the  previous  county 

The  second  county  board  of  supervisors  was  elected  in  April. 
1859,  and  met  in  the  office  of  the  county  auditor,  April  18,  of  that 
year.     J.'  A.  Thacher,  of  Zumbrota.  was  elected  chairman  of  the 


board.  April  21.  it  was  voted  that  the  committee  on  public 
buildings  accept  in  behalf  of  the  county,  the  courthouse  when 
completely  finished  according  to  contract,  and  that  when  so 
finished  the  county  officers  who  were  to  occupy  it  were  instructed 
to  move  into  it. 

The  courthouse  was  completed  and  turned  over  by  the  con- 
tractors in  August.  1859.  The  excavation,  the  stone  work  and 
the  carpenter  work  was  done  by  Hill.  Simmons  &  Co.,  the  con- 
tractors. The  brick  was  made  by  John  Carter,  and  laid  in  the 
wall  by  Messrs.  Brink.  Todd  &  Co.  The  plastering  work  was 
done  by  the  same  firm.  Some  of  the  bonds  issued  to  pay  for  the 
erection  of  the  courthouse  were  sold  to  individuals  in  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  some  to  people  in  New  York  and  Ohio,  and  a  larger 
part  were  taken  by  Red  "Wing  parties.  They  were  sold  at  various 
prices,  ranging  from  fifty  to  ninety  cents  on  the  dollar.  They 
were  all  taken  up  later,  and  the  expense  of  the  courthouse, 
improvement  and  enclosure  of  the  square  were  all  paid  for  within 
about  two  decades  of  the  time  the  bills  were  contracted. 

Pending   the    efforts   of  the   board   of  supervisors   to  secure 
a  cancellation  of  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the  courthouse, 
and   before   the   bonds   were   issued,    the    contractors   had    been 
advised  that  the  bonds  could  be  sold  in  the  New  York  market  for 
nearly  their  face  value.     An  agent  was  sent  on  there  to  investi- 
gate the  matter,  but  before  negotiations  were  perfected  a  cir- 
cumstance    occurred   which    completely    destroyed    the    value    of 
Minnesota  county  bonds  in  thai   market.     Hennepin  county  had 
issued  bonds  and  built  a  courthouse.     When  the  bonds  became 
due  they  were  not  paid,  a  fact   that    threw   discredit  upon  all 
county  bonds,  and  rendered  them  worthless  among  commercial 
men  and  capitalists.    The  taxpayers  outside  of  Red  Wing  and  its 
immediate  vicinity  were  fighting  the  court  house  enterprise,  and 
using. every  possible  means  to  induce  the  contractors  to  throw  up 
the  contract,  even  offering  them  as  much  as  $10,000  cash  to  do  so. 
The  business  men  and  friends  of  Red  Wing  were  as  anxious  the 
other  way.  and  when,  they  found  the  bonds  could  not  be  sold  for 
ready  money,   they  promised  to   render  all  necessary  material 
assistance  to  the   contractors — to  take  the  bonds,  advance   the 
money,  etc.     When  the  money  was  needed,  however,  it  was  not 
forthcoming.     When  any  of  them  did  advance  money  to  aid  the 
contractors,  they  required  a  deposit  of  two  dollars  in  bonds  for 
one  dollar  in  money  advanced,  and  three  per  cent  a  month  in 
money  besides.     At  least  this  was  the  statement  made  by  Mr. 
Hill  many  years  after  these  events  transpired.    Sometimes  bonds 
could  be  traded  for  lumber  and  other  building  materials,  but  only 
at  heavy  discounts.     Through  the  influence  of  Mr.  Phelps,  the 
member  of  Congress  from  Minnesota,  and  Mr.  Gebhort-.  member 


of  Congress  from  Ohio,  some  of  the  bonds  were  sold  for  seventy 
cents  cash,  both  of  these  men,  themselves,  taking  small  amounts. 
Red  Wing  men,  when  the  pinch  came,  were  for  the  most  part 
very  reluct  ant  to  invest  their  money  in  these  bonds;  and  when 
they  did  so,  asked  very  large  discounts. 

The  building  of  the  courthouse  was  undertaken  at  the  instance 
■of  Red  Wing  interests.  The  taxpayers  in  the  interior  were 
opposed  to  the  enterprise,  hoping  in  time  to  secure  a  division  of 
the  county,  or  the  location  of  the  public  buildings  at  a  more  cen- 
tral point.  AY  lien  the  board  of  supervisors  succeeded  the  county 
commissioners,  the  county  townships  had  a  larger  representa- 
tion, and  acting  in  accordance  with  the  will  of  their  constituents, 
they  sought  to  avoid  for  the  county  the  responsibility  of  the  con- 
tract made  by  their  prede<  essors  in  office.  As  already  mentioned, 
however,  the  legal  advice  satisfied  the  board  that  the  contract 
was  legal  and  binding,  and  rather  than  risk  involving  the  county 
in  heavy  damages,  the  contract  was  allowed  to  proceed,  and  the 
courthouse  was  completed  within  the  time  specified  in  the  agree- 
ment. For  countless  decades  the  building  will  remain  as  a  monu- 
ment to  those  early  commissioners,  who  had  the  broadness  of 
mind  and  strength  of  purpose  to  look  ahead,  and  to  plan  for  what 
the  county  was  to  become,  regardless  of  the  opposition  and  petty 
jealousies  which  surrounded  them  in  their  day  and  generation. 

During  the  time  the  courthouse  was  building  a  feeling  of  dis- 
satisfaction with  the  township  system  became  general  throughout 
the  state,  and  in  1860  an  act  was  passed  by  the  legislature  pro- 
viding that  each  and  every  county  should  have  a  board  of  county 
commissioners,  and  that  in  those  counties  in  which  at  the  last  gen- 
eral election  there  were  cast  eight  hundred  votes  or  over,  the  said 
board  should  consist  of  five  members,  and  in  all  other  counties 
of  three  members,  who  should  hold  their  offices  for  one  year,  or 
until  their  successors  were  elected  and  cpialifiecl.  This  law  went 
into  effect  April  1,  1860.  The  last  board  of  supervisors  adjourned 
January  10,  1860,  and  the  first  board  session  of  the  board  of  com- 
missioners commenced  June  4,  following.  The  board  was  com- 
posed of  J.  A.  Thacher,  H.  L.  Bevans,  J.  A.  Jackson,  A.  Hilton 
and  E.  A.  Sergeant.  Mr.  Thatcher  was  chosen  chairman  of  the 

Before  completing  the  mention  of  the  courthouse,  it  might  be 
well  to  state  that,  with  some  alterations,  the  same  building  is 
still  doing  good  service.  Another  building,  upon  the  same  block, 
was  erected  in  1887  for  a  sheriff's  residence  and  a  jail.  In  1861 
a  large  farm  was  purchased  by  the  county  commissioners  at  a 
cost  of  $3,000,  for  the  purpose  of  providing  a  home  for  the  poor. 
Necessary  buildings  were  erected  thereon  at  a  cost  of  $5,737.18. 
These  buildings  were  completed  and  ready  for  occupancy  in  1867. 


In  October,  1889,  the  main  building  was  accidentally  destroyed 
by  fire.  The  inmates,  about  thirty  in  number,  all  escaped  injury, 
and  temporary  accommodations  were  provided  for  them  until  a 
new  house  was  erected.  The  new  building  was  completed  during 
the  following  year  at  a  cost  of  $20,000.  It  is  situated  on  Spring 
creek,  in  the  town  of  Burnside,  and  presents  a  very  fine  appear- 
ance. There  is  an  artesian  well  on  the  premises,  and  the  whole 
surroundings  are  such  as  to  make  it  a  pleasant  home.  The  farm 
is  under  as  good  cultivation  as  any  in  the  neighborhood.  The 
whole  is  managed  by  an  overseer,  who  is  appointed  by  the  board 
of  commissioners. 

As  has  been  noted  earlier  in  this  history,  there  was  little  cause 
for  political  rivalry  in  the  earliest  days.  The  first  political  move- 
ment having  ;i  tendency  to  shape  the  future  complexion  of  the 
parties  in  Goodhue  county  was  a  meeting  held  October  8,  1856, 
on  the  corner  of  Main  and  Bush  streets,  Red  Wing.  Franklin 
Pierce,  a  Democrat,  was  then  president  of  the  United  Slates.  As 
a  matter  of  course,  all  appointive  officers  of  the  territory  were 
Democrats.  Of  the  United  States  land  office,  which  was  located 
here,  C.  Graham  was  receiver  and  \V.  W.  Phelps  register.  The 
chief  justice  of  the  territory,  W.  II.  Welch,  also  resided  here. 
Henry  C.  Hoffman  was  postmaster;  Nehemiah  Bennett,  editor  of 
the  "Sentinel,"  later  the  "Argus,"  was  justice  of  the  peace.  The 
elective  offices  for  the  county  were  then  filled  with  those  who 
Mere  adherents  of  the  party  dominant  at  that  time.  While  no 
vote  for  president  could  be  taken  here,  party  interest  ran  high, 
and  consequently,  on  October  8,  1856,  a  grand  demonstra- 
tion rally  took  place.  After  a  large  pile  of  empty  boxes,  and 
other  combustible  materials,  had  been  fired  and  allowed  to  burn 
for  some  time  for  the  amusement  of  the  boys  and  to  gather  a 
crowd,  an  organization  was  effected  by  the  selection  of  Dr.  F.  F. 
Hoyt  as  chairman  and  N.  V.  Bennett  as  secretary.  W.  W.  Phelps 
mounted  a  dry  goods  box  directly  in  front  of  the  Teepeetonka 
Hotel,  and  for  an  hour  expounded  the  Democratic  side  of  the 
compromise  measures  of  1850,  and  the  Kansas  and  Nebraska  bill 
of  Stephen  A.  Douglas,  commonly  known  as  popular,  or  squatter, 
sovereignty.  Mr.  Graham  followed  in  the  same  strain.  The  meet- 
ing closed  after  Mr.  Graham's  speech,  but  the  people  did  not 
seem  disposed  to  leave  hastily.  They  gathered  into  small  groups, 
discussing  the  matter  for  themselves.  Many  young  men,  and 
some  older  ones,  had  recently  come  into  the  territory,  expecting 
to  make  their  homes  here.  Among  them  was  the  Hon.  Charles 
McClure,  from  Illinois,  who  had  been  an  anti-slavery  man  for 
some  years,  and  who  had  been  acquainted  with  such  men  as 
Abraham  Lincoln,  Lyman  Trumball,  Owen  Lovejoy,  and  others. 
Naturally,  to  men  of  the  opinion  of  Mr.  McClure,  the  Democratic 


meeting  which  had  just  been  held  was  not  exactly  of  the  most 
agreeable  nature.  Consequently,  there  was  a  hurried  conference 
among  the  Republican  leaders,  and  they  decided  to  hold  a  meet- 
ing then  and  there.  Dr.  Iloyt  was  found,  and,  as  a  matter  of 
courtesy,  was  asked  it"  he  had  any  objections  to  the  Republicans 
speaking  to  the  crowd.  He  replied  that  the  Democrats  were 
through,  and  il  was  immaterial  to  him  how  many  other  meetings 
held  by  those  of  different  belief  might  follow.  H.  L.  Bevans, 
John  Going  and  Manville  Comstock,  who  were  recognized  as  a 
committee  without  having  been  appointed,  called  upon  Mr. 
McClure,  who  had  been  sitting-  at  his  office  window  listening  to 
the  Democratic  speeches,  and  thus  became  filled  to  overflowing 
with  Republican  arguments  with  which  to  refute  the  sentiments 
which  had  been  uttered.  Before  Mr.  McClure  had  talked  very 
long  it  was  apparent  that  he  was  a  bitter  opponent  of  the  doc- 
trine of  state  sovereignty,  and  he  was  not  allowed  to  proceed 
very  far.  Some  men  and  boys  had  secured  a  small  wagon,  and 
upon  this  had  laid  some  sheets  of  iron  in  such  a  manner  as  to  flap 
together  when  the  wagon  was  moved.  "With  this  wragon  in  tow, 
and  with  fish-horns  and  cow-bells,  the  men  and  boys  rushed  about 
the  streets,  attempting  to  drown  the  voice  of  the  speaker.  At  last 
C.  C.  Vandenberg,  Louis  Bennett  and  others,  who  appeared  to 
have  some  influence  with  the  noisemakers,  were  appealed  to,  and 
they  soon  restored  order,  after  which  Mr.  McClure  proceeded 
with  his  speech.  The  following  spring  Charles  McClure  was  a 
candidate  for  delegate  to  the  constitutional  convention  to  form 
a  slate  constitution,  and  after  a  very  hard  contest,  was  elected  by 
a  majority  of  three  over  his  opponent.  Since  that  time  the  county 
has  remained  a  Republican  county,  and  has,  as  a  rule,  returned 
a  Republican  majority  for  state  and  national  nominees,  although 
there  have  been  several  exceptions. 

In  September,  1857.  party  lines  began  to  be  drawn  more  dis- 
tinctly; the  Red  AVing  "Republican,"  which  appeared  at  that 
time  with  Lucius  F.  Hubbard  as  editor,  taking  the  Republican 
view,  while  the  Red  Wing  "Sentinel"  was  the  organ  of  the 
Democratic  party.  In  that  year  the  first  county  conventions  of 
the  two  parties  were  held.  A  full  Republican  ticket  was  elected. 
The  political  campaign  in  the  fall  of  1860  in  this  county  was  a 
very  interesting  one.  as  well  before  as  after  the  nominating  con- 
ventions.    This  was  especially  the  case  with  the  Republicans. 

Of  this  campaign,  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Hancock  writes  as  follows: 
"The  main  contest  in  the  Republican  convention  was  Tor  the 
office  of  register  of  deeds,  and  the  principal  candidates  for  the 
office  were  Matthew  Sorin  and  T.  B.  McCord.  of  Red  Wing; 
Aaron  G.  Hundson,  of  Florence,  and  C.  C.  Webster,  of  Zumbrota. 
The  convention  was  held  at  the  courthouse  October  11.  I860.    The 


feeling  among  the  friends  of  the  different  candidates  was  at  fever 
heat,  and  at  one  time  during  the  convention  a  personal  encounter 
took  place.  After  several  ballots  had  been  taken,  Mr.  Webster 
was  nominated,  a  result  brought  about  by  a  combination  of 
friends  of  the  nominee  and  those  of  Hudson  and  McCord.  Mr. 
Sorin  and  his  friends  were  terribly  chagrined  at  the  result,  and 
in  order  to  give  public  expressions  to  their  feelings,  an  "indigna- 
tion meeting"  was  arranged  for,  to  be  held  at  the  courthouse  a 
few  evenings  later,  at  which  Mr.  Sorin  was  to  be  the  principal 
speaker.  His  well-known  eloquence  and  ability  as  an  orator  could 
not  but  attract  a  crowd,  and  the  courtroom  was  filled  to  its  utmost 
capacity  to  see  and  hear  what  might  take  place.  The  speaker 
was  at  his  best,  and  those  in  the  audience,  whether  friend  or  foe, 
wen-  richly  entertained.  He  took  up  the  case  of  one  of  his  rivals 
for  the  nomination,  who  had  ( it  was  alleged)  sold  out  his  delegates 
to  Mr.  "Webster,  and  who  happened  at  that  time  to  be  a  young 
man.  In  sarcastic  language  and  manner  he  referred  to  him  as  a 
mere  cipher  in  the  community,  and  concluded  by  asking:  'Who 
is  he?  And  what  has  he  ever  done  for  Goodhue  county?  He  has 
not  done  as  much  as  build  a  hen  coop.  A  man  without  a  home, 
without  a  wife,  and,  perhaps,  even  without  a  child.'  Afterward 
he  referred  to  another  young  man  who  had  been  somewhat  con- 
spicuous in  bringing  aboul  his  defeat,  as  he  expressed  it.  A 
young  man  called  Captain  Smithers,  then  a  well-known  resident 
of  Red  Wing,  supposing  himself  to  be  the  person  alluded  to,  rose 
in  his  seat  find  asked:  '.Mr.  Sorin,  do  you  mean  me?'  The 
speaker  stopped,  straightened  himself  to  his  full  height,  and  look- 
ing steadily  at  the  captain,  till  every  eye  in  the  room  was  turned 
upon  him.  and  perfect  silence  prevailed,  he  answered:  'You.  sir; 
no!  I  am  on  the  descending  grade,  but  haven't  got  down  to  you 
yet.?  Of  course  every  one  shouted  at  the  reply,  but  it  is  doubtful 
if  the  answer  was  nearly  as  mortifying  to  the  captain  as  was  the 
fact  that  the  speaker  did  not  reach  him  during  the  remainder  of 
the  speech.  It  was  admitted  by  all  present  that  Mr.  Sorin  thor- 
oughly vindicated  himself  and  discomfited  his  enemies  on  the 
occasion.  He  was  afterward  appointed  postmaster  at  Red  Wing 
by  the  incoming  administration.  Some  other  defeated  candidates 
have  not  fared  as  well.  This  county  has  been  fortunate  enough 
to  secure  men  of  ability  and  honesty  to  conduct  its  affairs  with 
prudence  and  economy,  to  whatever  political  party  they  may  have 
been  attached  for  the  time  being. 

Daniel  C.  Hill  is  one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Red  Wing  whose 
privilege  it  has  been  to  live  to  see  a  flourishing  city  grow  on  a 
location  where  he  found  a  primitive  village.  A  fine  type  of  the 
old  pioneer,  he  has  the  honor  and  respect  of  the  entire  population 
of    Red    Wing.      In    company    with    the    Messrs.    Simmons    and 


D.  C.  Hill 

_  ,  I  1 

pub-mo  '        ' v 


Stephens,  he  was  the  contractor  for  the  local  county  courthouse, 
still  standing  as  a  testimony  to  the  fidelity  with  which  the  con- 
tractors labored.  He  also  built  the  Presbyterian  church,  and 
many  other  edifices  which  were  erected  in  the  early  days.  Mr. 
Hill  was  born  at  Hudson,  N.  H.,  May  1,  1830,  son  of  Ruben  and 
Mary  C.  (Chase)  Hill,  both  natives  of  the  Granite  state.  He 
attended  the  district  school  of  his  neighborhood,  assisted  his 
parents  on  the  farm,  and  learned  the  trade  of  carpentering.  Pos- 
sessed of  vigor  and  strength,  he  determined  to  build  up  his  for- 
tunes in  a  newer  country,  where,  he  had  been  told,  the  opportu- 
nities for  one  of  his  trade  were  very  great.  As  a  preliminary  to 
this  venture,  he  worked  in  a  piano-key  factory  in  Winchester, 
Mass.,  from  1853  to  1856,  and  then  came  with  his  parents  to  Red 
Wing.  Upon  their  arrival  here  both  father  and  son  took  up  car- 
penter work,  the  latter  also  owning  a  farm.  In  the  building  and 
carpenter  business  Ruben  Hill  continued,  dying  at  Red  Wing  in 
May,  1886.  His  wife  died  the  following  June.  Daniel,  in  1859, 
started  a  sash,  blind  and  planing  factory,  a  business  which 
at  that  time  was  one  of  the  leading  industries  of  Red  Wing, 
and  at  which  Mr.  Hill  made  a  most  pronounced  success.  In  1882 
came  a  flattering  offer  to  take  the  superintendency  of  a  large  fac- 
tory of  a  similar  nature  at  Anoka,  and  this  Mr.  Hill  accepted,, 
remaining  in  that  place  until  1898.  He  then  bought  a  110-acre 
farm  in  Red  Wing  township,  which  is  now  within  the  city  limits, 
and  upon  this  farm  he  still  makes  his  home.  Mr.  Hill  is  a  Repub- 
lican in  politics  and  a  prominent  member  of  the  Presbyterian 
?hurch.  He  has  for  many  years  been  a  member  of  the  Odd 
Fellows.  The  respect  in  which  he  is  held  after  over  half  a  cen- 
tury's residence  in  this  city  is  a  tribute  to  his  staunch  character 
and  unswerving  honesty,  as  well  as  to  his  genial  personality. 
Daniel  C.  Hill  was  married  the  first  time  in  1858  at  Zumbrota, 
Minn.,  to  Anna  S.  Hall,  a  native  of  Clairemont,  N.  H.,  to  whom 
were  born  four  children:  Elmer  F.  is  an  architect  in  New  York 
City;  Mary  married  Prof.  L.  W.  Chaney,  who  was  professor  at 
Carleton  College  for  twenty-five  years,  and  is  now  in  the  employ 
of  the  government ;  Elizabeth  is  a  school  teacher  at  Seattle, 
Wash.;  Arthur  D.  is  a  ranchman  at  Victor.  Mont.  Mrs.  Anna 
Hill  died  at  Red  Wing  in  August,  1882,  and  Mr.  Hill  was  married 
the  second  time  at  Zumbrota  January  22,  1884.  to  Clara  Sander- 
son, daughter  of  George  and  Abbey  (Richardson)  Sanderson,  who 
settled  in  Zumbrota  in  the  early  days  and  farmed  all  their  lives. 
The  father  died  in  January,  1902,  and  the  mother  is  also  deceased. 
To  Mr.  Hill  and  Mrs.  Clara  Hill  has  been  born  one  son.  G.  Karl. 
February  20,  1888,  who  is  still  at  home. 



Denton  and  Gavin — Aiton  and  Hancock — Bush,  Bullard,  Post, 
Snow  and  Gould — Potter,  Young  and  Day — Sweney,  Free- 
born and  McGinnis — Friendliness  of  the  Indians — First  Win- 
ter— Arrival  of  the  Scandinavians — Digging1  Potatoes — Fish- 
ing in  Stream  and  River — A  Sporting  Clergyman — Some  of 
the  Indian  Braves — Farming  in  the  Old  Indian  Cornfield — 
Squaws  as  Farmhands. 

The  modern  settlemenl  of  Goodhue  county  dates  from  LS37, 
when  Samuel  Denton  and  Daniel  Gavin  located  in  Red  Wing's 
village  and  commenced  their  missionary  efforts  among  the  Sioux 

at   t  his  point. 

In  1848,  the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  of  Foreign 
Missions,  more  commonly  known  as  the  American  board, 
appointed  Revs.  J.  W.  Hancock  and  John  Aiton  to  continue  the 
work  started  by  Messrs.  Denton  and  Gavin.  Mv.  Aiton  came  to 
what  is  now  Red  Wing  in  1848,  and  moved  into  the  mission  houses 
previously  erected.  He  and  his  wife  at  once  set  to  work  teaching 
the  Indians,  hut  found  the  place  so  lonely  that  they  spent  a  part 
of  the  winter  at  Kaposia,  fifty  miles  to  the  north.  Mr.  Hancock 
arrived  June  13,  1849. 

In  the  meantime,  the  exact  date  of  which  it  is  impossible  to 
obtain,  James  Wells  had  settled  at  Frontenac  and  John  Bush  in 
Red  Wing.  At  the  time  when  Mr.  Hancock  came,  Wells  was  liv- 
ing at  Frontenae,  in  two  unfinished  stone  buildings,  with  his  wife, 
a  half-breed  daughter  of  Duncan  Graham,  the  old-time  trader. 
Grouped  about  these  houses  were  the  skin  lodges  of  the  Indians. 
John  Bush  was  also  married  to  a  half-breed.  He  lived  in  Red 
Wing's  village  when  Mr.  Hancock  first  landed  here,  hut  whether 
he  antedated  Aiton  is  not  known.  Mr.  Aiton  had  some  disagree- 
ment with  Mr.  Hancock  on  matters  of  method,  and  moved  away 
in  1850.  Bush  went  with  the  Indians  in  1853.  AYells  moved 
away  in  1854.  and  was  killed  by  the  Indians.  Mr.  Haneock 

In    1850,    George   Bullard    settled    at   Wacoota,    bringing   his 



family  and  an  Indian  trader  named  Abner  AY.  Post.  In  the  same 
year  an  Indian  trader  named  Snow  came  to  Red  Wing.  In  1851, 
Calvin  Potter  became  associated  with  Snow  in  the  trading  post, 
and  after  the  death  of  Snow  continued  the  business  until  the 
removal  of  the  Indians.  At  about  this  time,  possibly  earlier, 
( 'harles  Gould  settled  near  the  mouth'of  Wells  creek.  The  arrival 
of  Benjamin  Young,  a  French  half-breed,  in  Red  Wing's  village 
probably  bears  about  the  same  date.  In  April,  1852,  John  Day 
came  over  from  Diamond  Bluff,  Wis.,  and  selected  a  claim  in  what 
is  now  the  southeast  corner  of  Section  25,  Township  113,  Range  15. 
He  had  considerable  difficulty  with  the  Indians,  and  also  with 
Young.  His  cabin  was  repeatedly  torn. down,  but  after  the  treaty 
he  firmly  established  himself.  Then  came  that  sturdy  old  pioneer 
physician,  Dr.  AY.  AY.  Sweney,  whose  name  will  ever  be  revered  in 
this  county.    With  him  the  history  of  the  county  really  begins. 

It  will  therefore  be  seen  that  previous  to  his  coming  the  actual 
white  settlers  were  as  follows:  Samuel  Denton  and  wife,  Red 
AYing,  1837 ;  Daniel  Gavin  and  wife.  Red  AYing,  1837 ;  James  Wells 
and  half-breed  wife,  Prontenac,  1817  (?)  ;  Rev.  John  Aiton  and 
wife,  Red  AYing.  1818;  John  Bush  and  half-breed  wife,  Red  Wing, 
1848  ( ?)  ;  Rev.  J.  AY.  Hancock  and  wife.  Red  AYing,  1849;  George 
Bullard  and  family,  AYacoota,  1850;  Abner  W.  Post,  Wacoota, 
1850;  Snow.  Red  AYing,  1851  (?)  ;  Charles  Gould  and  family,  near 
mouth  of  AYells  creek,  1851  (?)  ;  Calvin  Potter,  Red  AYing,  1851; 
Benjamin  Young  ( half-breed),  Red  Wing,  1851  (?);  John  Day 
and  family.  Red  AYing.  1852.  Of  his  early  experiences,  Dr.  Sweney 
once  wrote : 

'In  the  spring  of  1852.  Calvin  Potter,  with  whom  I  had  pre- 
viously been  acquainted,  called  at  my  office  in  St.  Paul,  and  in  the 
course  of  our  conversation  informed  me  that  he  has  bought  out 
Mr.  Snow,  the  licensed  Indian  trader  at  Red  Wing ;  and  in  view  of 
the  treaty  then  in  process  of  consummation,  he  thought  that  point 
a  good  location  for  a  town  site ;  also,  that  he  would  like  to  interest 
someone  with  him  in  a  claim  he  had  there.  AVilliam  Freeborn, 
being  one  of  the  old  residents  of  St.  Paul,  and  having  a  large 
acquaintance,  Mr.  Potter  thought  he  would  be  a  desirable  man. 
From  my  opinion  of  the  country,  acquired  in  various  conversa- 
tions with  an  old  French  voyager,  and  also  from  an  Englishman 
by  birth — but  in  language  and  habits  a  compound  of  English, 
French  and  Indian — who  had  been  in  the  country  for  thirty  years. 
I  was  more  than  anxious  to  take  part  in  the  enterprise,  and 
brought  about  a  speedy  meeting  between  Mr.  Potter  and  Air. 

"In  our  council,  Air.  Freeborn  demurred  at  first,  urging  his 
inability  to  remove  to  the  new  Eldorado  immediately.  I  proposed 
to  remove  that  objection  by  coming  myself,  to  which  he  acceded. 


The  result  was  that  we  three  took  the  return  boat,  and  landed  in 
Red  "Wing  in  the  early  part  of  May.  "While  there  I  purchased  a 
claimright  from  a  half-breed  named  Benjamin  Young,  of  that  part 
of  the  city  known  as  'Sweney's  Addition;'  also  that  old  weather- 
beaten,  two-story  log  house,  Avell  known  to  old  settlers. 

Note. — This  house  stood  where  the  old  Sheldon  elevator,  owned 
by  the  La  Grange  mills,  is  now  located. 

"This  done,  I  returned  to  St.  Paul,  put  my  business  in  proper 
shape,  and  came  back  to  Red  AVing  with  James  McGinnis,  who 
concluded  to  try  his  fortune  in  this  then  unexplored  country.  We 
made  our  headquarters  in  the  venerable  tenement  before  men- 
tioned, and  kept  our  own  house,  or,  as  some  graphically  describe 
it.  "kept  bach."  This  was  in  the  latter  part  of  May  or  beginning 
of  June. 

"As  it  was  not  deemed  advisable  to  go  into  farming  or  build- 
ing operations  until  the  treaty  was  ratified,  we  had  plenty  of  idle 
time  (in  our  hands,  and  the  grand  difficulty  was  to  know  how  to 
dispose  of  it.  The  families  here  then  were  the  Rev.  J.  W. 
Hancock,  of  the  Presbyterian  mission,  and  John  Bush,  Indian 
farmer.  John  Day  was  not  far  off.  however.  The  old  'Excel- 
sior' never  made  a  trip  up  from  below  that  John  did  not  board 
her,  to  hear  'about  the  treaty.'  There  were  several  transient  per- 
sons here,  but  their  later  whereabouts  is  not  known.  The  only 
actual  residents  of  the  county,  previous  to  my  coming,  besides 
those  above  mentioned,  were  George  Bullard  and  family,  at 
Wacoota  ;  .James  Wells,  who  was  later  killed  by  the  Indians  in  the 
southwestern  part  of  the  state,  who  then  had  a  trading  post  at 
what  is  now  the  village  of  Frontenac.  and  I  'hnrles  Gould  and  fam- 
ily, who  resided  near  the  mouth  of  Wells  creek.  This  comprised 
the  white  population  of  the  county. 

"Of  the  country  back  of  us,  even  for  four  miles,  I  could  learn 
nothing.  Mr.  Knauer,  the  engineer  of  the  old  military  road  up  the 
river,  said  he  has  rode  out  to  the  source  of  Hay  creek,  and  that  it 
originated  in  a  fine  tamarack  marsh.  It  occurred  to  McGinnis 
and  myself  that  a  good  tamarack  swamp,  in  a  prairie  country, 
would  be  a  fine  thing  to  possess,  and.  being  like  the  caged  starling, 
anxious  to  'get  out."  we  'just  went'  for  Hay  creek,  and  to  our 
intense  disgust,  didn't  find  any  tamarack.  In  an  after  conversa- 
tion with  Mr.  Knauer.  I  am  persuaded  that,  not  following  the 
creek  valley  all  the  way,  he  mistook  the  poplar  grove,  known  in 
early  times  as  'Albert's  grove,'  for  the  swamp  aforesaid. 

"After  our  little  disappointment  about  the  source  of  Hay 
creek,  our  trips  were  mainly  confined  to  the  river  side  of  the 
county,  between  the  divide  of  the  waters  of  the  Zumbro  and  the 
Mississippi — even  Belle  creek  was  not  known — its  locality  and 
course,  however,  was  traced  for  us  by  Hapah.  the  old  chief's  son- 


in-law.  It  was  not  deemed  advisable  to  go  far  from  the  river,  as 
many  of  the  Indians  were  decidedly  hostile  to  ceding  their  lands, 
and  the  Zumbro  country  was  the  common  hunting  ground  for  sev- 
eral bands  of  the  M'dewakantonwan  Dakotahs,  besides  being  in 
the  route  of  the  traveling  Indians  from  the  upper  Minnesota,  to 
Wabasha,  the  residence  of  the  acknowledged  head  chief  of  the 
seven  bands. 

"Having  become  acquainted  with  the  principal  men  among  the 
Indians,  I  thought  it  safe  to  bring  my  family  from  St.  Paul,  which 
I  did  in  July,  1852,  as  did  also  Mr.  McGinnis.  I  have  a  very  lively 
recollection  of  getting  our  household  stock  from  the  landing  to 
our  residence.  A  winding,  rugged  path  up  the  bank  was  the 
course  by  which  we  conveyed  it,  and  'Mc'  and  I  transformed  our- 
selves into  pack-mules,  until  stoves,  bureaus,  provisions,  and  vari- 
ous etceteras,  of  the  two  households  were  placed  .under  shelter, 
and  we  were  at  home.  Within  the  next  twenty-four  hours,  ninety- 
nine  hundredths  of  the  Indian  population  had  called  in  through 
curiosity,  and  their  various  comments  would  doubtless  have  been 
edifying  had  we  been  able  to  understand  them.  Friendly  rela- 
tions were  established,  however,  and  we  never  could  complain  of 
lack  of  company,  so  long  as  they  remained  in  the  village.  I  must 
also  say  in  justice  to  the  memory  of  those  original  settlers  and 
occupants  of  the  soil,  that  1  was  never  more  kindly  treated  by  any 
people,  nor  did  I  ever  enjoy  myself  better.  To  be  sure,  they  were 
importunate  beggars,  as  a  community,  and  the  women,  as  a  rule, 
were  chronic  thieves.  In  fact  they  were  kleptomaniacs,  i.  e.,  they 
could  not  help  their  stealing  proclivities.  But,  making  all  allow- 
ances for  these  little  peculiarities  of  their  manners  and  morals, 
which  were  a  part  of  their  natures,  they  were  not  a  bad  people 
to  live  among.  By  a  little  liberality,  when  their  begging  seemed 
justifiable,  and  by  firmly  refusing  when  necessary,  the  beggars 
were  disposed  of  and  kept  in  good  humor.  And  by  watchfulness 
and  the  aid  of  bolts  and  bars,  their  thieving  propensities  were  held 
in  cheek  and  rendered  measurably  harmless. 

"The  treaty  being  ratified  by  the  senate  of  the  United  States, 
with  some  alterations  from  the  original,  as  framed  by  the  Dako- 
tahs and  the  commissioners,  it  became  necessary  to  convene  the 
different  bands  interested  therein  to  get  their  consent.  Notice 
was  accordingly  given  to  them  to  meet  at  Fort  Snelling  early  in 
the  fall,  in  consequence  of  which  a  perfect  exodus  of  the  aborigi- 
nes took  place,  and  nothing  more  was  seen  of  them  here  until  late 
in  November,  after  the  close  of  navigation.  When  they  did  return 
a  more  squalid,  wretched  looking  set  I  never  saw.  Bitter  were 
the  complaints  against  the  government  officials.  Their  annuities 
were  spent  in  waiting  at  the  fort,  the  best  of  the  hunting  season 
had  passed,  their  canoes  were  frozen  in  the  ice  away  from  home, 


and  would  be  mainly  lost.  I  remember  well  when  the  first 
installment  that  came  home — three  families — pitched  their  tents 
in  the  evening  near  the  mission  house.  They  were  worn  out,  cold 
and  hungry.  The  children  were  emaciated,  and  sick  from  want 
and  exposure.  They  were  supplied  by  the  whites  with  food  until 
the  men  could  obtain  game  for  their  sustenance.  In  the  morning 
two  of  the  men  went  out  hunting,  and  as  I  came  home  in  the 
evening,  unsuccessful  from  a  similar  expedition  on  Hay  creek,  I 
struck  their  trail,  and  in  a  short  time  overtook  them  near  what 
is  now  the  corner  of  Main  and  Minnesota  streets,  each  of  them 
slowly  toiling  through  the  deep  snow,  under  the  burden  of  a  deer. 
The  men  seemed  exhausted,  and  requested  me  to  stop  at  their 
tepees  and  tell  the  women  where  they  were — that  they  had'  got 
tado — and  wanted  them  to  come  to  their  assistance.  I  hurried 
home  to  communicate  this  joyful  intelligence  to  the  inmates  of 
the  three  lodges.  Upon  reaching  them  I  told  one  of  the  women 
the  good  news.  She  immediately  shouted  forth  a  peculiar  cry, 
which  was  echoed  by  all  in  the  tent,  down  to  a  three-year-old 
boy  dressed  in  purus  naturalibis.  This  brought  out  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  other  lodges.  Upon  being  told  the  cause  of  the  com- 
motion, the  same  shout  went  up  from  all  present.  Women  and 
children  acted  as  if  demented.  The  women  rushed  about  for 
straps,  knives  and  blankets,  and  the  children  jumped  up  and 
down  for  joy.  After  giving  them  the  proper  directions  where  to 
go,  three  women  started  ou1  on  a  dog  trot,  and  were  soon  lost  to- 
view;  Init  some  time  after  dark  I  called  at  the  lodges  and  found 
them  busily  engaged  in  masticating  large  mouthfuls  of  venison. 
In  three  days  those  little,  half-starved,  copper-colored  specimens 
of  the  genus  homo  had  acquired  a  very  perceptible  rotundity, 
and  were  as  sleek  and  frisky  as  a  litter  of  young  pups.  The  cry, 
or  shout,  mentioned  I  have  heard  frequently,  and  is  made  on  the 
occasion  of  the  intelligence  of  a  successful  hunt ;  not  always  the 
same,  different  intonations  indicating  the  kind  of  game  killed, 
as  deer,  bear,  elk,  etc. 

"The  additions  to  our  population,  besides  those  mentioned, 
were  John  Day  and  family.  E.  C.  Stevens,  David  Pucket,  Jack 
Sanders  and  Ben  Hill,  in  the  summer,  and  Charles  Parks,  in 
November.  1852.  v 

'The  proprietors  of  the  town  site  had  procured  lumber  late 
in  the  fall  for  the  erection  of  a  hotel  early  in  the  spring,  and  it 
was  necessary  to  engage  carpenters  to  prepare  such  of  the 
material  in  winter  as  could  be  done  within  the  shop.  H.  B.  and 
Joseph  Middaugh  were  obtained,  and  became  residents  of  the 
town  in  December,  1852.  About  this  time,  also,  the  first  of  our 
Scandinavian  population  arrived  here — Mathias  Peterson,  a 
Nonvegian  by  birth.    Soon  after  came  Nels  Nelson,  a  SAvede.  who 


for  a  Long  time  lived  with  me.  These  two  men  were  the  pioneers 
of  that  nationality  in  Goodhue  county,  where  the  descendants  of 
that  race  have  since  occupied  so  important  a  place.  Both  of  these 
men  formerly  resided  in  St.  Paul.  In  the  spring  following, 
Albert,  a  Norwegian,  an  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Peterson,  settled 
here  and  made  a  claim  at  Poplar  grove,  or  Albert's  grove,  in  what 
is  now  Featherstone  township. 

"The  winter  of  1852-53  was  passed  very  pleasantly  by  our 
little  isolated  community.  The  natives  soon  left  on  their  win- 
ter's hunt  after  their  return  from  the  treaty  ratification  at  the 
fort,  and  Ave  saw  but  little  of  them  until  some  time  in  January; 
in  fact  we  saw  nobody  but  our  own  residents.  Communication 
between  us  and  the  civilized  world  was  only  resumed  when  the 
post  had  rendered  traveling  safe  on  the  Mississippi  river.  The 
mail  was  carried  from  Prairie  du  Chien,  through  Wisconsin, 
crossing  the  ChippewTa  near  the  Menominee  river,  thence  through 
a  wooded  wilderness  to  the  very  source  of  Rush  river  at  Baker's 
station,  thence  to  Stillwater  and  St.  Paul.  A  trip  from  Prairie 
du  Chien  in  the  winter  required  nerve,  endurance,  and  a  willing- 
ness to  perform  any  amount  of  manual  labor  that  the  emergency 
■of  the  case  might  require.  We  here  got  our  mail  from  St.  Paul, 
when  we  had  a  chance  to  send  for  it.  When  the  ice  was  safe, 
trains  arrived  frequently  from  below,  principally  laden  with  pork 
and  flour.  Our  isolation  was  from  about  the  midde  of  November 
to  some  time  in  January.  Such  supplies  as  ran  short  were 
obtained  of  Mr.  Potter,  whose  establishment  contained  those 
articles  more  especially  demanded  by  the  Indian  trade,  and  from 
George  W.  Bullard.  at  Wacoota.  whose  situation  at  the  head  of 
the  lake  rendered  it  necessary  for  him  to  keep  a  more  extensive 
assortment  of  goods,  to  supply  the  wants  of  the  lumbering  inter- 
ests; or  if  these  stores  were  deficient  in  articles,  then  St.  Paul  was 
the  last  resort  for  the  winter. 

"As  it  is  impossible  to  relate  all  that  I  wish  to  say  in  chrono- 
logical order,  I  may  as  well  give  a  few  of  the  incidents  connected 
with  our  county  history,  even  though  out  of  their  proper  era. 

"On  the  Wisconsin  side  of  the  river,  previous  to  the  settle- 
ment here,  in  1852,  the  land  was  ceded,  surveyed  and  opened  to 
settlement.  At  Diamond  Bluff  lived  John  Day,  Allen  Wilson, 
Jack  Payne  and  George  Day.  At  the  mouth  of  the  Trim  Belle, 
'Old  Hawley'  and  Jake  Meade.  At  Thing's  Landing,  now  Tren- 
ton, lived  Wilson  Thing,  E.  C.  Stevens  and  Dexter,  all  more  or 
less  engaged  in  getting  out  wood  for  the  use  of  steamboats 

"  'Old  Hawley'  was  rather  a  hard  case.  By  his  sale  of  whisky 
our  community  was  frequently  disturbed  by  the  whooping  and 
yelling  of  drunken  Indians.  About  all  the  population  of  natives 
not  engaged  in  the  spree  would  flee  to  the  houses  of  the  whites 


for  protection,  and  there  remain  until  the  'Minne  Wakan'  gave 
out,  and  the  legitimate  results  of  a  'high  old  time'  had  overtaken 
the  carousers.  Nothing  is  known  of  Hawley's  fate,  but  from  a 
knowledge  of  his  character  I  would  infer  that  he  is  at  some  'side 
station'  or  "switch-off'  in  that  'undiscovered  country  from  whence 
no  traveler  returns. " 

"In  justice  to  truth  and  history,  I  must  say  something  of 
Wilson  Thing,  a  very  eccentric  man.  a  strict  vegetarian,  a  man 
of  strong  prejudices,  but  moral  and  upright — a  good  neighbor 
and  an  honest  man.  He  was  the  only  justice  of  the  peace  for 
many  miles  around,  and  eonsecpiently  had  a  little  legal  business 
to  perform.  Previous  to  my  coming  here,  as  related  by  an  old 
settler,  a  fair  widow  of  this  place  had  entered  into  a  marriage 
contract  with  a  gentleman  of  St.  Paul,  and  the  time  was  fixed  for 
the  consummation  of  the  happy  event.  AVhen  the  time  arrived, 
and  the  parties  to  the  contract  were  present,  a  grand  difficulty 
arose.  Rev.  Mr.  Hancock,  the  only  one  authorized  to  solemnize 
marriages,  was  absent.  The  bridegroom  was  impatient  and  the 
bride  annoyed.  Friends  suggested  a  canoe  ride  to  Trenton  and 
the  services  of  'Squire  Thing'  as  the  only  solution  of  the  evils 
complained  of.  Of  course,  under  the  circumstances,  both  bride 
and  bridegroom  eagerly  acceded  to  the  proposition,  and  in  a 
short  time  the  bridal  party  was  under  way  for  the  residence  of 
the  justice.  They  found  that  worthy  representative  of  the  law, 
as  enacted  and  promulgated  by  the  great  and  sovereign  state  of 
Wisconsin,  busily  engaged  in  the  rather  feminine  occupation  of 
washing  a  two  months'  accumulation  of  soiled  shirts,  he  being  at 
that  time  a  bachelor,  and  he  was  somewhat  embarrassed  at  the 
sudden  eruption  into  his  sanctum.  The  bride,  however,  was 
plucky,  and  to  relieve  the  justice,  and  to  give  him  time  to  make 
himself  presentable  and  con  over  the  marriage  ceremony,  she 
proposed  that  herself  and  mother  would  finish  the  laundry  opera- 
tions, while  he  got  ready  for  his  part  of  the  proceedings.  This 
proposition  was  accepted,  and  in  clue  time  both  the  shirt  washing 
and  the  marriage  ceremony  were  completed,  to  the  satisfaction 
of  all  concerned. 

"As  winter  approached  it  became  necessary  for  us  to  look 
about  for  a  supply  of  vegetables  for  winter  use,  as  there  wTere 
none  to  be  had  on  this  side  of  the  river.  L^pon  inquiry,  I  found 
that  Mr.  Thing  had  planted  four  or  five  acres  of  potatoes,  besides 
some  beets  and  cabbages,  which  latter  we  were  able  to  purchase. 
The  potatoes,  however,  were  not  to  be  obtained  by  the  regular 
business  transaction  of  cash  down.  In  the  first  place,  they  were 
'planted  on  the  sod;'  that  is,  two  rounds  were  plowed,  the  pota- 
toes dropped  in  the  last  furrow,  and  covered  by  the  sod  of  the 
next  round,  and  so  on.     The  'Squire's'  field  was  in  the  prairie. 


between  Trenton  and  the  bluffs.  The  season  was  not  favorable 
for  rotting  the  sod.  and  the  tubers  were  hard  to  excavate.  He 
wanted  help,  which  was  hard  to  get.  We  wanted  potatoes,  and 
money  wouldn't  buy  them.  Consequently  it  was  'root,  hog  0r 
die-'  with  us.  and  we  went  to  rooting.  A  hard  day's  work 
unearthed  ten  bushels  to  the  man,  for  which  one  bushel  was  given 
as  wages.  1  have  to  this  day  a  very  acute  appreciation  of  the 
pleasant  occupation  I  Mas  then  engaged  in.  Just  fancy  my  get- 
ting up  at  ±  o'clock  in  the  morning,  breaking  my  fast  as  soon  as 
possible,  getting  into  a  canoe,  with  hoe,  basket  and  sack,  and 
paddling  up  to  Trenton,  thence  to  the  field.  Now  commences  the 
dissection  of  that  gutta  percha  sod,  with  a  plantation  hoe.  A 
little  experience  in  another  line  of  business  enabled  me  to  get 
the  hang  of  the  thing.  In  getting  honey  out  of  a  hollow  tree,  the 
best  way  is  to  cut  two  carfs  into  the  cavity,  then  split  off  the 
block  of  timber  between.  The  same  rule  held  good  in  the  present 
instance,  but  I  must  say  I  never  saw  sod  so  tough,  potatoes  so 
hard  to  get  at,  and  so  small  when  I  got  them.  But  as  an  offset, 
I  have  never  eaten  potatoes  of  an  equal  excellence.  And  I  was 
prouder  of  the  ten  bushel  I  thus  acquired  than  the  biggest  buck 
I  ever  arrested  in  his  wild  career  through  the  woods,  or  the 
largest  trout  I  ever  landed  from  the  clear,  rushing  waters  of  his 
native  brook.  Just  think  of  it,  ten  bushels  all  my  own ;  no  gift ; 
not  begged,  but  earned.  One  hundred  bushels  torn  from  the 
rugged  earth,  ninety  given  as  a  peace  offering,  but  ten  my  own, 
for  use  and  dissipation.  I  think  I  didn't  dissipate.  On  my  back 
I  nightly  bore  my  wages  down  to  my  gondola,  and  sailed  away 
for  home.  But  I  have  dwelt  too  long  on  this  subject,  time  has 
mellowed  down  all  of  pain  that  was  associated  with  the  circum- 
stance, and  the  recollection  is  now  pleasurable,  and  full  of  inter- 
est to  me  in  my  musings  and  speculations. 

"Leaving  this  portion  of  my  subject,  I  must  now  refer  to  one 
full  of  interest  to  me,  but  probably  not  so  acceptable  to  the 
majority  of  my  audience.  Among  the  first  items  of  information 
I  obtained  from  the  Indians  was  that  the  small  spring  brooks 
contained  an  abundance  of  trout,  and  the  equally  gratifying 
intelligence  that  they  never  used  them  as  an  article  of  food;  in 
fact  their  religious  notions  tabooed  their  use.  From  the  name 
they  gave  the  speckled  beauties,  I  would  infer  they  considered 
them  too  bad  to  eat.  Hogal-wichasta-sni,  literally  wicked  man 
fish,  is  not  suggestive  of  high  appreciation  among  the  Indian 
community.  They  believed  some  malign  influence  resided  in  the 
fish,  and  that  to  eat  them  would  be  to  invite  disease,  and  the 
anger  of  the  gods.  This  feeling  was  very  prevalent  among  them. 
and  Wacoota,  the  chief,  being  invited  to  take  dinner  with  me,  at 
which  meal  I  informed  him  there  would  be  a  dish  of  trout,   lie 


consented  to  be  present,  provided  we  would  lock  the  doors,  eat 
dinner  upstairs,  hang  a  curtain  before  the  windows,  and  say 
nothing  of  what  he  had  eaten.  This  was  done,  and  old  'Shooter' 
made  a  very  hearty  meal,  as  Indians  are  likely  to  do,  but  I 
thought,  during  the  trout  course,  that  he  acted  as  though  the 
morsels  were  hard  to  swallow,  like  a  boy  bolting  his  first  oyster, 
and  that  qualms  of  conscience  interfered  with  deglutitation.  He 
ate  frequently  with  me  afterwards,  but  I  cannot  say  that  trout 
ever  appeared  to  be  a  favorite  dish  with  him. 

"All  the  streams  within  the  limits  of  our  county  abounded 
with  trout,  with  the  exception  of  Prairie  creek,  the  Pine  Island 
branch  of  the  Zumbro,  and  the  Little  Cannon.  The  latter  stream 
has  since  been  stocked,  and  now  affords  very  fair  sport,  the  run 
of  trout  being  large.  I  only  fished  in  four  of  these  streams  the 
first  two  years  of  my  residence  here,  to-wit :  Trout  brook,  the 
little  stream  emptying  into  Hay  creek ;  Spring  creek  and  Bul- 
lard's  creek.  The  first  of  these,  however,  being  adjacent  to  town, 
was  where  I  got  my  supply  for  home  use.  An  hour  or  two  in  the 
evening  would  net  me  eight  or  ten  pounds  of  fish. 

"in  my  various  tramps  through  the  country,  when  I  struck  a 
stream  at  a  ford  or  ripple  it  was  no  uncommon  thing  to  see 
dozens  'of  trout  rushing  and  tumbling  over  each  other  in  their 
haste  to  reach  their  hiding  places  in  deep  water.  On  Hay  creek 
I  have  thus  frightened  from  a  shallow  ripple  more  than  fifty 
pounds  of  fish  at  one  time,  and  though  I  always  carry  an  ample 
supply  of  fishing  tackle  with  me,  I  never  wet  a  line  in  that  stream 
until  1854.  This,  I  consider,  the  greatest  instance  of  self-denial 
and  resistance  to  temptation  on  record.  I  could  cite  many 
instances  where  better  men  probably  have  signally  failed,  and 
where  the  restraining  influence  would  have  been  much  stronger. 
The  reason  why  I  did  not  gratify  my  natural  instincts  was  the 
opposing  one — and  true  sportsman  maxim — never  to  kill  what 
you  cannot  make  use  of;  and  also,  I  am  too  great  a  lover  of  the 
gentle  art  to  hasten  the  extinction,  through  a  mere  wantonness, 
of  a  creature  that  has  so  largely  contributed  to  my  pleasure  and 

"With  your  permission.  I  will  relate  one  of  these  instances, 
although  properly  not  occurring  in  the  early  settlement  of  the 
county,  premising  my  recital  with  the  explanation  that  the  cause 
of  the  temptation  was  a  large,  beautifully  colored  specimen  of 
the  gamest  of  all  game  fish — the  trout. 

"A  party  from  below,  accredited  to  our  fishing  club  as  being 
'all  right.'  arrived  here  and  requested  information  as  to  where 
they  could  enjoy  a  couple  of  weeks'  good  sporting  during  the 
hot  month  of  July.  The  very  paradise  of  fishing  grounds  was 
selected  for  them,  and  the  next  day  their  camp  was  pitched  on  a 

HISTOEY  01    i.uODHUE  COUNTY  129 

beautiful  spot  ou  Rush  river  in  the  state  of  Wisconsin.  A  few 
rods  of  open  priarie  stretched  down  to  the  river  from  the  camp, 
and  the  small,  orchard-like  trees  surrounding  offered  an  inviting 
shade.  In  front  loomed  up  big  bluffs,  covered  with  tall  timber; 
back  of  the  camp  the  ground  rose  in  a  succession  of  plateaus, 
until  the  general  level  of  the  country  was  attained.  Taking  it 
all  in  all,  it  was  one  of  the  loveliest  situations  for  the  purposes 
of  a  sportsman's  camp  that  I  ever  beheld.  An  invitation  to  call 
and  break  bread  with  them  was  accepted,  and  in  a  few  days  John 
Webster,  Billy  B.,  Sam  Stevens  and  myself,  were  on  the  'old 
battle  ground'  with  rod,  reel,  line  and  various  other  appliances 
deemed  necessary  on  such  occasions.  "We  found  our  friends  en- 
joying themselves  admirably.  They  had  established  friendly 
relations  with  the  neighboring  settlers  and  could  not  be  better 
situated.  One  of  the  party  was  a  minister  of  the  gospel  of  the 
Methodist  denomination,  a  Pennsylvanian  by  birth,  brought  up 
among  the  mountains  of  Sinnemahoning,  as  pure  and  unsophis- 
ticated as  regards  evil,  as  the  mountain  brooks  of  his  native  home. 
From  his  surroundings  in  childhood  he  could  not  have  been  less 
than  a  keen  sportsman  and  be  a  man. 

''The  country  in  the  locality  had  been  sparsely  inhabited  for 
a  number  of  years.    Young  men  with  young  families  had  settled 
there,  and  fer  a  time  had  not  felt  the  necessity  of  education  or 
religious  instruction.    As  their  families  grew  up,  however,  several 
had  expressed  a  determination  to  leave  on  account  of  their  fam- 
ilies growing  up  ignorant  in  these  particulars  and  devoid  of  a 
knowledge  of  the  amenities  and  conventionalities  of  social  life. 
A  slight  impetus  of  immigration  has  raised  their  drooping  spirits, 
and  by  an  effort  they  had  just  completed  a  school  house,  which,  on 
the  Sabbath,  they  used  as  a  church  when  a  wandering  minister 
traveled  that  way.    This  being  the  situation,  word  was  given  out 
that  our  reverend  sportsman,  Brother  Shaffer,  would,  with  divine 
permission,  give  them  a  discourse  on  the  ensuing  Sabbath,  at  such 
an  hour  as  might  suit  their  convenience.    Nature  had  been  lavish 
of  gifts  to  our  friend  of  herculean  proportions.     He  was  deep 
chested,  strong  limbed,  and  with  a  voice  as  clear  as  the  clarion's 
notes,  combined  with  the  resonance  of  distant  artillery,  yet  he 
could  modulate  it  to  the  murmur  of  a  mountain  rill,  under  the 
controllings  of  genial  influences.  His  invariable  practice,  after  the 
evening  meal,  as  the  shades  of  night  drew  on,  was  to  retire  a  short 
distance  from  the  camp,  and  I  presume  offer  up  his  devotions,  and 
then  break  forth  in  evening  hymn,  which  caused  all  camp  avoca- 
tions to  be  suspended.     The  very  birds  ceased  their  songs;  the 
gambolings  of  the  little  denizens  of  the  forest  and  the  busy  hum 
of  insect  life  seemed  hushed.    Naught  of  earth  was  heard  but  the 
voice  of  praise  and  the  gentle  murmur  of  the  passing  stream,  in 


fitting  unison.  We  were  not  the  only  auditors.  The  powerful  voice 
of  the  singer  had  penetrated  far  into  the  surrounding  woods. 
Hearers  had  learned  when  to  enjoy  the  pleasure  and  would  silently 
approach  the  camp  without  their  presence  being  known,  that  they 
might  more  clearly  appreciate  the  beauty  of  the  song.  A  religious 
feeling  was  aroused,  and  the  hearts  of  the  community  were  in 
sympathy  with  Brother  Shaffer.  On  Sunday  morning  all  the 
inmates  of  the  camp  were  on  their  way  to  the  place  of  meeting, 
and  it  appeared  that  the  entire  population  was  in  motion.  By  the 
roads,  footpaths,  and  through  the  woods  they  came,  until  the 
house  was  full  and  groups  standing  on  the  outside.  The  speaker 
gave  them  a  discourse  suited  to  their  wants.  The  grand  old  woods 
and  the  crystal  Avaters  came  in  as  blessings  which  should  be 
thankfully  acknowledged  in  their  devotions  to  God,  together 
with  the  sustenance  and  pleasure  derived  therefrom.  The  re- 
marks were  appreciated,  and  I  will  venture  that  seed  Avas  sown 
there  that  time  will  not  smother,  nor  the  germinal  principal  decay, 
without  bringing  forth  much  fruit. 

"After  the  sermon  all  the  fishing  party  returned  to  camp, 
with  the  exception  of  our  clerical  friend,  who  was  requested  to 
stay  and  conduct  the  exercises  of  the  class  and  Sunday  school. 
In  course  of  the  afternoon.  Webster  and  myself  took  a  stroll  on 
the  hillside  back  of  our  camp,  where  the  river,  running  a  few 
yards  from  the  path,  at  the  base  of  the  hill,  was  plainly  visible  in 
the  interval  between  the  trees.  The  pools  of  water  were  as  calm 
as  the  sleep  of  an  infant.  The  quieting  influence  of  the  day  ap- 
peared to  have  affected  the  inmates  of  the  waters,  and  their 
usual  lively  demonstrations  were  sobered  down  to  a  gentle  motion 
of  their  fins  to  keep  them  in  suspension  in  their  liquid  element. 
A  cosy  shelf  on  the  hillside  invited  a  rest  and  we  sat  down  to 
enjoy  the  scene.  Anon  a  ripple  in  the  stream  attracted  attention. 
'Twas  not  larger  than  that  caused  by  a  drop  of  rain.  Nothing 
was  said,  but  my  eyes  were  riveted  on  the  spot.  'Twas  repeated 
and  in  the  same  place.  I  saw  that  I  should  fall  into  temptation, 
to  avoid  which  I  ingloriously  fled.  AVhat  Webster  saw,  I  know 
not,  but  when  he  returned  to  camp  his  eyes  had  a  prominence 
and  convexity  that  indicated  haying  'seen  sights,'  and  his  manner 
that  of  a  high  state  of  nervous  excitement.  I  said  he  returned. 
He  did,  but  he  disappeared  again,  in  a  state  of  mind  that  caused 
serious  apprehension  on  the  part  of  his  friends.  In  a  short  time 
Shaffer  arrived,  and  selecting  a  tufty,  shady  spot,  threw  himself 
prone  on  the  ground,  discoursing  pleasantly  of  the  happiness  he 
felt  in  having  been  allowed  to  minister  to  the  wants  of  a  people 
so  much  in  need  of  gospel  teaching  and  so  willing  to  receive  it. 
I  heard  him,  and  cordially  was  with  him  in  spirit,  but  my  eyes 

HISTORY  OF  GOODHUE  (*<>(  vn  131 

Mere  on  the  path,  over  the  shingle  and  up  the  river,  where  our 
absent  friend  evidently  had  gone.  After  a  time  my  apprehensions 
were  almost  quieted  in  regard  to  "Webster,  and  I  was  watching 
the  countenance  of  the  speaker  as  it  swayed  under  the  various 
emotions  called  up  by  the  incidents  of  the  day,  when  a  noise 
startled  me.  Turning  around  I  saw  Webster  approaching  a  few 
yards  away,  evidently  in  a  more  easy  state  of  mind.  On  he  came, 
and  1  was  hopeful  that  none  of  the  proprieties  of  the  day  or  occa- 
sion had  been  violated,  but  when  within  ten  feet  of  me  he  sud- 
denly extended  his  right  arm,  softly  exclaiming  'Look  there.'  I 
sprang  to  my  feet  and  beheld  the  very  incarnation  of  piscatorial 
beauty,  his  colors  unladed  and  the  light  of  life  still  in  his  eye. 
My  exclamation  brought  Brother  Shaffer  to  a  sitting  position. 
His  eyes  had  an  imperfect  vision,  and  he  sternly  exclaimed,  'Oh,, 
you  wicked,  wicked  man.'  Webster  skilfully  displayed  the  full- 
length  broadside  to  view.  Brother  Shaffer  was  on  his  feet  in  a 
twinkling,  fondling  the  fish,  and  the  words,  'Oh,  isn't  he  a 
beauty!'  burst  involuntarily  from  his  lips,  his  admiration  obliter- 
ating all  thought  of  the  crime.  A  rebuke  was  now  powerless,  as 
he  himself,  by  his  involuntary  exclamation  and  action,  was  not 
above  the  temptation^  but  in  fact  participated  in  the  fault. 

"The  human  countenance,  as  a  reflex  mirror  of  impressions  on 
the  mental  organization,  is  a  pleasing  and  instructive  study,  from, 
the  very  inception  of  the  stimuli  on  the  infant  brain  up  to  its 
maximum  in  mature  manhood,  thence  following  on  the  wTaning 
side  of  life  to  those  changes  which  shadow  forth  the  coming  of 
second  childhood.  Friend  Shaffer's  physiognomy  for  a  brief 
season  well  repaid  study  and  analyzation.  First  were  traces  of 
sorrow  and  rebuke,  then  surprise  and  wonder,  followed  quickly 
by  signs  of  extravagant  admiration,  thence  down  the  grade  to 
shame  and  humiliation.  The  thought  waves  were  electrical  in 
velocity — each  ripple  expressing  a  sentiment  or  emotion  which 
the  most  rapid  symbolism  could  not  trace  on  paper.  A  single 
character  would  have  to  represent  the  emotional  name ;  to  eluci- 
date it  would  require  pages,  yet  it  was  plainly  written,  and  in  as 
legible  characters  as  though  carved  in  'monumental  marble.' 
With  a  sigh  he  subsided  into  his  former  position,  realizing,  doubt- 
less, the  weakness  and  imperfection  of  human  nature,  and  that 
even  the  best  of  men  are  as  'prone  to  do  evil  as  the  sparks  are 
to  fly  upwTard.' 

"I  think  all  those  who  saw  that  little  episode  will  never  for- 
get it.  It  Avas  one  of  the  incidents  that  language  cannot  com- 
municate or  the  artist's  pencil  portray;  the  finer  features  of  the 
picture  would  be  inevitably  lost.  My  thoughts  called  up  Uncle 
Toby's  violation  of  the  third  commandment,  in  his  anxiety  to 
relieve  the  poor  lieutenant,  and  I  would  adopt  the  author's  views 


as  to  the  criminality  in  the  case,  with  a  very  slight  alteration : 
That  the  accusing  spirit  which  flew  up  to  Heaven's  chancery  with 
the  fault  blushed  as  he  gave  it  in;  and  the  recording  angel,  as  he 
wrote  it  down,  dropped  a  tear  upon  the  word,  blotting  it  out 

"In  the  fall  of  1852,  having  a  fishing-seine  in  our  possession, 
we  organized  a  fishing  party,  and  built  the  necessary  craft  for 
running  a  fishery.  "We  began  the  enterprise  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  our  own  wants.  Meeting  with  great  success,  and 
having  nothing  else  to  do,  salt  and  barrels  were  procured,  and  in 
a  short  time  we  supplied  St.  Paul  with  forty  barrels  of  good  fish, 
at  the  remarkably  low  price  of  $6  per  barrel.  Our  fishing  ground 
was  the  'Bay.'  on  the  Wisconsin  side,  about  a  mile  above  Bay 
City.  Large  quantities  were  caught,  of  all  the  kinds  inhabiting 
the  river,  but  we  only  preserved  the  best  fish,  rejecting  pike, 
pickerel,  bass,  sturgeon,  dog-fish,  sheep-head  and  gars,  while  the 
rich,  fat  and  luscious  cat,  buffalo  and  carp  were  carefully  cleaned 
and  salted,  well  repaying  us  for  our  labor.  At  one  haul  of  our 
seine,  in  the  lake  referred  to,  we  took  out  over  eight  barrels  of 
fish,  when  cleaned  and  packed,  besides  an  innumerable  quantity 
of  the  'baser  sort'  as  before  indicated. 

'These  remarks  may  provoke  satirical  comments  from  the 
members  of  that  class  of  fisherman  who  think  that  the  mantle  of 
old  Izaak  Walton  has  fallen  on  them  individually,  and  that  their 
palates  and  peculiar  notions  should  form  the  standard  of  true 
sport  and  gustatory  excellence.  But  to  these  I  would  say,  we 
only  wanted  such  fish  as  would  repay  us  in  nutriment  and  feed 
for  the  animal  economy,  when  the  mercury  ranged  from  zero  to 
forty  below.  This  was  supplied  by  our  selection,  some  of  the  fish 
yielding  over  a  pint  of  good  oil.  Pike,  pickerel,  bass  and  trout, 
as  salted  fish,  are  about  as  nutrient  as  floating  islands,  puffs, 
pastry  and  gimeracks.  and  all  are  measurably  worthless  as  food 
to  strong,  hearty  working  men. 

"A  short  description  of  three  or  four  of  the  Indian  celebrities 
of  the  village  may  not  be  out  of  place.  I  will  commence  with 
'Waeoota' — literally  the  'Shooter.'  chief  of  the  band. 

"Wacoota  stood  about  six  feet  in  his  moccasins,  was  well  pro- 
portioned, and,  I  judge,  about  sixty-five  years  of  age  when  I 
knew  him.  He  was  the  most  intelligent  man  in  the  band,  with  the 
exception  of  Wa-kon-toppy.  He  was  friendly  to  the  whites,  and 
much  disposed  to  adopt  the  habits  and  customs  of  civilized  life, 
and  consequently  without  much  authority  among  the  reckless 
young  men  of  the  village.  His  schemes  for  promoting  the  well- 
being  of  his  people  were  thwarted  by  Mahpiya-maza,  or  Iron 
Cloud,  second  in  rank,  but  first  in  real  power. 

Mahpiya-maza  was   a   crafty,   intriguing  politician,   favoring 


all  the  raiding  propensities  of  the  young  men,  stimulating  opposi- 
tion to  any  advancement  in  civilization;  begging  when  it  would 
accomplish  his  object;  threatening  when  he  thought  he  had  the 
power  to  do  injury — a  base,  bad  man,  and  a  thorough  savage, 
whom  no  kindness  could  bind  in  the  bonds  of  friendship,  nor 
reason  influence  to  adopt  views  salutatory  to  the  welfare  of  his 
band.  His  only  redeeming  trait  of  character  was  his  advocacy 
of  the  cause  of  temperance.  His  death,  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
summer  of  1852,  freed  the  whites  of  the  annoyance  of  his  presence 
and  counsels.  Being  indisposed  with  symptoms  of  biliousness 
indicating  cholera,  which  was  then  prevalent  along  the  river,  he 
called  at  Mr.  Potter's  trading  house,  and  espying  a  demijohn,  he 
asked  if  it  contained  minne-wakon  (whiskey).  Mr.  Potter  told 
him  it  did  not,  that  it  was  cha-han-ti-cha  (molasses  or  tree  sap). 
The  old  fellow  immediately  asked  for  a  donation,  but  was  in- 
formed that  it  belonged  to  Paska,  as  E.  C.  Stevens  was  called  by 
the  Sioux.  Iron  Cloud  then  left  on  a  hunt  for  Mr.  Stevens,  first 
stopping  at  his  own  tepee  and  getting  a  good-sized  coffee  pot,  as 
though  sure  of  his  object.  After  finding  Mr.  Stevens  he  succeeded 
in  getting  the  molasses.  In  a  day  or  two  this  medicine  was  dis- 
posed of,  but  the  patient  was  not  much  benefited  by  its  use,  and 
importunate  for  more.  Mr.  Stevens  came  to  me  and  inquired 
what  would  be  the  result  if  old  Mahpiya  repeated  the  dose.  My 
reply  was  that  it  would  kill  him  as  dead  as  Julius  Caesar.  But 
importunity  finally  obtained  the  coveted  sweets,  and  in  a  few 
hours  a  messenger  arrived  from  a  lodge  in  the  Indian  corn-field, 
who  told  me  that  Iron  Cloud  was  very  sick  and  wanted  to  see  me. 
I  accompanied  the  messenger  and  on  entering  the  tent  found  it 
occupied  by  the  sick  man  stretched  on  a  robe.  His  wife  had 
ranged  in  a  semi-circle  six  of  the  most  popular  medicine-men, 
dressed  in  very  unprofessional  costume,  or  rather  in  undress,  for 
the  united  apparel  of  the  whole  conclave  would  not  have  afforded 
material  enough  for  a  pair  of  leggins.  The  doctors  looked  very 
sullen  at  my  intrusion,  but  the  patient  told  me  that  they  had 
done  him  no  good,  and  wanted  me  to  do  what  I  could  for  him. 
Upon  examination  I  found  him  past  all  remedies,  so  I  left.  In  an 
hour  a  Avail  told  me  of  the  departure  of  Maphiya-maza  to  the 
happy  hunting  ground  of  the  Indian  spirit  world. 

"T'maza-washta,  or  Good  Iron,  was  the  next  man  of  import- 
ance in  the  village.  Taller  than  Wacoota,  always  smiling,  a 
rebuff  never  ruffled  his  equanimity.  A  friend  of  both  the  Wacoota 
and  Iron  Cloud  factions,  he  successfully  performed  the  difficull 
feat  of  carrying  water  on  both  shoulders,  as  the  phrase  is.  On 
the  death  of  the  second  chief.  Good  Iron  was  excessively  amiable, 
making  feasts   and   otherwise   doing   those   things   which    we    in 


civilized  life  see  so  frequently  performed  by  aspiring  men  thirst- 
ing for  political  distinction.  The  old  fellow  being  so  good- 
natured,  I  frequently  gave  more  heed  to  his  requests  than  was 
proper  or  necessary,  and  he  had  reached  the  conclusion  that  he 
had  only  to  ask  and  he  would  receive  the  favor.  He  wanted  to 
be  the  second  chief.  A  delegation  of  Indians  from  Wabasha 
stopped  at  our  village,  and  Good  Iron  concluded  a  big  feast  would 
bring  him  the  desired  elevation.  I  had  a  fat  cow  and  a  good  one, 
and  an  equally  fat  clog,  but  in  no  other  particular  did  the  dog 
resemble  the  cow.  Now  these  two  animals,  in  old  T'maza's  esti- 
mation, would  just  about  furnish  the  necessary  amount  of  influ- 
ence to  place  him  in  possession  of  the  object  of  his  aspirations. 
Accordingly,  all  smiles,  lie  preferred  his  request,  and,  of  course 
was  refused.  He  was  a  little  crestfallen  at  first,  but  he  soon 
laughed  and  said  :  'My  friend,  you  always  gave  me  what  I  asked 
for.  Now.  when  1  have  friends  come  to  see  me  and  I  want  to 
feast  them  yon  refuse  me  your  cow  and  your  dog.  It  is  not  good.' 
I  couldn't  see  the  logic.  The  old  beggar  got  to  be  second  chief, 

"Maca-tiniza,  meaning  Standing  Earth,  more  generally  known 
among  the  whiles  as  'Old  Scolder,'  was  a  regular  old  masculine 
termagant.  Nothing  suited  him.  His  only  luxury  was  gambling, 
and  he  enjoyed  thai  to  an  unlimited  extent.  He  was,  however, 
a  stricl  Good  Templar,  and  not  a  bad  Indian;  hut  his  unfortunate 
peculiarity  remhred  him  anything  but  a  favorite  among  his 
people,  lie  attended  church  frequently  and  behaved  very  well, 
excepl  on  one  occasion.  1  had  made  Wacoota  a  one-horse  train, 
or  sled,  the  first  winter  of  my  residence  here.  The  'Scolder'  knew 
of  this,  and  one  Sabbath  when  we  were  all  at  church  and  Mr. 
Hancock  was  in  the  midst  of  his  discourse;  the  old  man  and  his 
wife  entered.  Giving  a  succession  of  grunts,  he  said:  'I  have 
come  to  church  to  learn  to  ho  good,  and  maybe  the  Good  Spirit 
will  smile  on  me.  so  that  Pezutawichasta  (my  Indian  name)  will 
make  me  a  sled.'  The  old  fellow  grinned  at  his  interruption  of 
the  service,  ami  I  concluded  that  his  religion  was  not  of  a  serious 
nature,  or  likely  to  become  chronic.  I  never  saw  him  sleigh- 
riding,  hut  I  am  informed  that  he  was  one  of  those  unfortunates 
who  perished  on  the  scaffold  at  Mankato  at  the- close  of  the  Indian 
war  in  our  state. 

" Wakon-toppy  Esteemed  Sacred)  was  my  friend,  and  with 
him  I  will  conclude  my  list.  He  was  honest,  honorable  and  intel- 
ligent, a  true  man  whether  judged  by  the  savage  or  civilized 
standard.  This  man  was  the  only  Indian  I  ever  knew  whose  word 
and  character  were  above  reproach.  The  traders  gave  him  credit 
whenever  he  desired,  sure  that  they  would  receive  prompt  pay- 


merit.    Whatever  he  slated  to  be  a  fact  could  be  relied  on.    He 
frequently  camped  with  me,  and  it  was  my  especial  delight  to  fill 
our  camp-kettle  with  eatables  enough  for  a  dozen  men,  and  in 
addition   thereto   make   a   corresponding  amount   of  pezuta-saps 
(black  medicine  or  coffee)  and  then  drawl  over  the  meal,  eating 
slowly,    constantly   replenishing  Wakon-toppy 's   plate   and   cup, 
which  he  made  a  point  of  honor  to  empty  as  soon  as  possible,  until 
the  old  fellow  would  heave  a  deep  sigh  and  cry  out  'Ozhuta!' 
(full).     Whenever  this  was  accomplished,  look  out  for  yarns.     I 
have  lain  in  the  tent  and  listened  for  five  long  hours  at  a  stretch 
to  the  tales,  traditions,  history  of  the  feats  in  war  and  hunting. 
He  had  never  gone  on  a  raid  against  the  Chippewas,  but  he  had 
followed  the  warpath  south  and  west  against  the  Saukies  and 
Omahas.     His  father  was  adopted  into  a  Dakota  family,  having 
been  taken  prisoner  when  he  was  very  young  in  one  of  the  Dakota 
forays  against  the  Sauks  and  Foxes,  and  finally  married  a  sister 
of  Ti-tan-ka  Monia,  or  Walking  Buffalo,  a  very  influential  chief, 
and  father  of  Wacoota.   Wakon-toppy  was  very  anxious  to  adopt 
civilized  habits,  and  I  wrote  several  letters,  at  his  dictation,  to  the 
Indian  Agent,  in  which  he  desired  the  government  to  give  him 
eighty  acres  of  land,  and  he  would  release  all  claims  to  annuities. 
He  even  went  so  far  as  to  stake  out  his  claim,  which  was  where 
the  village  of  Mazeppa  now  is.  and  was  where  he  made  his  winter 
hunting  ground  for  a  long  period  of  years,  and  where  he  wished 
his  bones  to  rest  when  the  Master  of  Life  should  summon  him 
hence  to  a  residence  in  the  spirit  world.     His  letters  were. unan- 
swered and  he  was  not  allowed  to  hold  his  claim  when  the  whites 
came,  but  was  driven  off  with  threats  of  violence.     He  stayed 
around  here  until  after  the  Spirit  Lake  massacre.     Finally,  con- 
cluding to  go  up  to  Red  Wood,  the  then  place  of  residence  of  our 
old  band,  he  gave  me  a  history  of  Ink-pa-duta  and  his  followers, 
and  told  me  if  he  could  get  permission  he  would  lead  his  party 
against  them.     In  the  fall  an  Indian  messenger  on  his  way  to 
Wabasha  stopped  at  my  house,  at  the  old  man's  request,  and  gave 
me   an  account  of  the   expedition.     Wakon-toppy   had  kept   his 
word.    Nearly  all  the  inmates  of  the  three  lodges  perished  by  the 
hands  of  their  own  kindred.     This  man,  so  prompt  to  avenge  the 
wrongs  of  the  whites,  perished  miserably  in  confinement  at  Daven- 
port, for  no  other  crime  than  that  of  not  being  able  to  control  the 
young  men  of  his  family  in  the  Indian  difficulties  on  the  frontier. 
From  his  imprisonment  at  Mankato  he  sent   me  word,  by   Lieu- 
tenant Comstock,  that  his  fault  was  in  letting  his  son    have   a 
horse,  not  knowing  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  to  be  used.     If 
previous  good  character  in  any  man  is  to  be  relied  on,  then  was 
Wakon-toppy  an  innocent  victim. 


"In  the  spring  of  1853  I  farmed  the  old  Indian  cornfield. 
The  crop  was  oats,  corn,  seven  acres  of  potatoes,  six  of  rutabagas, 
turnips,  pumpkins,  cabbages,  beans,  etc.,  all  of  which  yielded 
largely.  In  the  fall  I  needed  help  to  secure  the  corn  and  potatoes, 
and  there  was  no  other  resource  than  to  hire  native  laborers,  the 
white  population  of  the  county  not  exceeding  one  hundred  souls. 
The  Indian  camp  was  situated  on  the  Mississippi  river,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Cannon  river.  I  dug  a  few  rows  across  the  potato 
patch  in  order  to  ascertain  what  a  day's  work  might  be,  and 
found  that  six  rows  were  a  moderate  day's  labor,  but  knowing 
the  Indians  pretty  well  I  decided  to  make  four  the  standard. 
This  done,  I  sent  word  to  the  camp  that  twenty  women  were 
wanted  to  help  me,  who  should  receive  a  barrel  of  potatoes  for 
every  four  times  they  dug  across  the  field.  The  next  morning 
found  me  at  the  patch,  but  9  o'clock  arrived  before  they  came. 
At  last  thirteen  women  hove  in  sight,  accompanied  by  about  two 
dozen  dogs,  a  like  number  of  children,  several  camp  kettles,  sack 
straps  and  hoes.  In  a  short  time  the  business  preliminaries  were 
adjusted  by  the  high  contracting  parties.  Among  the  operatives 
were  the  Princess  Royal  Lucy  and  her  niece,  Weenona. 

"About  11  o'clock,  after  working  about  an  hour  and  a  half, 
the  workers  stopped  work  and  held  a  short  council,  and  I  was 
soon  informed  of  the  result  of  their  deliberations,  which  was 
nothing  less  than  that  I  should  get  dinner  for  them.  I  refused 
to  cook  for  such  a  crowd,  but  we  finally  compromised  by  my 
furnishing  pork  and  bread.  Vegetables  were  close  at  hand.  A 
note  was  written  to  my  wife  on  a  white  basswood  chip,  desiring 
her  to  let  the  bearer  have  eight  pounds  of  pork  and  all  the  bread 
she  could  spare.  The  messenger  ran  off  on  the  errand  like  a  deer, 
while  an  old  squaw  rigged  three  tripods  for  camp  kettles,  washed 
potatoes  and  turnips,  and  cut  up  cabbages  and  pumpkins ;  then 
when  the  pork  arrived  it  was  all  dumped  into  the  kettles  together. 
When  it  was  cooked  it  was  sufficient  for  a  company  of  infantry 
who  had  been  on  a  short  allowance  of  hard  tack,  but  it  all  dis- 
appeared under  the  united  efforts  of  women,  children  and  dogs. 
At  the  close  of  the  day  all  received  their  wages — two  women 
having  accomplished  eight  rows  each,  each  of  them  receiving  two 
barrels,  which  they  all  took  home  with  them,  promising  to  return 
the  next  day. 

"The  next  morning  thirty-two  squaws  appeared,  with  the 
usual  accompaniment,  and  the  same  number  continued  until  the 
field  was  finished.  When  the  last  round  was  dug  we  were  all 
grouped  together  on  a  slope  between  Main  and  Third  streets,  and 
women  talking  and  joking.  Lucy  stepped  up  to  me  and  said  r. 
'Pezuta-wichasta.    do   you   know   the   reason  why  you   have  not 


worked  any  in  the  field?'  I  thought  I  saw  mischief  in  her  eye, 
and  looking  around  observed  the  same  sign  among  the  dusky 
crowd ;  but  not  to  be  beat  by  squaws  I  replied :  'Yes,  it  is  because 
there  are  so  many  women  to  work  for  me,  there  is  no  need  of  my 
working.'  She  said:  'No,  no,  that  is  not  it;  you  are  little  and 
not  strong,  and  cannot  work,'  tossing  her  blanket  off  as  she 
made  the  remark.  I  saw  the  point  at  once,  and  felt  relieved,  as 
that  was  one  of  my  best  holds.  I  told  her  I  was  strong  enough 
for  any  in  that  crowd.  No  sooner  were  the  words  out  of  my 
mouth  than  Lucy  pitched  in,  and  was  thrown  a  double  somersault 
the  first  time.  Another  essay  was  made,  with  like  result.  A  little 
whispered  parley  took  place,  and  a  challenge  for  a  third  trial 
was  given.  We  squared  ourselves  shoulder  to  shoulder,  Lucy 
gripping  like  a  vice.  Just  as  the  struggle  commenced  I  felt 
myself  grasped  from  behind,  and  knew  I  had  got  into  difficulty. 
The  outside  pressure  was  heavy  against  me- — tripping,  yelling  and 
laughter.  The  best  I  could  do  was  to  make  of  it  what  in  my 
youth  was  called  a  'dog  fall';  that  is  a  tumble  into  a  promiscuous 
heap,  without  anyone  being  uppermost  enough  to  speak  of,  and 
this  was  accomplished.  I  extricated  myself  from  the  confused 
mass,  and  concluded  not  to  engage  any  further  in  this  undignified 
pastime,  knowing  very  well  that  fair  play  couldn't  be  had  in  that 
crowd.  Then  they  dispersed,  having  gathered  for  me  over  1,000 
bushels  of  potatoes,  exclusive  of  their  own  wages.  From  this 
crop  I  never  realized  a  dollar,  as  there  was  no  market,  but  it 
answered  very  well  for  gratuitous  distribution  in  the  spring 
of  1854. 

"Having  such  success  in  operating  with  native  labor,  I  con- 
cluded to  put  up  eight  acres  of  corn,  so  as  to  secure  the  fodder 
for  my  stock,  it  being,  as  yet,  but  little  injured  by  the  frost.  The 
services  of  a  married  woman  and  her  sister  were  secured,  beside 
two  boys  of  ten  or  twelve  years  of  age.  The  girl  was  sixteen  or 
seventeen  years  old,  and  the  most  mischievous  imp  I  ever  saw. 
She  appeared  to  have  grown  too  fast  for  the  apparel  she  had  on, 
for  I  noticed  that  her  upper  garments  refused  to  form  a  junction 
at  the  waist  with  that  portion  designed  as  a  protection  for  the 
lower  parts  of  the  body.  Myself  and  the  women  cut  up  the  corn ; 
the  duty  of  the  boys  was  to  place  it  in  the  shock.  After  work- 
ing pretty  hard,  the  day  being  warm,  I  called  a  rest  and  we  all 
sat  down,  I  fanning  myself  with  a  large  straw  hat.  When  it  was 
time  to  resume  labor  the  women  were  told  to  go  to  work.  The 
girl  laughingly  refused,  telling  me  to  work  myself.  After  a  little 
parley  she  finally  got  up  and  advanced  close  to  where  I  was 
sitting.  Making  a  remark  to  attract  my  attention  away  from 
her,  she  dexterously  seized  my  hat  by  the  rim  and  sent  it  sailing 


over  the  cornfield,  and  then  bounded  like  a  deer  to  get  out  of  my 
reach;  but  she  was  too  late.  Without  rising,  I  threw  myself 
forward  in  the  direction  she  was  going,  grasping  desperately  at 
the  same  time.  I  caught  the  hem  of  her  garment  and  something 
gave  away.  When  I  recovered  an  upright  position  and  my  equa- 
nimity, I  saw  a  dark  piece  of  feminine  apparel  lying  on  the 
ground,  and  what  to  my  astonished  gaze  appeared  to  be  a  pair  of 
preambulating  tongs  scudding  through  the  corn.  The  girl  hid 
herself  behind  a  shock  and  commenced  pleading  for  her  clothes. 
After  tormenting  her  enough,  I  exacted  a  promise  that  she  would 
behave  herself  and  go  to  work,  and  then,  sent  one  of  the  boys  with 
the  desired  garment.  When  she  rejoined  the  company  her  coun- 
tenance had  a  very  'decided  vermilion  tinge,  and  I  thus  discov- 
ered that  a  s<|iia\v  could  blush." 

Joseph  W.  Hancock  was  born  in  Orford,  N.  H.,  April  4,  1816. 
He  attended  the  public  schools  at  that  place  and  followed  this  by 
a  course  at  the  academy  located  in  Bradford,  Yt.     As  a  young 
man  he  taught   in  various  places  in  New  England,  and  in  1841 
started  out  for  the  West.    He  journeyed  down  the  Ohio  river  to 
the  Mississippi,  and  then  came  north  as  far  as  Quiney,  111.    Here 
he   taughl    school  for  a  while   and   soon    afterward  had   a   class 
among  the  Winnebago  Indians  in  Iowa.  Later  he  taught  a  private 
school  in  Prairie  du  Chien,  Wis.  He  found,  however,  that  although 
he  had  come  west  for  the  sake  of  his  health,  the  change  of  climate 
had  not  worked  the  desired  change  and  consequently  he  returned 
to  the  East  and  spent  some  time  at  Saratoga.  N.  Y.,  where  he 
found  the  water  from  the  springs  to  be  of  great  benefit.    In  1846 
he  was  united  in  marriage  with  Martha  Maria  Houghton,  a  sister 
of  H.  0.  Houghton,  the  noted  Boston  publisher.     In  1848   Mr. 
Hancock   received    ;i    commission   from    the    American   Board    of 
Foreign  Missions  to  become  a  missionary  to  the  Sioux  Indians, 
west  of  the  Mississippi,  and  was  sent  to  the  Indian  village  of  Red 
Wing,  in  the  Northwest  territory,  where  a  band  of  Indians  had 
long  been  located,  and  where  missionary  efforts  had  previously 
been   conducted.     The   first   white   person  known   to   have   been 
buried  within  the  limits  of  Goodhue  county  was  the  wife  of  Mr. 
Hancock.    After  two  years  of  service  among  the  Sioux  her  health 
gave  away  and  she  died  March  21,  1851.    To  this  union  were  born 
two  children.   William  died  in  infancy,  the  other  is  Mrs.  William 
Holliday.     In  1852  he  was  married  to  Sarah  Rankin,  who  died  in 
March,   1859,  leaving  two   children,   Stella   and  James  Otis.     In 
October,  1860,  he  was  united  in  marriage  with  Juliet  Thompson, 
who  died  in  1897.     Mr.  Hancock  began  preaching  to  the  early 
settlers  in  1852.  and  in  January,  1855,  organized  the  First  Presby- 
terian Church  of  Red  Wing,  of  which  he  was  pastor  for  seven 
years.     During  the  remainder  of  his  life  he  was  connected  with 

Bey.  Joseph  "\Y.  Hancock. 


TUB  K**  W*   w 





that  church.  He  helped  to  organize  the  AVinona  presbytery  in 
1855,  being  one  of  the  three  clergymen  who  founded  it.  In  addi- 
tion to  his  religious  work,  Mr.  Hancock  was  in  various  capacities 
connected  with  the  civic  life  of  the  community.  He  was  first 
postmaster  in  Red  Wing,  and  was  appointed  by  Governor  Ram- 
sey, territorial  governor  of  Minnesota,  as  register  of  deeds  in 
1855.  In  the  fall  of  that  year  he  was  elected  to  the  office  by  the 
people.  He  was  deeply  interested  in  educational  affairs  and  in 
the  early  history  of  the  community  had  much  to  do  in  shaping 
the  school  interests.  From  1862  to  1865  he  was  superintendent  of 
schools  in  Goodhue  county,  and  from  1870  to  1880  again  served 
in  the  same  capacity.  His  latter  years  were  spent  practically  in 
retirement.  He  published  a  short  history  of  the  county  in  1893, 
and  to  his  writings  the  managers  of  the  present  publication  are 
greatly  indebted. 

William  B.  Hancock,  deceased,  was  one  of  those  heroes  who 
gave  the  best  of  the  young  manhood  to  the  cause  of  their  country, 
having  come  out  of  the  nation's  great  civil  struggle  badly 
crippled,  and  doomed  to  suffer  more  or  less  pain  for  the  remain- 
der of  his  natural  days.  He  was  born  at  Orford,  N.  H.,  January 
26.  1832.  son  of  Joseph  and  Lydia  (Peek)  Hancock,  both  natives 
of  New  England.  The  father  was  a  farmer  and  blacksmith  all 
his  life.  He  went  to  Vermont  in  early  manhood,  but  in  his  declin- 
ing years  returned  to  New  Hampshire,  where  he  died  in  1876. 
His  wife  died  many  years  before,  in  1832.  William  B.  received 
his  education  in  Vermont,  and  after  leaving  school  farmed  with 
his  father.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War,  when  the  Green 
Mountain  boys  were  rallying  to  the  support  of  the  Union  and  the 
flag  which  the  sons  of  that  state  love  so  well,  he  in 
August,  1861.  at  Montpelier,  Vt..  serving  in  Company  H,  6th  Ver- 
mont Volunteer  Infantry.  He  was  wounded  at  Lee's  Mills,  in 
April,  1862,  in  both  limits,  as  the  result  of  which  he  was  left 
crippled  for  the  rest  of  his  life.  In  the  early  clays  he  came  to 
Featherstone  township,  this  county,  bringing  with  him  his  family, 
ready  to  establish  a  home-tree  in  this  new  and  rich  country.  He 
first  bought  eighty  acres,  to  which  he  added  from  time  to  time 
until  he  owned  200  acres,  on  which  he  carried  on  general  farming 
with  much  success,  in  1899  he  retired  and  moved  to  Red  AVing. 
where  he  died,  November  24.  1907.  He  was  a  Republican  in 
politics,  and  a  believer  in  the  religious  doctrines  set  forth  by  tie 
CJniversalist  denomination.  Mr.  Hancock  was  married.  December 
13,  1855,  at  Berlin,  Vt.,  to  Laura  B.  Smith,  a  daughter  of  Abner 
and  Rebecca  (Carr)  Smith,  natives  of  the  Green  Mountain  state 
Her  father  was  a  carpenter  and  joiner,  a  vocation  he  followed 
until  the  beginning  of  the  war.  He  joined  the  Union  army,  serv- 
ing in   Company  B,  1st  Vermont   Volunteer   Infantry.      Al    the 


battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  June  1,  1864,  when  the  New  England  regi- 
ments were  being  mowed  down  like  grass,  he  gave  up  his  life  in 
defense  of  his  country  and  the  principles  in  which  he  so  thor- 
oughly believed.      To   Mr.   and   Mrs.   Hancock   were   born   four 
children.    Eugene  A.  is  the  capable  manager  of  the  family  estate 
at  Featherstone,  having  taken  charge  of  the  home  farm  in  1899. 
He  lives  at  1208  Twelfth  street,  in  Red  Wing,  with  his  mother, 
driving  to  and  fro  to  attend  to  his  duties  on  the  farm.    Fred  L., 
the  second  son,  died  in  infancy  at  Worcester,  Vt.     Arabella  R. 
married  Hiram  Watson,  of  Red  Wing.     The  youngest  child,  N. 
Maude,  married  Gustave  Kunze,  an  insurance  agent,  of  St.  Paul. 
William  W.  Sweney,  M.  D.,  was  the  second  physician  who  set- 
tled in  Minnesota  for  the  purpose  of  practicing  his  profession. 
He  located  in  St.  Paul  in  April,  1850.     Dr.  Murphy  had  settled 
there  the  year  before     Dr.  Sweney  was  the  son  of  Alexander  M. 
and  Mary  M.  Kehr  Sweney.   and  was  born  in  Northumberland 
county,  Pennsylvania,  in  the  year  1818.    His  father  was  of  Scotch- 
Irish,  and  his  mother  of  Piedmontese-Huguenot  descent.     When 
William  was   eighteen   years   old  he   moved   to   Fulton   county, 
Illinois,   having  previously   obtained   an   academic   education   in 
his   native   town.     He   read   medicine   with  Dr.   Abram  Hull,   of 
Marietta,  111.,   practiced   in  connection  with  him  in  1848-9,  and 
graduated  a1    Rush   Medical   College,  Chicago,   after  settling  in 
Minnesota.     In  May,  1852,  he  came  to  Red  Wing,  which  was  at 
that  time  an  Indian  town,  on  the  Mississippi,  having  an  Indian 
farmer,  John    Bush,  and  an  Indian  missionary,  Rev.  Joseph  W. 
Hancock.     The  doctor  gave  his  services  to  the  Indians,  whenever 
called  upon,  freely,  and   w;is  highly  esteemed  by  them.     After 
the  Indians  were  removed,  as  settlers  multiplied.  Dr.  Sweney's 
professional  business  increased,  and  for  a  quarter  of  a  century 
he  had  as  many  and  as  long  rides  as  any  one  man  could  reason- 
ably desire.     He  always  had  the  confidence  of  the  people  up  to 
the  time  he  was  unable  to  practice  longer.     He  was  a  member 
of  the  Goodhue  County  and  of  the  State  Medical  Society;  was 
president  of  the  former  in  1872,  and  of  the  latter  in  1873.     He 
wrote  several  essays  on  the  "Climatology  and  Diseases  of  Min- 
nesota," a  prize  essay  on  the  "Epidemics  and  Endemics  of  Min- 
nesota," a  prize  essay  on  "Cerebro-Spinal  Meningitis";  also  on 
a  few  other  subjects.     He  was  elected  to  the  territorial  legisla- 
ture in  1857,  serving  in  the  last  session  before  Minnesota  became 
a  state.     He  also  held  office  several  terms  in  the  municipality  of 
Red  Wing.    In  politics  he  was  a  state's  rights  Democrat,  but  no 
disunionist;   not   an   active   politician    in  his   latter  years.     Dr. 
Sweney  was  married  in  Fulton  county,  Illinois,  in  1841,  to  Maria 
Freeborn,  daughter  of  Richard  Freeborn,  of  that  place,  who  emi- 
grated to  Minnesota  early  in  the  fifties  and  died  in  Red  Wing 


about  1870,  in  a  good  old  age.  Dr.  Sweney's  favorite  pastime 
was  trout  fishing,  though  he  often  indulged  in  the  pursuit  of  other 
game  in  the  early  days.  He  was  a  good  physician,  cautious  of 
giving  medicine  when  he  was  convinced  that  none  was  needed, 
ever  ready  to  attend  the  calls  of  the  suffering,  whether  poor  or 
rich.  He  was  a  quiet  and  unassuming  man,  yet  always  consid- 
°red  a  prominent  citizen  in  Red  Wing.  His  death  occurred  in 
August,  1882.  His  funeral  was  attended,  at  the  Episcopal  church, 
by  the  largest  number  of  all  classes  of  citizens  ever  assembled  on 
a  like  occasion  in  the  previous  history  of  the  place.  The  church 
was  crowded  and  its  entrances  thronged.  The  procession  which 
followed  his  remains  to  their  final  rest  in  Oakwood  consisted  of 
the  various  orders  of  secret  societies,  the  firemen  and  all  the. 
various  benevolent  associations  of  the  city. 



Organization    and    Original    Names — Belle    Creek — Belvidere — 
Burnside — Cherry  Grove — Central  Point — Early  Settlement. 

Goodhue  county  received  its  name  in  honor  of  James  M. 
Goodhue,  the  pioneer  editor  and  printer  of  the  state,  who  at  the 
time  of  his  early  death,  in  1852,  had  already  won  for  himself 
name  and  fame  as  well  as  influence  in  the  new  territory.  It  con- 
sists of  twenty-three  townships,  all  of  which  are  practically  the 
same  in  area  and  name  as  when  first  constituted  in  1858.  They 
are:  Welch,  Burnside.  Wacoota,  Stanton,  Cannon  Falls,  Vasa, 
Featherstone,  Bay  Creek,  Florence,  Central  Point,  Warsaw, 
Leon,  Belle  Creek,  Goodhue,  Belvidere,  Holden,  Wanamingo, 
Minneola,  Zumbrota,  Kenyon,  Cherry  Grove,  Eoscoe  and  Pine 
Island.  Red  Wing  formerly  had  a  township  organization.  Pre- 
vious to  1858  precincts  had  been  established,  but  townships  were 
not  laid  out  as  regularly  organized  political  divisions  until  that 
year,  when,  under  a  new  ad  passed  by  the  legislature,  Martin  S. 
Chandler.  William  P.  Tanner  and  Jesse  Mclntire,  the  three  gen- 
tlemen selected,  defined  and  named  the  townships  in  Goodhue 
county  as  follow^.  Where  no  note  is  made  of  subsequent 
changes,  the  township  at  present  remains  as  at  that  time  con- 

Belle  Creek,  all  of  township  111,  range  16. 

Cherry  Grove,  all  of  township  109,  range  17. 

Central  Point,  all  of  that  part  of  township  112,  range  12, 
lying  in  Goodhue  county. 

Cannon  Falls,  all  of  township  112,  range  17. 

Featherstone,  all  of  township  112,  range  15. 

Florence,  all  of  that  part  of  township  112,  range  13,  lying  in 
Goodhue  county. 

Holden,  all  of  township  110,  range  18. 

Hay  Creek,  all  of  township  112,  range  14. 

Kenyon,  all  of  township  112,  range  18. 

Leon,  all  of  township  111,  range  17. 

Pine  Island,  all  of  township  109,  range  15. 

Eoscoe,  all  of  township  109,  range  16. 



Red  Wing  (now  city),  the  west  half  of  township  113,  range  14, 
fractional,  and  sections  13,  24,  25  and  36,  township  113,  range  15. 
Two  of  the  sections  originally  placed  in  Red  Wing  were  after- 
ward set  off  and  attached  to  Bivrnside. 

Stanton,  all  of  township  113,  range  IS,  lying  in  Goodhue 

Union,  all  of  township  113,  range  16,  north  of  Cannon  river. 
All  of  township  113,  range  15,  except  sections  13,  24,  25  and  36, 
and  all  of  township  114,  ranges  15  and  16,  fractional.  This 
was  afterward  changed  to  Milton  and  then  with  some  additions 
to  Burnside. 

Yasa,  all  of  township  112.  range  16,  and  all  of  township  113, 
range  16,  south  of  the  Cannon  river. 

Wauamingo,  all  of  township  110,  range  17. 

Warsaw,  all  of  township  111,  range  18. 

AYacoota,  all  of  township  113,  range  13,  in  Goodhue  county, 
and  the  east  half  of  township  113,  range  14,  fractional. 

York,  all  of  township  111.  ranges  14  and  15.  This  was 
changed  first  to  Elmira.  then  to  Belvidere,  and  a  half  of  the 
latter  was  later  set  off  as  Lime,  later  known  as  Goodhue. 

Zumhrota,  all  of  township  110,  ranges  15  and  16.  This  was 
afterward  divided  and  a  part  set  off  as  Minneola. 

The  board  was  notified  that  three  of  the  names,  those  of 
Stanton,  York  and  Union,  would  have  to  be  changed.  The  board 
then  changed  Union  to  Milton.  Stanton  to  Lillian,  and  York  to 
Elmira.  Stanton  later  assumed  its  original  name.  Later  the 
committee  was  notified  that  the  name  of  Elmira  would  have  to 
be  changed.  A  committee  of  three,  Messrs.  Stearns,  AVhite  and 
Stone,  to  whom  this  matter  was  referred,  reported  in  favor  of 
substituting  Belvidere  for  Palmira,  and  the  change  was  accord- 
ingly made. 

Goodhue  organized  September  13,  1859,  in  answer  to  a  peti- 
tion, when  township  111,  range  15,  was  erected  into  a  separate 
township  called  Lime,  the  latter  name  being  changed  to  Goodhue 
in  January,  1860.  The  township  was  originally  a  part  of 

Burnside  was  the  name  applied  to  Milton,  at  the  request  of 
the  state  auditor,  March  25,  1862.  In  March,  1864,  when  the 
legislature  amended  the  city  charter  of  Red  AVing,  sections  13 
and  24,  township  113,  range  15,  were  set  off  from  Red  AVing  and 
attached  to  Burnside. 

Welch  was  organized  March  23,  1864.  when  the  board  of 
commissioners  divided  Burnside  by  setting  off  the  easl  fractional 
half  of  township  114.  north,  range  16,  west,  and  all  of  township 
113.  north,  range  16,  west,  lying  north  of  Cannon  river,  into  a 
separate   township,    and   called   it   Grant,   which    on   January   3, 


1872,  was  changed  to  Welch,  in  honor  of  the  late  Major  Abram 
Edwards  Welch,  of  Red  Wing. 


Belle  Creek  township  lies  in  practically  the  geographical 
center  of  the  county,  and  constitutes  one  entire  government 
township,  its  number  being  111  north,  range  16  west.  Its  area 
has  remained  unchanged  since  the  township  was  first  constituted 
in  accordance  with  the  township  act  of  the  legislature  in  1858. 
Belle  creek  waters  the  western  part  of  this  township,  and  affords 
fair  water  power.  It  is  bordered  by  fine  stretches  of  hay  meadows 
and  an  occasional  ledge  of  limestone.  Near  the  creek  are  also 
scattering  groves  of  oaks,  white  birch  and  poplar.  The  surface, 
which  is  largely  a  rich,  undulating,  high  prairie,  except  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  creek,  is  in  general  about  150  feet  higher  than  its 
neighboring  township  of  Yasa.  Its  other  neighbors  are  Leon,  on 
the  west ;  Minneola,  on  the  south,  and  Goodhue,  on  the  east. 

The  first  influx  of  whites  into  this  section  was  in  1853,  when 
Charles  Ross  and  A.  G.  Kempe  went  into  the  township  and  built 
a  cabin  on  section  5,  mar  the  creek.  They  spent  the  winter 
there,  but  soon  after  moved  north  into  what  is  now  Vasa.  In 
the  spring,  or  early  summer,  of  1851.  Walter  Doyle,  with  his  five 
sturdy  sons,  Henry,  Richard.  Michael.  Walter  and  John,  settled 
on  sections  2  and  4.  Benoni  Hill  and  his  sons,  John,  Henry  and 
Thomas,  came  in  July  and  made  their  claims  on  sections  5  and  8. 
James  O'Neill  and  family  also  came  the  same  year;  and  in  the 
fall  the  Rev.  S.  P.  Chandler  staked  out  a  claim,  but  did  not  move 
on  it  until  the  following  spring.  In  1855  the  influx  was  rapid, 
and  the  town  Avas  soon  thickly  settled.  A  large  part  of  the 
ground  was  broken  up,  grain  sowed,  and  cottages  built  in  place 
of  the  original  cabins. 

It  was  not  long  before  children  came  to  bless  the  homes  of 
the  pioneers.  Anna  O'Neill  was  born  in  March,  1855,  but  did 
not  long  live  to  enjoy  the  distinction  of  being  the  first  white 
child  born  in  the  township,  having  passed  away  when  still  a 
schoolgirl.  Her  father  was  James  O'Neill.  May  Cook  was  born 
in  August  of  the  same  year,  daughter  of  Jacob  Cook.  John 
Cavanaugh,  son  of  Patrick  Cavanaugh.  was  born  in  November. 
The  first  two  deaths  were  by  accident.  In  the  early  part  of  the 
winter  of  1855-56,  Dennis  Cavanaugh  started  to  go  on  foot  to  his 
brother's,  a  distance  of  about  two  and  a  half  miles.  After  he 
started,  a  terrible  storm  came  up,  and  he  was  frozen  to  death 
near  Hader.  having  lost  his  way.  His  body,  which  was  not 
located  until  the  snow  had  melted  in  the  spring,  was  found  three 
miles  from  his  home,  and  in  an  opposite  direction  from  the  one 


lie  should  have  kept  to  reach  his  brother's.  His  wanderings 
through  the  wilderness  in  the  raging  storm,  until  merciful  death 
relieved  him  from  his  sufferings,  can  only  be  imagined.  In  May 
of  the  following  spring.  James  Connel  attempted  to  cross  a  slough 
with  an  axe  on  hi.s  shoulder.  In  some  manner  he  stumbled  and 
fell,  and  the  edge  of  the  axe  struck  his  head,  causing  a  fracture 
of  the  skull  which  resulted  in  death.  The  first  death  due  to 
natural  causes  was  that  of  Mrs.  S.  P.  Chandler,  June  28,  1856. 

Pioneer  discomforts  were  no  dampener  to  the  ardor  of  Cupid, 
and  in  1856,  Lewis  White  and  Emeline  Hill  took  before  the  Rev. 
S.  P.  Chandler  the  vows  which  made  them  man  and  wife. 
Although  no  .school  houses  were  erected  until  1859,  as  early  as 
the  fall  of  1858  Alvin  Herbert  taught  school  in  the  basement  of  a 
stone  house  owned  by  a  Mr.  Kirkpatrick,  and  the  school  was 
continued  in  session  practically  every  season,  in  some  of  the 
settlers'  houses. 

The  rich  soil  of  tin'  township  showed  its  possibilities  even  in 
the  earliest  days,  for  in  1856  Walter  Doyle  and  others  obtained 
fair  yields  of  wheat,  threshed  it  by  hand  with  flails  and  carried 
it  to  the  Mazeppa  mill  to  be  ground. 

In  1856  James  Allen  laid  out  a  village  plat  and  christened 
the  place  Troy  City.  With  sanguine  hopes  of  the  future,  Jesse 
Johnson  built  a  store  and  stocked  it  with  merchandise.  No  other 
building  was  ever  erected  on  the  village  site.  The  financial  crash 
of  1857  impaired  trade  to  such  an  extent  that  Mr.  Johnson  closed 
his  store ;  and  all  further  attempts  to  build  a  city  there  were 
abandoned.  A  postofnce,  called  Burr  Oak,  was  established  in 
1854,  and  H.  M.  Doyle  was  appointed  postmaster.  This  was  on 
the  line  of  the  old  stage  route  from  St.  Paul  to  Dubuque,  and 
the  following  year,  when  the  mail  route  was  changed,  the  office 
was  discontinued.  During  the  existence  of  this  office  Mr.  Doyle's 
house  was  the  last  one  on  the  road  before  reaching  Oronoco. 
twenty- five  miles  to  the  south,  and  consequently  was  an  all-night 
stopping  place  for  the  stage,  and  Mr.  Doyle  entertained  such 
prominent  men  of  the  early  days  as  Governor  Ramsey,  General 
Sibley,  J.  C.  Burbank  and  many  others.  He  also  entertained 
twenty-six  of  the  principal  men  and  chiefs  of  the  Chippewa 
tribe,  including  "Hole  in  the  Day,"  their  head  chief,  when  they 
were  on  their  way  to  Washington. 

In  1858  another  postoffice  was  establisbed  in  the  southwest 
part  of  the  town  and  named  Belle  Creek.  S.  P.  Chandler,  the 
first  postmaster,  retained  that  position  for  many  years.  There 
was  no  hotel,  and  Mr.  Chandler  opened  his  bouse  for  the  accom- 
modation of  travelers,  especially  the  farmers  of  the  western  part 
of  the  county,  who  had  no  other  place  to  stop  on  their  way  to 
Red  Wing  with  their  wheat.     When  the  Minnesota  Central   rail- 


road  was  completed  to  Faribault  the  tide  was  turned  toward  that 
village,  and  Chandler's  place  was  closed  to  the  general  public. 

At  the  first  election,  held  at  the  residence  of  Walter  Doyle, 
thirty  votes  were  polled.  Among  the  early  supervisors  were 
S.  P.  Chandler,  H.  M.  Doyle  (two  terms).  Michael  Doyle,  John 
Edwards,  Francis  Malloy,  Walter  Doyle  and  -lames  Malloy.  The 
early  clerks  were  Patrick  Drudy  four  terms),  H.  M.  Doyle, 
Michael  Doyle  (two  terms),  P.  J.  Sheridan  and  Michael  Doyle. 

The  township  did  its  share  in  the  Civil  War  in  a  noble  way. 
The  official  list  of  those  enlisting  from  the  township  is  as  follows : 
Freeman  J.  Beers,  Truman  E.  Beers,  George  Cook,  James 
McGrath,  John  Manning,  David  Petty,  William  Gardiner,  John 
Hilger,  Jacob  Hilger,  Jacob  Cook.  Jr.,  Timothy  Cavanaugh,  Wal- 
ter W.  Doyle,  Patrick  Drudy,  Patrick  Edwards,  Martin  Edwards, 
Timothy  Foley,  Patrick  Foley.  Henry  L.  Gilbert.  Henry  M.  Craig, 
Patrick  Malloy.  Daniel  AY.  Malloy.  Thomas  Bolls.  Cornelius  K. 
Bylen,  David  Switzer,  John  B.  Taylot,  .lames  Cassidy,  George 
Cook,  .binies  Schweiger,  Ruben  Taylor.  Horace  Carpenter,  Nelson 
Cannon.  Elander  W.  Carpenter.  Francis  M.  Irish.  William  J. 
More.  Russell  E.  Snell,  George  Johnson,  Amos  Hanson,  John  Nels 
Johnson.  Robert  Smithson.  Henry  Kirkland,  Isaac  Bridell, 
Michael  Cavanaugh,  Xels  Johnson. 

The  first  religious  services  held  in  this  town  were  at  the  resi- 
dence of  Benoni  Bill,  May  25,  1855,  the  Rev.  Morris  Hobart 

The  Catholic  church  was  commence.  1  in  1865,  and  cost  over 
$3,000.  The  present  beautiful  edifice  was  erected  in  1893.  It  is  the 
largest  congregation  in  the  town,  and  has  been  a  potent  influence 
in  the  upbuilding  of  the  community. 

The  Episcopal  church  was  built  in  187.'!  at  a  cost  of  $1,600, 
mainly  through  the  exertions  of  the  Rev.  S.  P.  Chandler,  who 
was  pastor  of  the  parish  until  his  death,  in  1888. 

For  several  years  there  was  a  post  office  at  Ryan,  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  township. 


Belvidere  was  given  the  name  of  York  by  the  committee 
which  had  charge  of  the  organization  of  the  Goodhue  county 
townships  in  1858.  At  the  instance  of  the  state  authorities  this 
was  changed  to  Elmira,  and  after  the  same  authorities  had  urged 
their  objections  to  this  name  it  was  changed  to  Belvidere,  which 
it  has  since  remained.  Belvidere  originally  included  what  is  now 
Goodhue.  The  township  comprises  government  township  No.  Ill 
north,  range  14  west.  Wells  creek  rises  in  the  northwestern  part 
of  the  town,  running  north  and  east.    It  is  fed  by  Clear  and  Rock 


creeks,  and  then  crosses  the  northern  boundary  into  Hay  Creek 
township.  The  northern  pari  of  Belvidere  is  somewhat  broken 
by  these  streams.  ;ln<l  lias  a  hilly  contour.  The  southern  half, 
though  much  higher,  is  simply  undulating,  or  rolling.  On  the 
eastern  border  of  the  town  is  an  isolated  mound,  reaching  an 
elevation  of  something  like  twelve  hundred  feet  above  the  sea. 
Tie-  soil  of  the  township  is  good,  and  the  streams  afford  excellent 
facilities  for  raising  stock.  Belvidere  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Bay  creek,  on  the  east  and  south  by  Wabasha  county,  and  on  the 
west  by  Goodhue. 

In  the  spring  of  1855,  N.  B.  Gaylord  and  his  brother,  George, 
located  on  Rock  creek  in  the  northern  part  of  the  township.  In 
August  of  that  year,  Joseph  S.  Thompson  settled  on  Wells  creek, 
and  a  short  time  afterward  he  was  joined  by  N.  B.  Gaylord,  who 
settled  near,  preferring  that  location  to  the  place  where  he  took 
his  original  claim. 

During  the  fall  of  1855  occurred  an  event  which  was  of 
importance  to  the  future  history  of  the  county.  Claus  Hoist,  and 
a  number  of  other  German  families,  took  up  their  residence  near 
the  head  waters  of  AY  ells  creek,  and  began  opening  up  farms. 
The  part  wThich  the  German  pioneers  and  their  descendants  have 
taken  in  the  development  of  the  county  is  related  at  some  length 
in  another  chapter.  In  1856  there  came  an  influx  of  immigration 
to  this  township,  and  the  farms  were  soon  settled  up. 

Ida  Thompson  was  the  first  child  born  in  the  township.  June 
13,  1856.  The  first  marriage  was  that  of  George  Steele  and  Junia 
Pingrey,  a  sister  of  Mrs.  J.  S.  Thompson,  at  whose  house  the  cere- 
mony was  performed.  August  14.  1855.  by  J.  B.  Smith.  Etta  Gay- 
lord, aged  two  years,  died  in  1858,  the  first  death  in  the  tOAvnship. 
Rev.  John  Watson  held  religious  services  in  the  house  of  Nelson 
B.  Gaylord  as  early  as  the  summer  of  1856.  Delia  Eggleston 
taught  a  school  in  the  room  of  her  father's  house  in  1857,  this 
being  the  first  school  in  that  section  of  the  country. 

N.  B.  Gaylord,  in  1858,  having  a  good  water  power,  put  in 
operation  a  large  hand  coffee  mill,  and  ground  for  himself  and 
neighbors  flour,  meal  and  other  articles.  Having  used  up  two 
coffee  mills,  he  next  procured  a  small  burr  millstone,  and  kept 
gradually  improving  his  primitive  enterprise  until  he  launched 
out  into  a  full-growTn  mill,  with  two  run  of  stone,  and  a  capacity 
of  120  bushels  of  wheat  per  day.  The  Belvidere  mill  finally  took 
rank  among  the  good  mills  of  the  county. 

A  cozy  log  church  was  built  by  the  German  .Methodists  near 
Gaylord 's  mill  in  1862,  at  a  cost  of  $300.  This  society  now  has  a 
large  frame  church.  In  1865  the  Catholics  erected  a  good  frame 
church  in  the  southern  part  of  the  town.  The  Norwegian  Luther- 
ans built  a  large  church  in  the  western  part  of  the  town  in  1867. 


A  German  Lutheran  church  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  town  was' 
built  in  1872.    Another  Methodist  church  was  also  erected. 

The  first  town  board  appointed  by  the  county  board  was  as 
follows:  Supervisors,  Mason  0.  Eggleston  (chairman),  William 
Thomas,  G.  D.  Post ;  town  clerk.  Hubert  Eggleston ;  assessor, 
B.  F.  Chase ;  tax  collector,  J.  S.  Thompson ;  justice  of  the  peace, 
Marcus  Eggleston ;  constables,  James  Lane  and  George  Gay. 

At  a  meeting  held  July  5,  1858,  in  the  town  of  York,  composed 
of  township  No.  Ill  north,  of  range  11  and  15,  including  what  are 
now  Belvidere  and  Goodhue,  at  the  house  of  Peter  Easterly,  the 
following  officers  were  elected:  Supervisors,  Cyrus  Couch  (chair- 
man), G.  D.  Post,  Henry  Danielson;  town  clerk.  Oliver  Knutson; 
assessor,  B.  F.  Chase;  justices,  Peter  Easterly,  J.  W.  Finch;  con- 
stables, James  Lane,  H.  B.  Patterson ;  overseer  of  the  poor,  Nelson 
Gaylord ;  collector,  J.  S.  Thompson.  January  21,  1859,  the  follow- 
ing named  were  appointed  to  fill  vacancies:  Supervisors,  Syl- 
vester Cranson  (chairman),  Charles  M.  Lee,  Ezra  Bennett,  town 
clerk,  John  Stowe ;  justices,  Hans  H.  Olson,  F.  Cranson. 

The  first  separate  town  meeting  of  the  voters  in  township  11, 
range  14  (Belvidere),  was  held  April  5,  1859,  and  the  following 
officers  elected:     Supervisors,  Horace  AY.  Twitchel   (chairman), 
Marcus    Eggleston,    Mason    0.    Eggleston;    town    clerk,    Hubert 
Eggleston;  assessor,  G.  D.  Post;  collector,  J.  S.  Thompson;  over- 
seer of  the  poor,  Nelson  B.  Gaylord ;  constables,  Jacob  Church, 
George  Gay;  justices,  Marcus  Eggleston,  B.  R.  Prince.     In  the 
following  list,  the  first  named  under  each  year  is  the  chairman. 
1860 — Supervisors,  Horace  W.  Twitchell,  George  Gaylord,  Knut 
Knutson ;  clerk,  Hubert  Eggleston ;  assessor,  Marcus  Eggleston ; 
treasurer  and  overseer  of  the  poor,  N.  B.  Gaylord ;  justices,  Mar- 
cus   Eggleston,    B.    R.    Prince.      1861 — Supervisors,    Horace    "W. 
Twitchell,    William    Thomas,    Mason    Eggleston ;    clerk,    Reuben 
Ward ;  assessor,  Marcus  Eggleston ;  treasurer  and  overseer  of  the 
poor,  Nelson  B.  Gaylord ;  justices,  Marcus  Eggleston,  Ben  Prince. 
1862 — Supervisors,    J.    S.    Thompson,    George    Stace,    William 
Perly ;    clerk,    Halvor    Knutson ;    treasurer,    H.    W.    Twitchel ; 
assessor,  B.  F.  Chase;  justices,  Peter  J.  Hilden,  Marcus  Eggleston ; 
constables,   John   C.   Johnson,   Frank   Lane.      1863 — Supervisors, 
J.  S.  Thompson,  William  Perly,  George  Gay ;  clerk,  Oliver  Knut- 
son ;  treasurer,  H.  W.  Twitchel ;  assessor,  Marcus  Eggleston ;  over- 
seer of  the  poor,  J.  S.  Thompson  ;  justice,  Peter  J.  Hilden.   1864 — 
Supervisors,  J.   S.  Thompson,   0.   C.   Roberts,  Halvor  Knutson ; 
clerk,  Ruben  Ward ;  treasurer,  H.  W.  Twitchel ;  assessor,  Julius 
Munger;  constables,  Caleb  Reynolds,  William  Thomas;  justices, 
G.  H.  Gaylord,  P.  J.  Hilden.    1865 — Supervisors,  J.  S.  Thompson, 
William  Thomas,  Daniel  Mallan;  clerk,  Oliver,  or  Halvor,  Knut- 
son ;  assessor,  George  Stace ;  treasurer,  H.  W.  Twitchel ;  justices, 


Marcus  Egglestcm,  Jolm  Alley;   constables,  Ole  Knutson,  John 
Lueham.     1866- — Supervisors,  J.  S.  Thompson,  William  Thomas, 
John  Lueham;  clerk,  A.  AY.  Fountain;  treasurer,  H.  W.  Twitchel; 
assessor,  S.  R.  Ward ;  justices,  Star  Dennison,  John  Alley ;  con- 
stables, B.  R.  Prince,  J.  S.  Thompson.     1867 — Supervisors,  M.  0. 
Eggleston    (failed  to   qualify,  and  J.  S.  Thompson  held  over), 
William  Thomas,  Halvor  Knutson;  clerk,  A.  W.  Fountain,  treas- 
urer, C.  C.  Roberts;  assessor,  Star  Dennison;  justices  of  the  peace, 
Marcus  Eggleston,  P.  J.  Hilden ;  constables,  R.  AY.  Dewore,  J.  C. 
Maybe.     1868 — Supervisors,  John  Alley,  George  Stace,  E.  North- 
field  ;  clerk,  Stephen  Roberts ;  treasurer,  C.  C.  Roberts ;  justices, 
H.  N.  Eggleston,  Edwin  Bullard;  assessor,  Star  Dennison;  con- 
stable,   Albert   Pratt.      1869 — Supervisors,    John    Alley,    Walter 
Brown.  John  C.  Johnson ;  clerk,  Stephen  Roberts ;  treasurer,  N.  B. 
Gaylord;  assessor,  Star  Dennison;  justices,  Star  Dennison,  H.  N. 
Eggleston;  constables,  AYilliam  Kinney,  B.  R.  Prince.     1870 — All 
the  old  officers  held  over  except  John  Alley,  who  resigned  as 
chairman  of  the  board  of  supervisors  and  was  replaced  by  Mason 
O.  Eggleston.     1871 — Supervisors,  John  Alley,  Peter  J.  Hilden, 
Walter  Brown;  clerk,  B.  R.  Prince;  treasurer,  X.  B.  Gaylord; 
assessor,  H.  N.  Eggleston;  justices,  John  Alley,  B.   R.  Prince; 
constables,  William  Lane,  William  Kinney.     1872— Supervisors, 
John  C.  Johnson,  J.  S.  Thompson,  Stephen  Redding;  clerk,  Peter 
J.  Hilden;  treasurer,  C.  C.  Roberts;  assessor,  Walter  Brown;  jus- 
tices.  Walter  Brown,   George    Stace;   constables,   AYilliam  Lane, 
S.  Alageras.     1873— Supervisors.  John  C.  Johnson.  J.  S.  Thomp- 
son, S.  Redding;  clerk.  T.  J.  Hilden:  treasurer,  X.  B.  Gaylord; 
assessor,   George   Stace;  justices.   George   Stace,  Walter  Brown; 
constables,  James  Arden,  E.  Fountain.     1874— The  same  board 
was  elected;  Walter  Brown  did  not  qualify,  and  A.  AY.  Fountain 
was  named  as  justice  of  the  peace  in  his  stead.     1875 — Super- 
visors, AYilliam  Thomas,  Perry  George,  Martin  Johnson;   clerk, 
T.  J.  Hilden;  assessor,  George  Stace;  treasurer,  C.  0.  Roberts; 
justice,   John   C.  Johnson;   constable,   R.   Alallan.     1876— Super- 
visors, AYilliam  Thomas,  Perry  George,  George  Stace:  clerk,  Peter 
J.  Hilden;  treasurer,  (\  C.  Roberts;  assessor,  John   ( '.  Johnson; 
justice,    Stephen    Redding;    constable,    John    Ma -eras.      1877 — 
Supervisors,  Perry  George.  Alartin  Johnson,  John  Shafer;  clerk, 
T.  J.  Hilden;  assessor,  John  C.  Johnson;  treasurer,  N.  B.  Gaylord; 
justices.  John  C.  Johnson,  Peter  Krall;  constables.  ('.  A.  J.  Han- 
son, Hubert  Alageras.     1878— Supervisors,  Perry  George,  Stephen 
Redding,     Olaus     Johnson;       clerk.     P.     J.     Hilden:     assessor 
(appointed),  George  Babbitt ;  treasurer,  X.  B.  Gaylord;  justices, 
John    C.    Johnson,    P.    Krall;    constables,    C.    A.    -I.    Hansen.    S. 

During  the  Civil  War  Hie  town  raised  bounties  to  the  amount 


of  $3,500  by  private  subscription,  and  a  larger  part  of  the  adult 
male  population  enlisted.  The  following  list  of  those  who  enlisted 
from  this  town  during  the  war  is  larger  than  the  official  list, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  some  of  them,  though  living  in  Belvidere, 
enlisted  from  other  places.  The  list:  Hubert  Eggleston.  AVilliam 
S.  Kinney,  John  Arden,  James  Arden,  Michael  Corcoran,  T.  Eriek- 
son,  John  E.  Olin,  James  X.  Wood,  Peter  J.  Lotty,  F.  Snidert, 
R.  J.  Daniels,  Bent  E.  Olin.  Benjamin  Chase,  B.  R.  Prince,  "Walter 
Brown,  William  Parsons,  John  Alley,  Cyrus  Klingenschmidt,  Ole 
Syverson,  Timothy  0 'Regan,  Timothy  Houson,  John  AVayze, 
W.  S.  Williams,  Svenom  Hendrickson,  A.  C.  Amundson,  John 
Amundson,  John  C.  Johnson.  Jacob  Wohlers,  Peter  J.  Hilden.  John 
Bomback,  Fred  Bomback,  Joachim  Hoist.  Jacob  Hoist,  Claus 
Hoist,  William  Buckholst.  N.  B.  Gaylord,  George  Gaylord,  John 
Arden,  Thomas  Booth,  Peter  Swetchser,  AVilliam  Suchhaa,,  Fred- 
erick Luchan.  James  T.  Bowker,  AVilliam  Berley,  Ole  Nelson,  John 
Nelson.  AVatson  Devore.  Frank  Lane,  Peter  AVagoner,  Nicolaus 
Lippert,  R.  Kolby,  Andrew  Baker,  Ammond  Larson  and  Samuel 
Church.  Some  of  these  died  in  the  army,  and  others  returned,  to 
become  prominent  citizens  of  the  township. 

At  one  time  there  was  a  postoffice  at  Thoten.  in  this  township. 


Burnside  lies  along  the  Mississippi  river,  with  Red  Wing  on 
the  east.  Featherstone  on  the  south  and  AVeleh  on  the  west.  It 
has  undergone  several  changes  of  area  since  its  organization;  all 
of  its  territory  in  range  16  having  been  set  off  as  Grant  'later 
Welch  in  L864.  During  the  same  year  it  was  increased  by  the 
addition  of  sections  13  and  14.  in  township  113.  range  15,  pre- 
viously a  part  of  Red  Wine'.  The  surface  is  much  broken  by  hill 
and  valley,  and  there  is  a  wide  belt  of  bottomland  and  terraced 
flats  along  the  Cannon  river  and  the  Mississippi,  some  of  which  is 
timbered.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  landscapes  in  the  county 
is  visable  from  the  high  point  in  sections  16.  17  and  18.  The  tim- 
bered region  in  sections  7,  8,  17  and  18  is  one  uniform  flat  sur- 
face of  loam-covered  drift.  Burnside  includes  a  large  portion 
of  an  island,  known  as  Prairie  Island,  on  its  "northern  border. 
The  soil  of  the  township,  notwithstanding  the  irregular  surface, 
is  for  the  most  part",  rich,  deep  and  fertile.  Cannon  river  Aoavs 
from  west  to  east,  and  Spring  creek  through  the  southeastern 
part,  both  emptying  into  the  Mississippi.  Numerous  spring's  of 
clear  water  gush  forth  from  the  base  of  the  bluffs,  affording 
abundant  water  for  stock  and  dairy  purposes. 

In  the  early  days  the  town  was  known  as  Spring  Creek,  but 
Union  was  the  name  given  by  the  committee  which,  in  1858,  had 


charge  of  designating  the  townships.  This,  at  the  request  of  the 
state  authorities,  was  changed  to  Milton,  by  reason  of  the  fact 
that  there  was  another  Union  in  the  state.  The  same  objection 
was  urged  against  the  name  of  Milton,  and  in  1862  the  name 
became  Burnside.  the  name  of  the  general  who  at  that  time  was 
winning  fame  in  the  early  campaigns  of  the  Civil  War. 

In  the  fall  of  1853  there  came  to  this  township  a  clergyman,. 
who  looked  over  the  land  and  decided  upon  a  suitable  location 
for  a  claim.  Authorities  differ  as  to  whether  this  clergyman  was 
the  Rev.  David  Wright  or  the  Rev.  Resin  Spates.  At  any  rate, 
the  three  brothers,  John.  Resin  and  Charles  Spates,  settled  here 
the  following  summer,  and  during  the  same  year  Andrew  Cottar, 
John  Leason,  Matthew  Streetor,  James  Shaw,  John  Bronson,  and 
with  the  widow  of  the  Rev.  David  Wright  and  her  family.  In 
1855  came  John  E.  Eggleston,  Joseph  Eggleston,  Willard  Wood, 
Kingsley  Wood,  Rev.  J.  C.  Johnson,  Marshall  Cutter,  and  prob- 
ably Leland  Jones,  Rev.  Norris  Hobart  and  several  others.  These 
settlers  were  scattered  over  the  township,  but  in  those  early  days 
were  considered  near  neighbors. 

The  wife  of  David  Bronson  died  in  the  spring  of  1855.  In 
July  of  the  same  year  Flora  Cutter  (or  Cora  Cutler)  was  born, 
also  John  H.  Spates.  The  first  marriage  ceremony  performed 
was  that  of  J.  P.  Enz  to  Mary  F.  "Wright,  in  October,  1855. 
Another  early  marriage  was  that  of  William  H.  Wright  and  Mary 
Chamberlain,  in  1859.  the  ceremony  being  performed  by  Justin 
Chamberlain,  a  justice  of  Hie  peace.  The  first  school  in  the  town 
was  taught  by  J.  E.  Eggleston.  during  the  winter  of  1756-57.  The 
first  sermon  was  preached  by  the  Rev.  Resin  Spates  at  the  house 
of  John  Leason,  in  1854. 

The  Rev.  Hancock  relates  an  interesting  incident  of  the  early 
days:  "The  widow  of  Rev.  David  Wright,  with  six  children,  had 
removed  from  Illinois  and  settled  on  the  place  that,  previous  to 
his  death,  her  husband  had  selected  on  Spring  creek,  near  where 
John  Leason  ^located  his  claim.  They  occupied  a  log  house  which 
was  divided  into  suitable  rooms  for  sleeping  and  family  use;  the 
four  boys  sleeping  in  the  two  rooms  of  the  upper  floor,  while  the 
two  girls  and  the  mother  occupied  the  lower  floor.  They  were 
comfortably  arranged  for  the  night  of  June  11.  L855,  when  a 
storm  of  lightning  and  rain  came  on  with  such  terrific  peals  of 
thunder  as  to  awaken  the  family.  One  of  the  older  boys  was  so 
much  frightened  that  he  left  the  bed  and  went  downstairs.  While 
he  was  being  told  that  there  was  no  more  danger  in  one  place 
than  another  by  his  sisler.  Susan,  a  sudden  crash  came,  which 
frightened  everyone  in  the  house.  Mrs.  Wright,  the  mother,  was 
the  first  to  regain  consciousness.  She  saw  the  flames  devouring 
the  bed  where  lay  her  two  daughters,  still   unconscious.     Pres- 


ently  the  water  came  down  through  the  floor  above  in  such 
profusion  as  to  quench  the  fire.  Soon  one  of  the  boys  came  down- 
stairs drenched  with  rain,  bringing  in  his  arms  the  youngest  boy, 
Wilson,  dead.  The  same  stroke  of  lightning  had  killed  one  of 
the  girls,  who  were  in  the  bed  on  the  lower  floor,  immediately 
under  that  of  the  boys'  in  the  chamber.  The  boys  in  time  had 
become  conscious,  and  these  three — William,  Beverly  and 
James — with  their  mother,  laid  the  boy,  Wilson,  by  the  side  of 
his  two  sisters,  Mary  and  Susan,  and  began  chafing  them,  in  order 
to  restore  them,  if  possible,  to  consciousness-.  After  some  time, 
Mary,  who  later  became  Mrs.  Enz,  of  Red  Wing,  was  restored  to 
health,  but  AVilson,  aged  six  years,  and  Susan,  a  young  lady  of 
twenty-one  years,  had  been  instantly  summoned  to  the  world 
above  during  that  terrible  storm." 

In  the  month  of  June,  1856,  a  terrific  storm  of  wind  passed 
over  the  town,  doing  great  damage  to  the  growing  crops  and 
destroying  buildings.  One  or  two  lives  were  lost.  Matthew 
Streetor  was  at  Justin  Chamberlain-'s  when  the  storm  came  up. 
Mrs.  Chamberlain,  seeing  the  storm  approaching,  ran  to  the 
cellar,  and  called  to  Streetor  to  follow  her,  but  being  old  and 
feeble,  he  failed  to  reach  safety,  and  was  taken  up  with  the  house, 
being  so  badly  injured  that  he  died  a  day  or  two  after.  The 
same  storm  overtook  Sheriff  Chandler,  who  was  on  his  way  home 
with  his  horse  and  carriage,  but  seeing  its  approach,  he  sprang 
from  the  carriage  and  threw  himself  flat  on  the  ground,  and  the 
storm  passed  over  without  doing  him  injury.  After  the  tornado  had 
passed  Mr.  Chandler  looked  for  his  horse,  but  could  not  find  him. 
However,  after  diligent  search  in  the  direction  the  storm  had 
taken,  the  horse  and  carriage  was  found  about  a  mile  from  where 
he  left  them,  lodged  among  the  tops  of  some  small  trees. 

A  flouring  mill  was  built  in  the  south  part  of  the  town,  on 
Spring  creek,  by  Stearns  &  Ilobart.  in  the  year  1856.  This  mill 
was  carried  away  by  a  freshet  in  June,  the  following  year.  It 
was  rebuilt  soon  after  by  the  Hon.  W.  W.  Phelps,  with  three  run 
of  stone  and  a  capacity  for  grinding  65,000  bushels  annually. 
Mr.  Phelps  operated  this  mill  with  success  for  a  time,  and  after- 
ward sold  it  to  William  Featherstone,  who  in  turn  sold  it  to 
M.  Herschler. 

An  early  history  says:  "The  first  Methodist  service  held  in 
the  township  was  by  the  Rev.  G.  W.  T.  Wright,  at  the  house  of 
his  mother,  Mrs.  Amelia  Wright,  in  May,  1855.  The  persons  that 
formed  the  class  at  that  time  were  Resin  Spates,  Margaret 
Spates,  Justin  Chamberlain,  Maria  Chamberlain,  John  Leason, 
Mary  Leason,  Amelia  Wright,  Mary  F.  Wright,  James  A.  Wright, 
William  H.  Wright,  Beverly  M.  Wright.  Samuel  F.  Hardy  and 
Mary  Hardy." 


At  the  first  election,  held  in  1858,  there  were  fifteen  voters: 
John  Thomas,  Justin  Chamberlain,  J.  G.  Johnson,  John  Leason, 
B.  H.  Munroe, '  S.  B.  Harding,  W.  S.  Grow,  John  Sterns,  M. 
Streetor,  Charles  Spates,  A.  0.  Moore,  J.  Eggleston,  Thomas 
Leason,  William  Thompson,  Seth  Barber  and  John  Quinnell'. 
Among  the  early  supervisors  were  W.  S.  Grow,  Timothy  Jewett, 
Leland  Jones  (four  terms),  J.  G.  Johnson,  A.  Coons,  R.  H.  Knox, 
Q.  Bunch  (two  terms),  L.  Jones.  Among  the  early  town  clerks 
were  J.  G.  Johnson,  Leland  Jones,  Norris  Hobart,  S.  Barber,  T.  J. 
Leason  (two  terms),  Leland  Jones  (two  terms),  William  H.  Ben- 
nett, Leland  Jones,  John  Leason,  J.  G.  Johnson. 

The  contribution  of  Burnside,  including  what  is  now  Welch, 
to  the  Civil  War  was  as  follows :  Joseph  S.  Abels,  William 
Brown,  Lewis  Cannon,  Harlan  P.  Eggleston,  Ira  Eggleston,  John 
S.  Hobart,  Robert  W.  Leason,  James  A.  Leason,  Thomas  J. 
Leason,  John  P.  Leason,  Charles  B.  Noble,  Lewis  Quinnell, 
Thomas  Quinnell,  John  .Richards,  James  Shaw,  Ira  Tillotson, 
James  A.  Wright,  William  H.  Wright,  John  Williams,  Edward 
Coller,  Nathaniel  Brown,  Augustus  C.  Baker,  Dennis  O'Loughlin 
and  Orrin  A.  Phelps. 

To  Rev.  J.  C.  Johnson  is  accredited  the  following  narrative : 
"I  built  a  claim  house,  16  x  20,  in  the  town  now  called  Burnside, 
commencing  it  in  January,  1855,  and  moving  into  it  in  the  follow- 
ing August.  I  found  out  that  naked  nature  needed  more  clothing 
than  a  newborn  child — first  a  hen-roost,  then  a  pigsty,  a  stable, 
stock-yard,  corn-yard,  a  forty-acre  pasture,  one  hundred  acres 
encircled  with  a  wooden  fence,  breaking  costing  five  dollars  per 
acre ;  school  houses  to  be  built,  cemeteries  laid  out  and  enclosed, 
bridges  everywhere  to  be  built,  highways  surveyed  and  worked. 
The  winter  of  1855-56  was  a  rough  one.  As  a  member  of  the 
Minnesota  Methodist  Episcopal  conference,  I  was  trying  to  sup- 
ply the  work  of  preaching  at  a  point  five  miles  above  Hastings 
in  the  forenoon,  at  Hastings  at  2  P.  M.,  and  at  Ravenna,  seven 
miles  below,  at  'candle  light.'  Late  in  the  fall,  one  of  the  darkest 
and  most  stormy  nights  known  to  men,  overtook  me  on  the  open 
prairie  below  Hastings.  The  only  way  to  find  the  path  and  keep 
it  was  to  feel  it  out  with  the  feet.  After  a  while  a  distant  light 
appeared  in  view,  and,  thoroughly  drenched,  I  soon  found  shelter 
in  a  small  house  occupied  by  two  families.  But  the  poor  pony 
had  no  shelter  and  scant  food. 

"One  Monday  morning  of  that  winter,  in  trying  to  get  home 
from  my  appointment,  a  blizzard  commenced  raging.  Scarcely 
any  travel  on  the  road  except  one  stage  through.  About  forty 
degrees  below  zero  of  cold  came  on.  The  wife  and  two  little 
children  at  home  alone,  neighbors  few  and  far  between,  stem 
Necessity  says,  'You  must  get  home,'  but  that  open,  bleak  prairie 


in  the  town  of  Welch,  then  unoccupied,  was  a  precarious  place 
for  night  to  close  in  upon  a  wayfaring  man  with  a  dubious  traek 
to  follow.  Yet,  at  about  9  o'clock  in  the  evening,  we  were  all 
made  unusually  glad  that  the  storm  had  been  weathered  and  the 
harbor  safely  reached. 

''In  the  summer  of  1856  I  raised  two  acres  of  wheat.  Thirty 
miles  away,  at  Northfield,  there  was  a  mill.  With  a  one-horse 
load  I  reached  it  at  sundown,  to  find  the  mill  full  of  grists  and  the 
water  too  low  to  run  on  full  time.  The  only  chance  was  to 
exchange  a  few  bushels  of  my  wheat  for  flour,  receiving  thirty 
pounds  for  each  bushel.  The  rest  of  my  grist  I  brought  back  as 
far  as  Cannon  Falls  and  left  to  be  ground  without  bolting. 
Winter  soon  came  on.  and  no  roads  opened  on  my  route  hither. 
I  found  my  wheat,  which  was  Lef1  there,  the  next  spring,  musty. 
My  next  milling  was  done  at  Kinnickinnic,  eight  miles  beyond 
Prescott.  Wis.,  a  four  days'  journey,  going  around  through 
Cannon  Falls  and  Hastings. 

"The  early  settlers  wanted  church  privileges.  A  meeting 
was  held  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Moore,  near  Cannon  river  bridge,  at 
Burnside.  Moore  had  an  awful  poor  house.  He  had  also  the 
inflammatory  rheumatism.  He  lay  flat  on  his  back  on  the  loose 
hoards  of  the  only  floor  except  bare  ground.  The  people  had 
broughl  all  I  heir  youny  d<><rs  to  the  meeting.  In  the  midst  of  the 
services  the  dogs  became  unseemly  unceremonious.  Moore  evi- 
dently fell  his  responsibility  for  better  order,  and,  rising  with 
difficulty,  in  apparenl  wrath,  he  took  his  own  dog  by  the  neck, 
dragged  him  to  the  door.  and.  with  a  loss  and  a  kick,  sent  him 
yelping  out.  At  thai  all  the  dogs  rushed  ou1  in  sympathy,  and 
the  man  took  his  lowly  place  again.  All  reverence  and  devotion 
fled,  and  appointment  was  not  renewed  at  that  place. 

"We  had  frequenl   visits  from  the  Sioux  Indians,  who  often 

killed  deer  in  the  neighbor! d.     On  one  occasion  three  of  these 

animals  were  shot  by  an  Indian  without  moving  from  his  secluded 
position.  This  occurred  near  where  T.  J.  Bryan's  house  now 
stands.  Our  women,  although  alone  generally  through  the  day, 
were  not  disturbed  in  those  early  days  by  the  visits  of  the 

The  poorfarm,  an  institution  of  which  the  county  has  reason 
to  be  proud,  is  located  in  this  township,  under  the  charge  of  a 
superintendent  appointed  by  the  county  commissioners.  The 
farm  is  about  three  miles  from  Red  Wing  on  the  road  to  Hastings, 
and  contains  183  acres  of  land.  The  buildings  were  erected  in 
1867  at  a  cost  of  about  $6,000.  The  furnace,  heating  system  and 
furniture  cost  about  $1,000.  The  main  building  was  accidentally 
destroyed  by  fire  in  the  fall  of  1889,  and  soon  after  rebuilt.  At 
this  farm  the  worthy  poor  of  the  county,  mostly  the  very  aged 


and  a  few  young  children,  are  given  shelter  and  food,  care  and 
attention,  as  wards  of  the  county. 

On  Prairie  Island  there  are  located  a  number  of  Indians. 
They  have  a  small  church  of  the  Episcopal  denomination,  and 
have,  in  a  measure,  learned  the  arts  of  civilization. 

Eggleston,  a  small  village,  is  located  on  the  edge  of  this  town- 


Cherry  Grove  is  one  of  the  southern  tier  of  townships  in  the 
county.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Wanamingo,  on  the  west 
by  Kenyon,  on  the  south  by  Dodge  county,  and  on  the  east  by 
Roscoe.  One  complete  government  township,  No.  109,  range  17, 
constitutes  its  area,  which  has  remained  unchanged  since  the 
township  act  of  1858.  Its  surface  is  that  of  a  high  prairie,  with 
low,  broad,  undulations  of  surface.  The  drainage  is  toward  the 
north  and  south,  from  the  elevated  central  portion.  A  branch  of 
the  Zumbro  winds  through  the  southern  portion  of  the  township, 
and  along  its  valley  are  some  wooded  portions,  although  for  the 
most  part  the  township  is  under  cultivation.  The  soil  is  excellent 
for  agricultural  purposes,  and  a  specialty  is  made  of  dairy  farm- 
ing in  that  vicinity,  the  residents  being  a  progressive  set  of  peo- 
ple, who  have  adopted  all  the  latest  methods  in  agricultural 

The  territory  comprised  in  the  township  remained  practically 
an  unbroken  wilderness  until  1854,  when,  in  the  spring  of  that 
year.  Madison  Brown  located  a  claim  on  section  31.  In  the  fall 
of  the  following  year,  however,  he  sold  his  claim  to  Silas  Mer- 
rinian.  and  went  to  Iowa.  Of  his  subsequent  career  nothing  is  to 
be  learned,  although  it  is  supposed  that  he  was  hilled  in  the 
Civil  War.  In  the  fall  of  1851.  Reading  and  Benjamin  AYoodward 
selected  claims  adjoining  that  of  Brown.  Benjamin  soon  after 
went  to  Iowa,  where  he  died,  while  Reading  remained  as  a  perma- 
nent settler.  In  the  following  year  came  Silas  Merriman,  already 
mentioned,  Samuel  and  William  Shields,  Joseph  Seymour,  Wilson 
Kelsey,  Thomas  Haggard,  and  John  and  Charles  Lent.  In  the 
spring  following  came  E.  0.  Comstock,  Israel  T.  and  Taft  Corn- 
stock.  Samuel  Winston,  John  Nichols,  J.  A.  Ray  and  others.  It 
will  be  noted  that  the  majority  of  the  settlers  were  eastern 
people,  and  a  number  of  their  descendants  still  maintain  the  New 
England  and  New  York  traditions  of  their  ancestors.  These 
settlers,  in  the  earliest  days,  were  made  the  subject  of  consider- 
able annoyance.  Marauding  bands  of  ruffians  created  acute 
apprehension,  and  the  choicest  claims  were  constantly  being 
jumped.  In  the  winter  of  1855-56  a  claim  meeting  was  called 
and  an  organization  effected   for  the  protection   of  the  settlers. 


T.  B.  Haggard  was  appointed  captain.  This  force  was  soon  after 
called  together  to  protect  the  settlers,  which  they  did  so  effect- 
ively that  thereafter  the  residents  were  allowed  to  pursue  their 
various  callings  in  peace.  The  setlement  in  the  northern  part 
of  the  township  was  started  in  1856,  when  Darius  Johnson  made 
a  claim  on  section  6.  He  was  followed  hy  Payington  Root,  and 
soon  after  by  many  others,  mostly  pioneers  from  Norway. 

In  1857  a  village  was  platted  in  the  southern  part  of  the  town 
and  called  Fairpoint.  The  proprietors  were  Thomas  Haggard 
and  a  man  named  Beekwith.  In  1863  several  buildings  were 
erected  in  this  village.  A  postoffice  was  established  there  in 
1S58.  Silas  Merriam  was  the  postmaster.  Owing  to  the  small 
amount  of  mail  received,  this  office  was  discontinued  in  1861. 
Some  years  later  it  was  re-established  and  Herman  Eastman 
named  as  postmaster.  In  1867  Herman  Eastman  and  E.  B. 
Jewitt  opened  a  store  in  the  village,  and  a  year  later  David 
Haggard  was  appointed  postmaster. 

A  log  cabin  schoolhouse  was  built  in  1857,  at  the  edge  of  a 
cherry  grove  in  the  central  part  of  the  township,  and  the  first 
school  session  was  taught  by  E.  G.  Comstock  that  winter.  In 
1861  a  stone  schoolhouse  was  erected  on  the  site  of  this  old  log 
structure.  The  first  church  organization  was  effected  in  1856, 
when  the  Christian  Disciples  met  at  the  home  of  James  Haggard 
and  listened  to  a  sermon  by  David  Haggard.  The  first  service 
by  a  regularly  ordained  clergyman  was  by  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Gates 
at  his  own  residence  in  the  spring  of  1857.  The  first  marriage 
in  the  township  was  between  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  T.  B.  Hag- 
gard, and  John  Hart,  in  August,  1857.  The  first  death  was  that 
of  Fliza  Jane,  daughter  of  T.  B.  Haggard,  December  16,  1857. 
The  first  town  meeting  was  held  May  11,  1858.  at  which  time 
officers  were  elected  as  follows :  Supervisors,  Benjamin  "Wood- 
ward (chairman),  Cyrus  H.  Burt  and  David  Simpson  ;  town  clerk, 
E.  G.  Comstock ;  assessor,  Francis  A.  Crebb ;  constables,  James 
Haggard  and  Peter  Stagle;  justices  of  the  peace,  John  Haggard 
and  F.  A.  Crebb ;  road  overseers,  Israel  T.  Comstock  and  Reading 
Woodward.  James  Haggard  was  appointed  collector  in  May, 
1858.  There  being  a  tie  vote,  no  supervisor  of  the  poor  was 

The  official  list  of  the  men  who  enlisted  from  this  township 
during  the  Civil  War  is  as  follows :  F.  H.  Bullock,  William 
Catlin,  Jr.,  Ryal  Catlin,  Alva  K.  Eastman,  Edward  Hudson,  Jesse 
T.  Hamlin,  Rufus  Hart,  Mc.  D.  Willoughby,  Orville  Ames,  Dan- 
forth  W.  Cook,  Theodorick  Drum,  William  Forsyth,  Thomas  E. 
Gillett,  Thomas  B.  Haggard.  George  Hanlden,  Simeon  Steemerr 
Uriah  Hopkins,  Francis  E.  Presley,  Jonathan  Dibble,  Alvin  Davis. 
Abram    Doner.    Hans    Jordt,    Ferris    Johnson,    Charles    C.    Lent, 


Henry  Nesson,  Henry  O'Kane,  Hiram  E.  Perkins,  William 
Perkins,  Herman  A.  Perkins,  Leander  Root,  Captain  A.  N.  See, 
Daniel  C.  Smith.  Clymen  Sherwood,  Terence  Thompson,  Terence 
Thompson  2nd,  Lyman  T.  Ward,  William  F.  Ward,  John  Wood- 
bury. B.  C.  Wait,  James  Haggard,  James  Holloran,  Hiram  Leach, 
Washington  Roster.  Frederick  Robohm,  G.  H.  Mayheigh,  Benton 
Merse,  James  Scurry,  Isaac  Wilmer,  Martin  AVhalton,  Henry 
Kuhns,  Christ  Phillips,  Peter  L.  Slagle,  Charles  D.  Ward,  Her- 
bert Drake,  John  Lloyd,  Charles  Lloyd,  Davis  Johnson,  Alexander 
McKinley,  Lyman  Sackett,  Stephen  Van  Gilder,  William  William- 
son, Card  Bnrfrind,  A.  C.  Bennett,  Nelson  Gaylord,  Charles  Hick- 
man, George  Johnson,  Gottlieb  Persig,  Orville  Rogers,  James  E. 
Smith,  A.  D.  Thayer,  Thomas  Thompson,  Frederick  Walters, 
Frank  Yager. 

Cherry  Grove  has  four  large  and  commodious  churches — -one 
Catholic,  one  German  Lutheran  and  one  Norwegian  Lutheran. 
There  have  been  postoffices  at  Ayr,  Fairpoint  and  Spring  Creek. 


Central  Point,  the  most  easterly  as  well  as  the  smallest  of 
Goodhue  county  townships,  lies  in  a  bend  in  Lake  Pepin  directly 
above  Lake  City.  It  contains  one  complete  section  and  several 
fractional  ones  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  east  by  the  lake, 
south  by  Lake  City  in  Wabasha  county,  and  west  by  Florence. 
Its  surface  is  broken.  An  isolated  bluff  rises  in  the  eastern  part, 
and  its  peculiar  shape  has  won  the  name  of  Sugar  Loaf.  A  point 
of  land  extending  some  distance  into  the  lake  about  midway 
between  the  head  and  foot  of  same  gives  the  town  its  name. 

By  reason  of  its  excellent  landing  place  and  its  position 
midway  in  the  lake,  there  were  many  early  dreams  of  its  future 
greatness  as  a  shipping  point.  Charles  Gould  settled  near  here 
in  about  1850.  In  1853  a  Mr.  Gridley  made  a  claim  to  some  land. 
He  was  followed  by  R,  L.  Phillips,  H.  L.  Barrett  and  Hannibal 
Bonnell.  Soon  quite  a  flourishing  neighborhood  gathered  about 
the  landing,  and  in  1855  a  village  plat  was  surveyed  and  specu- 
lation in  village  lots  for  a  time  became  quite  lively.-  Silas  Crop 
built  a  store  and  stocked  it  with  general  merchandise.  Mr. 
Feary  built  a  hotel,  which  was  opened  by  E.  S.  Harrison.  A 
postoffice  was  established  and  Perry  D.  Martin  was  appointed 
postmaster.  In  1856  C.  W.  and  E.  Hackett  built  another  store, 
which  was  also  filled  with  general  merchandise.  Charles  Moe 
built  a  steam  sawmill  and  commenced  the  manufacture  of  lumber. 
At  this  time  Central  Point"  was  the  only  steamboat  lauding  in 
the  vicinity,  and  for  a  period  it  seemed  designed  to  become  a 
lumbering  center,  where  would  bo  sawed  the  logs  floated  down 


the  lake  in  rafts  from  points  on  the  Mississippi  and  the  St.  Croix. 
But  it  was  soon  found  that  Lake  City  afforded  a  much  better 
landing,  and  as  a  result  business  -was  drawn  away  from  Central 
Point  and  toward  Lake  City.  However,  in  1857  Lewis  &  Scott 
built  another  sawmill,  which  was  conducted  for  a  time  by  Frank 
Sterrit  and  afterward  bought  and  conducted  by  S.  S.  and  G.  H. 
Grannis.  The  manufacture  of  sorghum  syrup  in  later  years 
became  an  important  industry.  The  first  school  was  taught  in 
1858.  In  1873  a  very  fine  and  commodious  school  building  was 
erected.  The  first  house  built  in  the  town  was  a  log  cabin  con- 
structed by  H.  L.  Barrett.  In  this  house  the  Rev.  M.  Sorin  con- 
ducted the  first  religious  service  held  in  the  township.  The  first 
death  was  that  of  an  infant  child  of  C.  AY.  Hackett.  in  1856. 
Of  the  first  marriage  no  record  has  been  left.  It  is  also  impos- 
sible to  learn  of  the  first  town  officers,  as  the  early  records  were 
destroyed  by  mice  sonic  years  ago.  before  any  transcription  was 
made  of  the  important  fads. 

The  contribution  from  Central  Point  to  the  ranks  of  the 
LTnion  army  would  seem  almost  impossible  were  it  not  a  matter 
of  official  record.  According  to  these  records,  no  less  than 
twenty-one  men  enlisted  from  this  town.  They  were:  Wesley 
F.  Bailey.  Dexter  Chacldock,  James  AY.  Delong,  AYallaee  AY. 
Delong.  John  R.  Graham,  Ambrose  Gardiner,  John  Gardiner, 
George  Harrison.  Edward  B.  Hawkins,  Marcus  Hills.  Baker  Har- 
rison, Clarence  Hubbard,  Charles  Lathan,  Adjutant  Perry  D. 
Martin,  Levi  M.  Phillips,  John  L.  Rice,  Charles  H.  Sibley, 
George  Weaver,  George  S.  Harrison,  John  S.  Harrison  and  Co- 
lumbus Phillips. 

John  G.  AYooley,  the  famous  temperance  orator,  started  a 
home  for  drunkards  in  1891,  and  several  substantial  buildings 
were  erected,  but  the  enterprise  was  afterward  abandoned. 



First  Settlement— Platting  the  Village— Village  and  City  Incor- 
porated—Water Power  and  Mills— Fraternities— Hotels- 
Newspaper— Modern  Cannon  Falls— Industries— Business 
Houses— Schools— Commercial  Club— Banks— Cannon  Falls 
Township — Early  History — Veterans  of  the  War. 

Cannon  Falls,  now  a  city,  has  a  historic  past  and  a  promising- 
future,  together  with  a  prosperous  present.  Its  early  history  is 
closely  associated  with  that  of  Red  Wing,  the  names  of  Sweney, 
Colvill,  McGinnis  and  Freeborn  being  prominent  in  both  places. 
The  following  article  has  been  prepared  with  the  assistance  of 
John  C.  Applegate,  editor  of  the  Cannon  Falls  "Beacon,"  who 
has  edited  the  early  history  and  written  the  story  of  the  modern 
growth  and  development  of  the  city  and  its  various  interests. 

In  1855  William  Freeborn  built  a  log  cabin  on  the  east  bank 
of  the  Little  Cannon  river,  near  the  falls,  on  mill  block  No.  3. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  the  present  prosperous  city  of  Cannon 
Falls.  Richard  Elton  built  the  first  store  the  same  year,  on  block 
36,  and  Eli  Ellsworth,  the  first  merchant,  kept  his  goods  in  that 
building.  The  first  physician  was  J.  E.  Tibbitts,  the  first  lawyer 
was  R.  AY.  Hamilton,  and  the  first  resident  minister  of  the  gospel 
was  Rev.  J.  R.  Barnes. 

Where  a  portion  of  the  city  now  stands,  James  McGinn-is  pre- 
empted lots  1,  2,  5  and  6,  section  18,  in  November,  1854.  March, 
1855,  Warren  Hunt  took  a  claim,  northeast  quarter  of  section  18, 
adjoining  McGinnis  on  the  east.  The  same  spring  Richard  Free- 
born, Jr.,  pre-empted  lots  3  and  4,  section  18,  west  of  the  Mc- 
Ginnis claim.  In  May,  1855,  William  Colvill  pre-empted  lots  7, 
8  and  9,  section  18.  south  of  the  McGinnis  claim.  Benjamin  St. 
Clair  took  lots  7,  8  and  12,  section  7,  north  of  the  McGinnis 
claim,  the  same  spring.  June,  1855,  William  P.  Scofield  pre- 
empted lots  9,  10  and  11,  section  7,  northwest  from  the  McGinnis 
claim.  The  same  month,  Hugh  Montgomery  took  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  18,  east  of  the  McGinnis  claim.  June  1855, 
Frank   Clark   entered  lots   10   and    11,   section    IS,   south    of  the 



Colvill  claim.  William  B.  Barton  pre-empted  the  southeast  quar- 
ter of  section  7.  northeast  of  the  McGinnis  claim  in  the  fall  of 

The  village  proper  was  laid  out  August  27,  1855,  by  Richard 
and  William  Freeborn,  on  section  18,  including  a  portion  of  the 
claims  of  McGinnis.  Kichard  Freeborn  and  William  Colvill.  It 
was  surveyed  and  platted  by  S.  A.  Hart,  county  surveyor.  About 
October  16,  1856,  the  Cannon  Falls  city  addition  was  platted. 
This  included  all  the  Hunt  and  Barton  claims.  The  Cannon  Falls 
central  addition  was  made  December  13,  1856,  including  a  part 
of  the  Richard  Freeborn  claim.  Point  Lookout  addition  was 
made  in  the  fall  of  1856  and  included  a  part  of  the  Montgomery 
claim.  Cannon  Falls  Company's  addition  was  made  May  18, 
1858,  and  included  a  part  of  the  William  P.  Scofield  claim.  St. 
( 'harles  Terre  Haute  addition  was  made  soon  after,  including  a 
part  of  the  St.  (lair  claim.  Ellsworth  and  Tanner's  addition 
followed  immediately  and  included  a  part  of  the  Scofield  claim. 

The  village  was  incorporated  March  10,  1857.  The  first  elec- 
tion was  held  the  first  Wednesday  in  May,  1857.  The  first  officers 
elected  under  the  charter  were:  Charles  Parks,  president;  Will- 
iam Tanner,  recorder;  J.  E.  Chapman,  Thomas  Baker  and  George 
MeKenzie,  councilmen.  Charles  Parks  built  a  log  hotel,  sixteen 
by  twenty-four,  in  the  fall  of  1854.  which  was  named  the  Falls 
House.  This  was  sold  in  April,  1855,  to  Andrew  Durand,  who 
built  an  addition  of  the  same  dimensions  and  kept  the  house  for 
1  hree  years. 

The  village  of  Cannon  Falls  was  reincorporated  as  a  city  in 
February,  1905.  with  a  population  of  1,460.  The  present  officers 
are:  Mayor,  F.  B.  Seager;  aldermen,  John  Kilroy,  0.  H.  Doebler, 
George  V.  Williams,  E.  J.  Holmes  and  G.  A.  Widholm. 

The  water  power  furnished  in  such  abundant  measure  by  the 
falls  in  the  river  at  this  point,  naturally  attracted  those  who  had 
money  to  invest  in  mills  in  the  early  days.  The  water  power  is 
still  abundant,  and  has  never  been  utilized  to  its  full  capacity. 
The  great  falls  are  on  the  main  river  a  little  west  of  the  village, 
having  in  the  distance  of  a  few  rods  a  perpendicular  descent  of 
about  twenty  feet.  The  falls  on  the  Little  Cannon,  where  the 
stone  mill  stands,  are  twenty-five  feet.  Another  fall,  just  below 
the  junction,  is  fifteen  feet. 

At  this  fall  the  first  flouring  mill  in  the  township  was  built 
by  R.  C.  Knox,  in  1867,  the  exact  location  being  block  51,  in 
Cannon  Falls  city  addition.  It  was  a  frame  structure,  forty-five 
by  fifty,  containing  four  run  of  stone.  The  entire  building,  when 
completed,  cost  $14,000,  with  a  capacity  of  100,000  bushels  of 
wheat  per  annum.  It  was  carried  away  by  the  flood  of  June. 
1867,  and  during  that  same  year  was  rebuilt  by  Mrs.  Cornelia 


Grosvener.  The  re-erected  building  was  fifty  by  sixty,  four  sto- 
ries, and  contained  eight  run  of  stone,  five  for  wheat  and  three 
for  middlings. 

The  Little  Cannon  mill  is  a  stone  structure,  two  stories  above 
the  basement,  fifty  by  seventy,  built  in  1857.  It  was  not  used 
until  1861.  when  machinery  for  the  manufacture  of  woolen  goods 
was  put  in.  It  was  operated  as  a  woolen  mill  until  1875,  when 
it  was  converted  into  a  grist  mill,  with  four  rim  of  stone  for 
wheat  and  two  for  feed.  This  was  known  for  years  as  the  Thomp- 
son mill.    It  is  now  the  New  Cannon  Plansifter  mill. 

The  Goodhue  Mills  are  situated  on  the  Big  Cannon,  about  a 
half  a  mile  above  its  junction  with  the  Little  Cannon.  The  dam 
gives  a  fall  of  fifteen  feet  and  with  an  abundant  supply  of  water 
at  all  seasons  of  the  year.  It  is  one  of  the  finest  water  powers 
in  the  locality.  The  machinery  is  propelled  by  five  water  wheels 
— one  American  of  ninety  horsepower,  and  four  Eclipse  wheels 
of  forty  horsepower  each.  It  has  all  the  latest  improvements 
and  appliances  in  the  way  of  machinery  and  fixtures  for  produc- 
ing the  finest  quality  of  flour.  It  is  a  frame  structure  forty-five 
by  sixty,  four  stories  high.  The  mill  was  erected  in  1872  by 
Gardner  &  Moore,  and  cost  $22,000.  Its  water  power  cost  $8,000 
extra.  The  brands  manufactured  are  the  Climax,  Mona,  Tele- 
phone and  Paragon.  The  company  took  first  premium  at  the 
Centennial  of  1876.  at  Philadelphia.  The  river  is  spanned  by  a 
sleel  arch  bridge,  the  dam  is  twelve  feet  high,  and  a  new  one  is 
L'9w  proposed. 

From  the  earliest  days  the  fraternal  spirit  in  the  village  has 
been  strong,  and  the  various  societies  have  contributed  in  no 
small  degree  to  the  educational  and  charitable  as  well  as  social 
progress  of  the  community. 

Oriental  Lodge  No.  31,  A.  F.  and  A.  M.,  was  organized  June 
26,  1860,  and  worked  under  a  dispensation  until  October  24, 
1860,  at  which  time  a  charter  was  received.  In  1861  the  lodge 
purchased  two  lots  on  the  north  side  of  the  Little  Cannon  river 
and  fitted  up  a  lodge  room.  The  charter  members  were  Joseph 
E.  Chapman,  John  L.  Armington,  Stephen  N.  Carey,  William  H. 
Mosier,  Samuel  Finney  and  Ralph  Tanner.  The  first  officers  were  : 
John  L.  Armington,  M.  W. ;  Joseph  E.  Chapman,  S.  W. ;  Stephen 
N.  Carey,  J.  W. ;  William  H.  Mosier.  treasurer ;  Samuel  Finney, 

Alleghany  Lodge,  No.  33,  I.  O.  O.  F.,  was  organized  January 
:i  1872.  by  M.  E.  Henderson.  J.  W.  Newell,  George  McKenzie, 
J.  W.  Neff  and  E.  L.  Clark.  At  the  time  of  organization  there 
were  thirteen  initiations.  The  first  officers  were :  M.  E.  Hender- 
son, N.  G.;  J.  W.  Newell,  V.  G. :  E.  L.  Clark,  secretary;  <i.  W. 
Neff.  treasurer. 


Valley  Encampment,  No.  11,  was  organized  April  3,  1873,  by 
M.  E.  Henderson,  Lyman  K.  Ayrault,  AVarren  Gilchrist,  George 
Manning,  G.  W.  Xeff,  E.  L.  Clark  and  L.  AYhite.  At  the  first 
meeting  there  were  five  initiations.  The  first  officers  were :  M. 
E.  Henderson,  C.  P.;  Lyman  K.  Ayrault,  H.  P.;  George  Man- 
ning, S.  W.;  Orrin  Gilchrist,  J.  AY.;  E.  L.  Clark,  scribe;  G.  AY. 
Xeff.  treasurer. 

Mutual  Lodge,  No.  40,  A.  0.  U.  W.,  was  organized  January 
30,  1878.  The  charter  members  were  S.  Higman,  G.  A.  Follet, 
G.  H.  Cross,  H.  Hanson,  AYilliam  Smith,  H.  H.  Manning,  Myron 
D.  Gibbs,  0.  T.  Jones,  AY.  H.  Seofield.  ('.  E.  Daniels,  J.  L.  Sco- 
field,  E.  Holden  and  A.  L.  Cawley. 

Cannon  Falls  Lodge,  No.  253,  P.  of  H.,  had  a  number  of  mem- 
bers during  the  time  of  the  popularity  of  the  Grange. 

Prairie  Flower  Lodge,  No.  169,  I.  0.  G.  T.,  was  organized  in 
the  interests  of  temperance,  March  2.  1875,  with  fifteen  charter 
members.  The  first  officers  were  M.  McKay,  Ida  Mallett,  Adelia 
Stranahan  and  Hattie  Copeland. 

The  Ben  Socs  Scandinavian  Benevolent  Society  was  organized 
August  9,  ]>>!'!.  witli  seventeen  charter  members.  The  officers 
were  G.  AVestman.  president;  Haagen  Thompson,  vice  president: 
L.  Engbei'g.  secretary;  John  Mattson.  treasurer;  John  Danielson, 
('.  G.  Rydell  and  P.  Flygare,  trustees. 

Other  societies  which  have  been  organized  in  the  city  are 
McKinley  Post,  No.  92,  G.  A.  R. ;  Cannon  Camp,  No.  1540,  M.  W. 
of  A.;  Zion  Chapter,  No.  6,  0.  E.  S.;  Crescent  Camp,  No.  950,  R. 
N.  A. ;  Cannon  Falls  Council,  No.  82,  Samaritans ;  Beneficent  De- 
gree, Samaritans;  George  McKinley  Corps,  No.  80,  W.  R.  C,  and 
Harmony  Camp,  No.  48,  W.  0.  W. 

The  "taverns"  of  a  village  always  have  an  important  part 
in  its  progress,  more  especially  in  pioneer  days.  The  two  earliest 
hotels  were  the  Falls  House  and  the  Exchange  House. 

The  Falls  House  was  built  by  Charles  Parks  in  the  fall  of 
1854.  At  that  time  it  was  a  log  house  sixteen  by  twenty-four. 
The  house  was  sold  to  Andras  Durand  in  April,  1855,  who  at 
once  built  an  addition  as  large  as  the  original  structure.  In  the 
fall  of  1856  a  building,  thirty  by  forty,  two  stories,  was  erected. 
In  the  spring  of  185*8  it  was  sold  to  Edward  J.  Turner,  who 
rented  it  to  Benjamin  Aran  Campen  for  ten  years.  Subsequent 
proprietors  were  Colonel  Williams,  Sole  Slosson,  John  English 
and- others.  September  18,  1871.  D.  L.  Davis  took  charge  of  the 
property,  lie  having  purchased  it  sometime  previous,  September 
19.  1866.  In  the  fall  of  1873  Mr.  Davis  sold  it  to  Peter  Gravlin, 
who  kept  the  house  until  1875.  when  Mr.  Davis  again  came  into 
possession.  Air.  Davis  refitted  the  building,  and  in  the  spring  of 
1872  made  an   addition,  fourteen  by  twenty-two  feet.     In  1890 


this  property  came  into  the  hands  of  Henry  Thompson,  who  re- 
built the  main  pari  of  stone  and  greatly  improved  it. 

The  Exchange  House  was  built  in  the  fall  of  1866  by  Peter 
Gravlin  and  Christopher  Benway.  Benway  sold  his  share  the 
following  spring  to  Charles  Brown,  and  the  house  was  run  by 
Gravlin  and  Brown  as  the  "New  England"  house.  They  sold 
out  to  John  Williams  in  JS74.  and  he  in  turn  to  Helstrum  and 
Riddell.  David  Piatt  bought  it  in  June  L875,  and  gave  it  the 
name  of  i'latt  House. 

The  Cannon  Falls  "Beacon"  is  the  outgrowth  of  the  Cannon 
Falls  "Gazette."  The  "Gazette"  was  started  by  R.  M.  Hamline 
in  July,  1856.  After  fifteen  months  it  was  purchased  by  Mr. 
Hatch,  who  after  a  year  sold  it  to  the  Hoag  Bros.  The  Hoag 
Bros,  changed  the  name  to  Cannon  Falls  "Bulletin."  A  year 
later  the  paper  was  removed  to  Northfield.  Cannon  Falls  was 
without  a  paper  until  June,  1874,  when  .Ah'.  Bromwick  started 
the  "Echo."  This  paper  lived  a  year.  August  4,  1876,  John 
A.  Leonard  started  the  Cannon  Falls  "Beacon,"  and  continued 
it  until  July  6,  1877,  when  he  sold  out  to  O.  T.  Jones  and  C.  A. 
Cook.  April  5,  1878.  Mr.  Jones  purchased  his  partner's  inter- 
ests, and  on  May  27,  1878,  sold  a  half  interest  to  L.  C.  McKenney. 
In  May,  1880,  S.  S.  Lewis  bought  an  interest  with  Jones,  Mr. 
McKenney  having  retired.  Mr.  Lewis  conducted  the  "Beacon" 
till  the  summer  of  1901,  when  he  sold  it  to  Joe  Brynildsen,  who, 
in  December,  1903,  sold  it  to  the  present  publisher,  John  C.  Apple- 
gate.  The  "Beacon"  is  Republican  in  politics  and  occupies  a 
prominent  place  in  the  state  press. 

Cannon  Falls  has  probably  never  been  more  prosperous  than 
at  present.  All  of  its  industries  are  in  operation  and  all  labor 
employed  at  good  wages,  and  the  outlook  for  its  continued  pros- 
perity is  most  nattering.  Notwithstanding  the  many  new  houses 
built  in  the  city  of  late  years,  there  are  no  vacant  houses,  and 
one  of  the  pressing  needs  is  a  number  of  dwelling  houses  at  mod- 
erate rental.  The  city  is  replacing  the  old  wood  and  iron  bridge 
across  the  Big  Cannon  at  Third  street  with  a  new  steel  and  con- 
crete structure  at  a  cost  of  $10,000. 

The  extension  of  the  water  system  to  residence  streets  h as- 
encouraged  the  home-making  spirit,  and  a  general  tidying  up  and 
beautifying  of  home  places  has  resulted.  The  si  reels  in  resident 
portions  have  been  narrowed  and  bordered  by  boulevards  and 
grass  plots.  There  are  practically  no  wooden  sidewalks  in  the 
city,  they  having  been  replaced  by  modern  cement  walks,  while 
cement  street  crossings  are  replacing  the  old  ilagstone. 

The  principal  enterprises  of  Cannon  Falls  are  as  follows: 
Hardware— H.  A.  Van  Campen  is  the  oldest  dealer  in  implements 
and   vehicles  in  the  city,  having  been  agent   for  the   McCormick 


harvesting  machinery  for  a  third  of  a  century.  0.  P.  Peters  is 
another  old  dealer  in  this  class  of  goods,  having  purchased  the 
hardware  business  from  D.  E.  Yale  nearly  twenty-five  years  ago. 
Ritchie  &  Lee  as  a  firm  is  comparatively  new,  though  John 
Ritchie,  of  the  firm,  has  been  engaged  in  the  implement  and 
vehicle  trade  for  a  number  of  years.  Blacksmithing — John  J. 
Anderson,  blacksmithing  and  machine  shop ;  W.  A.  Fans,  black- 
smithing  and  horse-shoeing  and  general  repair  work;  Roy  Dan- 
iels, in  Ritchie's  old  stand  on  Fourth  street,  is  an  up-to-date 
mechanic,  and  does  good  work  in  horse  shoeing  and  general 
blacksmithing.  Barbers — Frank  A.  Barlow,  John  Lynn.  Bazaar 
- — Five  and  ten  cent  store,  Skog  Bros.,  proprietors.  Canning  in- 
dustry— The  Cannon  Valley  Canning  Company,  canners  of  sweet 
corn;  president,  E.  B.  Seager;  secretary,  S.  Kraft;  superintend- 
ent. F.  A.  Agnew;  organized  in  the  spring  of  190L  Creamery— 
*  Wastedo  Creamery  Company ;  manager,  F.  S.  Stone.  This  con- 
cern came  to  Cannon  Falls  from  Wastedo  two  years  ago  and  has 
built  up  a  successful  business.  Cheese — Cannon  Falls  Co-opera- 
tive cheese  factory;  George  I.  Valentine,  president;  does  a  flour- 
ishing business  and  its  product  ranks  with  the  best  in  the  state. 
Clothing— Regent  Clothing  House.  John  A.  Ohnstad,  proprietor, 
carries  a  full  line  of  clothing  and  gentlemen's  furnishings.  Dry 
goods — The  Cannon  Falls  Dry  Goods  Company;  J.  L.  Erickson, 
president;  F.  C.  Carlson,  manager,  is  the  largest  store  of  its  kind 
outside  the  county  seat,  handling  a  very  large  and  complete  line 
of  dry  goods,  shoes  and  groceries.  Meger  &  Johns  have  done 
business  in  Cannon  Falls  for  nearly  twenty  years  and  carry  a 
large  and  well  selected  line  of  dry  goods  and  clothing.  Harry 
Freeman,  general  dry  goods  and  furnishings.  Drug  stores — Sco- 
field  Bros.,  James  L.  and  F.  AY.  Scofield.  This  is  the  oldest  drug 
house  in  the  county  and  has  done  a  successful  business  in  drugs, 
wall  paper  and  jewelry,  for  forty-one  years.  George  V.  Williams 
earries  a  full  line  of  drugs,  wall  paper,  jewelry  and  fancy  articles, 
and  is  doing  a  good  business.  Dray  line — City  dray,  Emil,  pro- 
prietor. Dentists— Lewis  L.  Conley,  D.  D.  S. ;  0.  E.  Doety,  D.  D. 
S.  Elevators — Cannon  Falls  Farmers'  Elevator  Company;  F.  I. 
Holmson,  president;  Nels  Mattson,  secretary;  F.  R.  Anderson, 
manager,  is  a  vigorous  institution  of  great  value  to  the  local 
market.  Charles  M.  Most,  grain  elevators,  Jonas  W.  Holmes, 
manager.  Express — Wells  Fargo  Express  Company,  A.  L.  Clif- 
ford, agent.  Electric  service— Cannon  Falls  Electric  Service  Com- 
pany, L.  F.  Blinco,  superintendent,  has  a  very  complete  and 
modern  plant  and  gives  first-class  service.  Furniture— C.  Daniel- 
son  Furniture  Company,  Charles  Danielson,  manager,  is  an  up- 
to-date  concern  carrying  a  large  stock  and  doing  a  large  business. 
Has  branches  at  Goodhue  and  Zumbrota.  Fur  factory— C.  0. 
Bye,  proprietor  of  the  old  reliable  tannery  and  fur  factory,  situ- 


ated  on  the  north  side,  is  well  equipped  and  does  a  prosperous 
business.  Groceries — Cannon  Falls  dry  goods  and  city  grocery; 
Magnus  Olson,  proprietor;  Frank  A.  Lundberg,  manager.  Falck 
Bros..  Ole  E.  Falck  and  John  E.  Falck;  established  1894.  Lund- 
quist's  grocery  and  feed  store,  Charles  0.  Lundquist.  proprietor. 
Westman's  grocery,  C.  J.  AYestman,  proprietor.  North  Star 
grocery ;  N.  C.  Olson,  proprietor ;  Carl  Olson,  manager ;  estab- 
lished 1886.  Hardware — O.  F.  Peters  carries  a  full  line  of 
builders '  hardware,  cutlery,  stoves,  household  utensils,  agricul- 
tural implements  and  vehicles,  and  does  a  large  business.  J.  H. 
Carlson  Hardware  Company,  John  H.  Carlson,  manager.  This 
firm  carries  a  complete  line  of  hardware  and  house  furnishings 
and  is  building  up  a  large  and  paying  business.  Harness — Hjal- 
raar  Olson  succeeded  to  the  business  of  J.  A.  Ekloff  some  years 
ago  and  has  built  up  a  prosperous  business  in  this  line.  Frank 
Schurch  is  one  of  the  oldest  dealers  in  harness  and  horse  sup- 
plies in  the  county  and  is  doing  a  prosperous  business.  Hotels 
— The  Falls  House,  a  commercial  hotel,  William  C.  Carroll,  pro- 
prietor; the  Piatt  House,  Willis  H.  Piatt,  proprietor.  Ice — Tan- 
ner &  Seager  Ice ;  also  proprietors  of  the  Cannon  Falls  Nursery. 
Jewelry — Scofield  Bros..  Caspar  AValfahot,  manager;  George  V. 
Williams,  John  Seagren,  manager;  Albert  Lagerstrom.  Livery — 
Riverside  livery,  Frank  B.  Lucking,  proprietor;  City  livery,  Reis- 
ner  &  Sehickling.  Lumber — Ballard  Trimble  Lumber  Company, 
F.  R.  Hall,  manager;  North  Star  Lumber  Company,  E.  E.  Lee, 
manager.  Lawyers — Peter  S.  Aslakson,  Charles  P.  Hall,  Thor 
R.  Johnson,  AVillis  W.  AVoodruff,  George  E\  Wilson.  Lands— 
Emil  J.  Holmes,  lands  and  city  property.  Monuments — Lars  C. 
Lockrem.  Aleat  markets — Bremer  Bros.,  George  Bremer,  Fred 
Bremer,  established  1892:  Dibble  Bros.,  Richard  Dibble  and  Dan 
S.  Dibble,  established  1889.  Alillinery— Airs.  Carrie  Tanner,  Airs. 
Gertrude  Ohnstad.  ALUs— Goodhue  mill,  operated  by  the  Can- 
non Valley  Milling  Company,  a  Alinneapolis  concern;  .lames  C. 
Boynton,  local  manager.  Cannon  Falls  Milling  Company,  T.  L. 
Beiseter,  president.  New  Cannon  Plansifter  ALU,  Paul  AV.  Rothe, 
manager.  This  is  the  old  stone  mill  on  the  Little  Cannon,  for 
many  years  known  as  the  Thompson  mill.  Air.  Rothe  is  very  suc- 
cessful in  its  management.  Newspapers — The  "Beacon,"  John 
C.  Applegate,  proprietor ;  founded  in  1876.  The  ' '  Beacon ' '  under 
its  present  management  was  the  leader  in  the  movement  for 
railroad  regulation  in  the  state,  and  was  recognized  throughout 
the  northwest  as  an  authority  on  the  railroad  question.  The  re- 
sult of  this  movement  was  radical  reforms  in  transportation 
methods,  and  reductions  in  freight  and  passenger  charges,  sav 
ing  millions  every  year  to  the  business  and  farming  interest  of 
the  state.     The  "Ledger,"  a   weekly,  published  by  S.  S.  Lewis. 


Postoffice — Peter  A.  Peterson,  postmaster;  Ella  M.  Johnson, 
assistant  postmaster ;  Hader  F.  AValander,  clerk.  Rural  carriers : 
John  A.  Anderson,  August  M.  Johnston,  Oscar  E.  Olson,  Harry 
F.  Hinc  John  A.  Lundberg,  John  A.  Johnson,  Alfred  G.  Swanson 
and  Edwin  Larson.  Shoes — Andrew  J.  Hagg  has  been  selling 
boots  and  shoes  to  the  people  of  Cannon  Falls  and  vicinity  for 
thirty-two  years,  and  success  has  rewarded  his  industry  and 
honorable  business  methods.  Samuel  Kraft,  business  established 
1888;  carries  a  very  complete  line  of  shoes  and  gentlemen's  fur- 
nishing goods.  Sorghum  mill — Carlson  &  AVohlander,  located  on 
west  side,  a  new  and  modern  mill.  Telephone  exchange — Cannon 
Falls  Telephone  Company,  established  1901.  President,  Charles 
L.  Scofield;  secretary.  J.  L.  Scofield;  treasurer,  F.  W.  Scofield, 
who  is  also  manage]-.  Has  northwestern  long  distance  connec- 
tion and  a  local  and  rural  service  of  1,200  subscribers.  Tailors 
— Johnson  &  Swanson:  John  Johnson.  .John  Swanson.  These  two 
men  have  been  in  business  together  in  this  city  for  thirty-five 
years  and  enjoy  a  well  earned  reputation  for  good  workmanship. 
Charles  G.  AVahlberg.  a  first  class  workman  in  Ids  line.  Veteri- 
narian Albert  .1.  O'Hara,  A'.  S.  Well  drillers — Hartrey  Bros., 
James  Hartrey  and  Edward  Hartrey.  Martin  Holland.  Physi- 
cians—A. T.  Conley,  M.  D. ;  II.  E.  Conley,  M.  D. ;  Peter  H.  Cromer, 
M.  1).:  Martin  L.  Golberg,  M.  I).;  A.  P.  Woodward.  Photog- 
raphers— The  Clifford  Studio.  Paul  Engstrom,  artist  and  manager. 
Restaurants — Johnston  &  Lorenson,  J.  Sigfrid  Johnson  and  J. 
Edwin  Lorenson.  Henry  -I.  Kulker.  Railroads — Chicago,  Mil- 
waukee cA  SI.  Paul,  Frank  P.  Murphy,  agent;  Chicago  Great 
Western.  Charles  B.  Tompkins,  agent. 

Public  Schools.  Board  of  education:  C.  AV.  Cress,  presi- 
dent: P.  S.  Aslakson.  secretary  since  1890;  P.  N.  Allen,  treasurer; 
Dr.  A.  T.  Conley.  F.  R.  Johnson.  S.  K.  Kraft.  Faculty:  S.  M. 
Pinney.  superintendent:  Emma  Williamson,  principal  of  high 
school;  Thomas  S.  Armstrong,  science  and  manual  training;  Lu- 
cre! ia  L.  Lewis,  assistant  principal  of  high  school;  Agnes  Swan- 
son. eighth  grade:  Lillian  Lindstrom,  seventh  grade;  Jennie  Sea- 
son, sixth  grade;  Hattie  Helmbrecht,  fifth  grade;  Ida  Anderson, 
fourth  grade;  Alice  Richardson,  third  grade;  Anna  Helmbrecht, 
primary;  Stella  A.  Reely.  music  and  assistant  in  high  school. 
Enrollment:  High  school,  87;  grades,  284;  total.  371.  The  school 
building  is  a  handsome  stone  structure  of  modern  build,  well 
arranged,  steam  heated,  well  ventilated  and  erpiipped  with 
library,  laboratory  and  manual  training  department. 

The  Cannon  Falls  Commercial  Club  has  been  a  moving  force 
in  the  city  since  its  organization  some  eight  years  ago.  Its  offi- 
.  cers  are:     President,  F.  B.  Seager;  secretary,  C.  P.  Hall. 

The  Citizens'  State  Bank,  of  Cannon  Falls,  was  organized  in 


1878,  as  the  First  National  Bank  of  Cannon  Falls,  the  incorpora- 
tors being  L.  S.  Follett  and  Stephen  Gardner,  of  Hastings.  In 
1881  the  name  was  changed  to  Citizens'  Bank  of  Cannon  Falls, 
L.  S.  Follett,  banker.  In  1886  Mr.  Follett  sold  the  bank  to  Hiram 
A.  Seriver.  In  1893,  C.  "W.  Gress,  of  Northfield,  purchased  an 
interest  with  Mr.  Seriver;  and  the  firm  became  the  Citizens'  Bank 
of  Cannon  Falls — Seriver  &  Gress,  bankers.  In  1905  the  busi- 
ness was  incorporated  as  the  Citizens'  State  Bank  of  Cannon 
Falls,  Hiram  A.  Seriver,  president ;  Cliff  W.  Gress,  cashier.  Pres- 
ent condition:  Capital.  $30,000;  surplus,  $30,000;  deposits, 
$547,792;  cash  on  hand  $109,000. 

The  Farmers '  and  Merchants '  National  Bank,  of  Cannon  Falls, 
was  organized  June,  1903.  Its  officers  are:  President,  T.  L. 
Baiseker ;  vice  president,  J.  L.  Eriekson ;  second  vice  president, 
Henry  Thompson ;  cashier,  Edward  Mattson ;  assistant  cashier, 
M.  N.  Gergen ;  teller.  F.  O.  Freeberg.  Capital  stock  paid  in, 
$25,000;  surplus  fund,  $3,000;  assets,  $280,000. 

Cannon  Falls  Township  received  its  name  from  the  Big  Can- 
non river,  and  its  branch,  the  Little  Cannon,  whose  sudden  change 
of  level  forms  a  falls  in  the  western  part  of  the  township,  at  the 
point  where  the  city  of  Cannon  Falls  is  now  located.  The  Big 
Cannon  Hows  through  the  northern  part  of  the  township,  from 
west  to  east,  and  its  valley  is  marked  by  many  changes  in  topog- 
raphy. The  outer  bluffs  of  the  river  are  frequently  more  than  a 
mile  apart  and  over  two  hundred  feet  above  the  water  in  the 
river.  In  this  valley  are  broad  terraces  and  beautiful  farms, 
and  in  addition  to  this  the  township  has  considerable  timber. 
Along  some  of  the  valleys  there  is  a  sandy  lightness  to  the  soil, 
which  has  the  effect  of  making  the  roads  rather  poor  at  some 
seasons  of  the  year.  For  agricultural  purposes,  however,  the 
soil  is  excellent  and  large  crops  are  raised,  although  dairying  is 
an  important  industry.  The  river  bottom,  from  one-half  to  a 
mile  in  width,  has  a  gravelly  soil. 

It  is  probable  that  Dr.  AY.  W.  Sweney  and  Richard  and  Will- 
iam  Freeborn,  who  made  the  trip  afoot  from  Peel  Wing,  were 
the  first  white  men  to  behold  the  falls.  The  first  settler  was 
Edway  Stoughton,  who  came  early  in  1854.  Others  were  Charles 
Parks,  who  settled  at  the  falls,  and  James  H.  Payton  and  James 
McGinnis.  Mrs:  Charles  Parks  was  the  first  while  woman  at 
the  Falls. 

The  first  death  in  the  township  was  in  August.  1855,  when 
an  infant  son  of  David  McKune  passed  to  the  Greal  Beyond. 
The  first  child  was  Ellen  Hartry,  now  Mrs.  Ellen  French,  of 
Dennison,  born  in  October,  1855.  The  first  marriage  was  that  of 
Robert  Fotherby  and  Sarah  Strange,  who  were  united  before 
Charles  Parks,  justice  of  the  peace.     E.  L.  Clark  taught  the  first 


school  in  1856-57.  the  sessions  being  held  in  a  building  which  he 
had  erected  for  the  purpose,  principally  of  basswood  logs;  and 
which,  for  this  reason,  he  named  Basswood  Seminary.  This  build- 
ing was  also  used  for  a  house  of  worship,  on  Sabbath  days  for 
some  time  thereafter. 

Cannon  Falls  township  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Dakota 
county,  on  the  west  by  Dakota  county  and  Stanton,  on  the  south 
by  Leon,  and  on  the  east  by  Vasa.  It  comprises  one  entire  gov- 
ernment township,  Xo.  112,  range  17,  and  its  area  has  remained 
unchanged  since  the  township  act  of  1858. 

Among  the  early  supervisors  of  the  township  were:  William 
Barton.  W.  P.  Scofield,  Lewis  Engberg,  J.  D.  Wheat,  Abram  Mal- 
let, D.  H.  Knox,  George  West,  J.  D.  Jennings.  H.  A.  Tanner,  D.  L. 
Davis.  F.  Pentz,  C.  W.  Gillet.  James  McGinnis,  E.  E.  Chase, 
W.  P.  Tanner  and  G.  Slocum.  The  first  town  clerks  were :  J.  T. 
Moss,  Eli  Ellsworth.  George  L.  Baker,  W.  H.  Scofield,  J.  D.  Jen- 
nings, A.  J.  Phelps,  John  Jennings,  Frank  Slocum.  W.  P.  Tanner 
served  as  town  treasurer  for  eleven  years,  and  was  then  followed 
by  Frank  Slocum.  The  early  justices  of  the  peace  were  J.  A. 
Wilson.  Park  Tucker,  G.  Westman.  W.  H.  Scofield  and  W.  P. 
Tanner.  The  first  constables  were  James  H.  Peyton,  E.  H.  Klock, 
George  McKenzie,  E.  R.  Steel  and  George  Kinder. 

Those  who  enlisted  in  the  Civil  War  from  Cannon  Falls  were 
as  follows :  Marion  Abbott,  Charles  J.  Anderson,  Thomas  H. 
Baker,  John  Boss.  Captain  George  L.  Baker.  E.  E.  Chase,  E.  L. 
<  "lark,  Daniel  E.  <  a  dwell.  George  W.  Doud,  Peter  Engberg,  Jona- 
than Flynn.  Lieutenant  AVilliam  D.  Hale,  Henry  Hamilton,  Nels. 
B.  Johnson.  Luther  M.-  Knox,  James  M.  Knox.  Charles  Klock, 
Olof  Larson,  Peter  Lindberg,  George  Lewis.  William  Morrell, 
George  VY.  Xeff,  James  H.  Payton.  William  0.  Stranahan.  Mathew 
Willson,  Albert  G.  Leach.  Charles  M.  Scofield,  Marvin  Cary,  John 
Hoffstatter,  Harlow  VanVleit.  <  'aptain  Ara  Barton,  George  Cook, 
Samuel  Dilly.  Samuel  Hullett.  AVilliam  Hullett,  John  J.  Hartig. 
James  F.  Kelley.  Stephen  A.  Penny,  Jacob  Rhodes,  David  Val- 
entine, Joseph  Blum,  James  A.  Wright,  Austin  Demming,  Cor- 
nelius Crown,  Thomas  Jennings.  Lester  Bancroft.  George  Park, 
Edward  Klock.  Nels  Lindenholm,  Matts  Peterson,  Cyrus  Van 
Vliet.  James  L.  Scofield,  Luther  Scofield. 

The  present  officials  of  the  township  are:  Elof  Johnson, 
chairman;  Edward  Lano  and  Martin  Chelson,  supervisors;  Emil 
Bloomberg,  clerk;  Olaf  Haine,  treasurer;  Louis  Rapp,  assessor. 



Featherstone  —  Florence  —  Frontenac  —  Goodhue  Township  and 
Village — Advantages  and  Growth — Holden — Kenyon  Town- 
ship and  Village — Modern  Progress — Leon — Minneola. 

Featherstone  comprises  one  entire  government  township.  No. 
112  north,  range  17  west,  and  has  remained  unchanged  since  the 
township  act  of  1858.  It  has  no  villages,  its  trading  and  ship- 
ping point  being  Red  Wing,  which  is  its  near  neighbor.  Burnside, 
also,  as  well  as  Red  Wing,  borders  it  on  the  north,  Hay  creek 
on  the  east,  Goodhue  on  the  south  and  Vasa  on  the  west.  It  is 
crossed  by  the  Great  Western  railroad,  the  line  through  this 
township  having  originally  been  the  Duluth  &  Red  Wing.  The 
township  is  intersected  by  the  Hay  creek  valley  on  the  east  and 
by  Spring  creek  valley  on  the  west.  These  valleys  are  deep 
and  wide,  but  their  slopes  are  almost  uniformly  turfed,  while 
between  the  bluffs  that  enclose  them  are  some  of  the  finest  farms 
in  the  state,  in  a  rich,  deep  loam.  The  higher  farms  on  the 
uplands  between  the  valleys  are  based  on  a  yellowish  loam  for 
sub-soil,  and  are  fertile  and  reliable  for  the  usual  crops.  Some 
of  them  are  sightly  and  command  very  picturesque  landscapes, 
extending  over  the  valleys  with  which  the  township  is  nearly 
surrounded.  The  surface  is  from  undulating  to  rolling.  Beau- 
tiful residences,  surrounded  with  groves,  from  which  stretch 
rich  and  highly  cultivated  farms,  prevail  through  the  township. 
The  earliest  settlers,  who  had  come  from  countries  wooded  and 
watered,  were  not  familiar  with  the  advantages  of  prairie  land, 
and  consequently  Featherstone  was  not  settled  until  settlements 
of  considerable  size  had  sprung  up  in  some  of  the  other  localities 
in  the  county. 

The  township  was  named  from  William  Featherstone  and  his 
extensive  family,  who  came  here  with  a  number  of  farm  hands  to 
assist  him  in  breaking  the  land,  in  1856.  He  was  not,  however, 
the  actual  first  settler,  as  in  1855  John  Spencer,  Philip  Storkel 
and  the  Messrs.  Goldsmith  and  Coleman  had  staked  out  claims 
and   started    to   cultivate   the   land.      Other   early   settlers   were 



William  Freyberger,  George  Featherstone,  J.  Meacham  and  Rev. 
John  Watson. 

William  Featherstone,  in  relating  some  incidents  of  the  early 
days,  not  many  years  ago,  said  that  he  broke  a  claim  in  1856, 
but  that  a  portion  of  his  land  had  been  broken  the  year  before 
by  others.  He  sowed  ten  bushels  of  fife  wheat  which  he  had 
brought  from  Canada,  the  first  seed  wheat  of  that  kind  in  this 
section  of  the  country.  His  first  crop  yielded  but  eighteen 
bushels  to  the  acre.  He  sold  what  wheat  he  could  spare  for  seed, 
broke  up  170  acres  more  of  land  and  sowed  the  next  year, 
receiving  a  yield  of  about  twenty-four  bushels  to  the  acre.  The 
larger  portion  of  this  crop  was  also  sold  for  seed.  This  is  claimed 
by  some  writers  to  have  been  the  origin  of  "hard  wheat"  in 
this  state,  but  the  same  honor  has  been  claimed  for  other 

The  first  death  in  the  township  was  that  of  a  Mr.  McMahon, 
who  perished  from  exposure  on  his  attempting  to  return  from 
Red  Wing  on  a  cold  night  in  January,  1857.  The  first  marriage 
was  that  of  James  A.  Jones  and  Mary  Libby.  daughter  of  William 
Libby.  the  ceremony  being  performed  by  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Han- 
cock. The  first  school  was  taught  in  the  summer  of  1856  by 
Mary  Cox.  in  a  claim  shanty,  the  location  of  which  later  passed 
into  the  hands  of  Henry  Featherstone. 

October  21,  1857,  William  Libby  called  a  school  meeting.  F. 
N.  Leavitt  was  chosen  chairman  and  George  Featherstone  clerk. 
The  first  board  of  trustees  consisted  of  William  Freyberger, 
William  Libby  and  William  Watson.  William  Featherstone  was 
clerk,  making  a  board  composed  entirely  of  Williams.  Although 
the  district  comprised  nearly  the  whole  township,  there  were 
but  seventeen  children  of  legal  school  age.  The  first  schoolhouse 
was  built  in  the  winter  of  1857-58  at  a  cost  of  $250.  The  first 
church  service  was  held  at. the  home  of  William  Featherstone  in 
1856.  In  1862  the  Methodists  built  a  church  edifice.  26x40,  at  a 
cost  of  $1,000.  Hay  Creek  mills,  on  Hay  creek,  were  built  in  the 
early  days  by  a  German  pioneer  named  Kotzube,  who  afterward 
sold  out  to  Messrs.  Cogelt  and  Betcher,  of  Red  Wing.  In  1866 
Ezekiel  Burleigh  opened  a  hotel,  but  failing  to  secure  a  license, 
he  closed  the  place,  finding  that  the  patronage  was  too  limited 
to  support  a  "dry"  hotel. 

A  list  has  been  preserved  of  the  voters  at  the  first  election, 
held  July  5.  1858.  They  were:  John  Watson,  F.  N.  Leavitt, 
Philip  Rounds,  George  Wpoley,  William  Libby,  Ernest  Rosa, 
Benjamin  Jones,  David  Coverdale,  Calvin  Frizzell,  John  Watson,. 
William  Featherstone,  Jonathan  R.  Perkins,  H.  B.  Wooley, 
Charles  Perkins,  C.  Rosa.  Edward  McMahon,  Samuel  P.   Snow, 


John  Gennis,  William  Freyberger,  A.  D.  Roberts  and  Joseph  Friz- 
zell.  The  election  resulted  as  follows:  Supervisors,  AYilliam 
Freyberger  (chairman),  S.  P.  Snow,  Harlow  Rogers;  assessor, 
A.  D.  Roberts:  justices  of  the  peace,  William  Libby,  L.  Snow; 
constables,  W.  H.  Featherstone,  Charles  Perkins;  town  clerk, 
John  Watson;  collector,  H.  B.  AVooley;  overseer  of  poor,  William 
L.  Watson;  overseers  of  highways,  J.  R.  Perkins,  J.  C.  Arnold, 
George  Wooley,  Gotleib  Buholtz,  William  Featherstone. 

Among  the  early  chairmen  of  supervisors  were  William  Frey- 
berger,  F.  N.  Leavitt,  William  Freyberger,  George  Feather- 
stone, F.  X.  Leavitt  (three  terms),  William  Freyberger.  The 
early  town  clerks  were  John  Watson  (two  terms),  A.  D.  Roberts, 
John  Watson (  three  terms).  George  Featherstone  (two  terms). 

Featherstone's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  consisted  of  R. 
N.  Aakers,  George  Cook,  W.  H.  Featherstone,  Edwin  A.  Fessen- 
den,  August  F.  Greed,  Owen  Gallagher,  Lemuel  Herbert,  Charles 
Johnson,  Francis  McMahon,  N.  P.  Malmberg,  Thomas  Pallas, 
Frank  E.  Peterson,  AYilliam  Edson  Rice,  John  Suiter,  Samuel 
Smith,  Benjamin  J.  Taylor.  Harvey  Van  Auken,  C.  H.  Watson, 
Robert  Chaterick,  Robert  Callihan.  James  Cramand,  Sewell  Ells- 
worth, Andrew  J.  Ellis,  August  L.  Green,  Isaac  W.  Stewart, 
Franklin  J.  Gale,  Perry  Gilmore,  John  C.  Hilt,  John  Hallivers, 
Patrick  Ogo.  Henry  Jones,  Nathan  Levy,  John  Livingston,  D. 
M.  MeDole.  John  A.  Murray,  James  Nelson.  William  Piper,  Frank 
Rayher.  Charles  Rye,  AYilliam  J.  Skinner,  John  Thompson,  AYill- 
iam Maloy.  Charles  AV.  AYixon,  Frank  H.  AYright,  Alvin  H. 
Walter,  AYilliam  Trippe.  John  Ab)ore,  AYatson  S.  Tilton.  Walter 
Carter.  Redden  IT.  Everett.  Anson  C.  Smith,  Joseph  R.  Squire, 
Ezra  Sheldon.  Thomas  T.  Kennedy,  Hiram  Niell,  Edward  Smith. 
Freeman  D.  James,  Elias  C.  McCrorey,  Daniel  II.  Robinson,  Tolak 
Oleson.  Joh'n  Arnold,  Joseph  Hepp,  Joseph  Katthoff,  Anthony 
Leland,  Frederick  Schmidt,  Richard  Britton,  Jacob  Banlig.  An- 
drew Baker,  Charles  Baker,  Benjamin  Bevins,  Thomas  Carr. 
Thomas  Hope,  George  E.  Hanson,  Albert  Savage.  Nelson  Moriset, 
Ernest  Pfefferle.  Alathias  Schabert,  Horace  K.  Blake. 

At  the  present  time  agriculture1  is  practically  the  only  occu- 
pation carried  on  in  the  township.  There  are  several  fine  schools, 
and  the  township  is  noted  for  the  teachers  and  professional  men 
who  have  received  their  boyhood  education  within  its  borders. 
The  town  lias  a  Methodist  church  and  a  neat  town  hall,  well 
suited  for  public  gatherings.  On  Trout  brook,  in  the  northeast- 
ern part  of  the  town  large  mills  were  once  creeled  for  the 
purposes  of  a  tannery  and  sugar  mill  and  were  owned  by  J.  E. 
Porter,  but  are  now  demolished.  There  was  once  a  post  office, 
Burley,  in  this  township. 



Florence  constitutes  all  of  township  112,  range  13,  lying  in 
Goodhue  county.  A  portion  of  Wacoota  bounds  it  on  the  north, 
Lake  Pepin  forms  its  northeastern  border  for  a  distance  of  many 
miles.  Central  Point  also  lies  to  the  east.  At  the  south  is 
Wabasha  county,  and  on  the  west  is  Hay  Creek.  The  township 
was  organized  under  the  general  act  of  1858,  with  its  present 
boundaries.  It  was  named  in  honor  of  Florence  Graham,  daugh- 
ter of  Judge  Chris.  Graham,  of  Red  Wing. 

The  surface  is  broken  and  hilly,  with  deep  valleys  running 
westward  from  Lake  Pepin.  In  sections  3  and  8  there  is  consider- 
able peat,  and  it  is  probable  that  this  deposit  in  various  parts 
of  the  township  is  much  more  plentiful  than  is  generally  sup- 
posed. The  soil  is  fertile,  well  watered  by  Wells'  creek,  which, 
with  its  many  tributaries,  has  a  general  course  from  west  to 
east.  The  farmers  of  the  township  pay  particular  attention 
to  stock  raising  and  dairying,  and  have  achieved  some  remark- 
able results  along  these  lines. 

The  early  history  is  identical  with  that  of  Frontenac,  and 
reaches  hack  to  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  the  township  officers  in  the  earlier  days  of 
its  organization,  the  first  named  under  each  date  being  the  chair- 
man, the  next  two  supervisors,  and  the  last  the  clerk:  1858 — L. 
IT.  Garrard,  F.  Z.  K.  Munger,  L.  I'tley.  Peter  Grant.  1860— H. 
F.  Simmons,  William  Arnold,  E.  Z.  K.  Munger,  Calvin  Potter. 
1861— II.  F.  Simmons,  E.  Z.  K.  Munger,  William  Arnold,  J.  A. 
Owens.  1862 — E.  Z.  K.  Munger,  J.  C.  Bennewitz,  John  Wear, 
W.  E.  Low.-ll.  1863— J.  0.  Bennewitz,  S.  R,  Merrill,  J.  D.  Spin- 
ney. W.'E.  Lowell.  1861 — J.  C.  Bennewitz,  J.  D.  Spinney,  Rufus 
Dennin,  W.  E.  Lowell.  1865— G.  Terwillinger.  O.  P.  Francisco, 
L.  II.  Garrard.  II.  Lorentzen.  1866 — G.  Terwilliger,  0.  P.  Fran- 
cisco. Jeptha  Garrard,  H.  Lorentzen.  1867 — Calvin  Potter,  N. 
0.  McLean,  David  Walker.  II.  Lorentzen.  1868— G.  Terwilliger, 
D.    Walker,    R,    Menzel,    II.    Lorentzen.      1869— G.    Terwilliger, 

D.  Walker.  R.  Menzel,  II.  Lorentzen.  1870— G.  Terwilliger, 
R.    Menzel.    J.    Holliday,    H.    Lorentzen.      1871 — Eliab    Munger, 

E.  C.  Eaton,  D.  Walker,  J.  C.  Bennewitz.  1872— Eliab 
Munger,  E.  0.  Eaton,  John  Nute,  H.  Lorentzen.  1873 — John 
Nute,  William  Stroup,  John  Colby,  H.  Lorentzen.  1871 — John 
Nute,  John  Colby.  D.  G.  Heggie,  H.  Lorentzen.  1875 — Same  as 
previous  year.  1876 — D.  G.  Heggie,  John  Sauter,  H.  J.  Morch, 
H.  Lorentzen.  1877 — G.  Terwilliger,  John  Sauter,  John  Colby, 
II.  Lorentzen.  1878 — G.  Terwilliger.  John  Sauter,  John  Nute,  H. 

Those   who   enlisted   in   the   Civil   War  from   Florence   were: 



John  Arden,  Michael  Ackerman,  Henry  Burritt,  Oscar  H.  Free- 
man, Daniel  W.  Floss.  Cyrus  H.  Gould,  John  Hager,  Englebert 
Haller,  Charles  Hurder,  Joseph  Harrison,  Casper  Koch,  Henry 
M.  Libby,  Harry  Lowell,  G.  A.  Grandsbrand,  Warren  Hunt. 
Fphraim  Harrison,  Emsley  Hamilton,  George  W.  Hall,  Asa  Howe, 
Russell  A.  Johnson,  John  A.  Jackson,  Ira  A.  Lynch,  John  Mc- 
Donald. Ole  Nelson,  Hiram  M.  Powers,  Franklin  Kelley,  Theo- 
dore E.  Freeman.  John  S.  Harrison,  Peter  Connelly.  Jefferson 
Cates,  Michael  Doyle,  Jonathan  A.  Ingham,  James  B.  Moor- 
house.  Wilson  A.  Montgomery,  William  Houk,  Joseph  E.  Mabey, 
Horace  B.  Randall,  Ynlkert  Warring,  Eli  N.  Lewis.  James 
Mitchell,  James  Owens.  George  Phinney,  Nicholas  Schierard, 
Jacob  Schneider,  J.  K.  Smith.  Joseph  Tapper.  Oscar  -Williams, 
P.  H.  Weaver,  Ezra  B.  Andrus.  Isaac  Cate,  Justus  Chase,  Asa 
Daily.  Samuel  Davis,  Edwin  C.  Eaton,  Gustav  Sandberg,  Jona- 
than Toms,  Joseph  C.  Eldred,  Charles  H.  McCamland.  Dewitt  C 
Smith.  Sylvester  Dunsmore,  Sylvester  T.  Bush,  John  R.  Winchell, 
Charles  Willson,  Orson  A.  Warren,  Jasper  M.  Woodward,  Will- 
iam Hemter,  Andrew  More,  Horace  M.  Johnson,  Newton  Williams,. 
Cornelius  W.  Warring,  Mead  M.  Milo.  George  W.  Colby,  Charles 
F.  Church,  William  A.  Brack,  Jomes  Coffman.  Jahez  M.  Whitney, 
Judson  Watson,  Michael  Hanley,  John  Johnson,  Thomas  Mc- 
Govin.  William  Morgan,  Melvin  B.  Blasdell,  Josiah  Wood,  Benja- 
min F.  Covington. 


Frontenac,  rich  in  historic  traditions,  and  decorated  by  the 
hand  of  Nature  in  her  most  lavish  mood,  dates  its  settlement 
back  to  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  when  the  sandy 
point  directly  opposite  Maiden  Rock  was  the  scene  of  much 
French  activity.  It  is  situated  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the 
town  of  Florence,  on  beautiful  terraces  rising  from  the  level  of 
Lake  Pepin.  Above  the  village  rises  the  towering  peak  of  Point 
No-Point,  so  called  from  the  fact  that  the  winding  of  the  lake 
is  such  that  the  approaching  traveler  from  down  the  river,  after 
sighting  the  point  from  six  or  seven  miles  away,  gets  apparently 
no  nearer  to  it  until  he  reaches  Frontenac  and  finds  himself  a1 
its  very  base. 

Maiden  Rock,  opposite  Point  an  Sable,  has  the  common 
Indian  tradition  of  the  maiden  who,  forbidden  to  marry  her  lover, 
leaped  to  her  death  from  its  precipitous  height.  The  story,  told 
in  a  breezy  manner  in  a  newspaper  some  years  ago.  is  perhaps 
more  interesting  reading  than  the  same  story  related  in  more 
dignified  language.  The  story  alluded  to  is  as  follows:  "A 
Dakotah  maiden,  Wenona,  camped  at  the  foot  of  the  rock  with 
her  family   once  upon    a   time,   as   they   say  in   the   fairy   tales. 


Wenona  was  a  very  beautiful  maiden.  Maidens  who  are  heroines 
of  romantic  tales  are  always  beautiful,  no  matter  what  their  color 
may  be.  Of  course  "Wenona  had  lovers.  There  was  a  rich  old 
chief  who  had  polecat  skins  without  number,  and  ponies  and 
whatever  else  in  the  way  of  personal  possessions  that  made  an 
Indian  a  desirable  suitor  in  those  days.  To  be  sure,  he  was  old, 
but  that  did  not  matter — in  the  eyes  of  Wenona 's  parents. 
AYenona  herself  had  given  her  young  heart  and  love  to  a  brave 
and  handsome  warrior  named  Chaska,  who,  however,  being 
young,  had  not  yet  had  time  to  accumulate  polecat  skins,  and  so 
on.  He  was  therefore  not  at  all  desirable  in  the  eyes  of  the 
parents,  as  is  often  the  ease  with  poor  young  lovers  and  prudent 
old  folks.  The  maiden's  parents  argued  that  love  is  an  illusion, 
and  that  wealth,  represented  by  polecats  or  any  other  commodity, 
is  a  very  substantial  fact,  which  is  a  very  foolish  thing  for  a 
maiden  to  ignore.  So  these  cruel  parents  forbade  their  daughter 
to  see  the  young  brave  any  more  and  insisted  that  she  marry 
the  rich  old  chief  with  the  pelts.  They  thought  that  settled  the 
question ;  but  a  few  evenings  later  there  came  floating  down 
from  the  summit  of  the  Rock,  nearly  a  hundred  feet  higher,  the 
death  song  of  the  heart-broken  and  faithful  AYenona.  AVhen  it 
was  finished  the  maid  leaped  out  and  fell,  a  bruised  and  broken 
corpse,  on  the  jagged  rocks  below,  almost  at  the  feet  of  her 
heartless  parents."  James  AY  ells,  the  Indian  trader,  and  others 
accuiainted  with  Indian  character  and  ways,  were  asked  some 
fifty  years  ago  what  they  thought  of  this  tradition,  but  all  agreed 
that  it  was  unlike  the  Indian,  and  that  the  Indians  themselves 
put  little  faith  in  the  story.  Moreover,  Chaska  and  AYenona  are 
names  signifying  simply  the  oldest  born  son  and  daughter, 
respectively,  and  occurred  in  every  Dakota  family. 

Modern  Frontenac  had  a  beginning  in  the  late  forties  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  when  the  old  Indian  trader,  James  Wells, 
more  familiarly  known  as  "Bully"  AVells.  AVells  sold  his  build- 
ing in  1854  to  Everett  AVestervelt,  and  removed  to  Fairbault,k 
afterward  meeting  with  a  tragic  fate  at  the  hands  of  the  Sioux 
during  the  frontier  outbreak  of  1862.  In  October  of  that  year 
Israel  Garrard  and  Louis  Garrard  spent  some  time  along  the 
shores  of  Lake  Pepin,  and  greatly  prepossessed  with  the  historic 
associations  and  beautiful  scenery,  concluded  to  secure  an  inter- 
est along  the  lake  shore.  Dr.  L.  II.  Garrard  went  to  Europe, 
where  he  remained  two  years,  Avhile  General  Israel  Garrard, 
afterward  one  of  the  county's  most  distinguished  citizens,  re- 
mained at  the  trading  post  with  Everett  AVestervelt.  In  1857, 
when  the  half-breed  scrip  was. issued,  Frontenac  was  purchased 
by  Air.  AVestervelt  and  Israel  Garrard  and  divided  into  quarter 
interests,  Air.  AVestervelt  owning  one,  L.  H.  Garrard  one,  Israel 


Garrard  one,  and  Kennet  Garrard,  then  in  the  United  States 
army,  the  other  quarter.  General  Garrard  established  what  was 
practically  a  baronial  estate  at  Frontenac,  naming  it  St.  Hubert's 
lodge.  For  ages  to  come,  the  village  of  Frontenac,  on  the  lake- 
side, will  be  inseparably  connected  with  the  names  of  General 
Israel,  Dr.  L.  H.,  General  Kenner  and  Colonel  Jeptha  Garrard, 
and  with  that  of  General  McLean,  the  mother  of  the  Garrards 
having  married  his  father,  Judge  McLean.  Among  the  guests 
at  St.  Hubert's  have  been  such  celebrities  as  General  Charles 
King,  the  popular  novelist,  and  Joseph  Jefferson,  the  great  actor, 
as  well  as  innumerable  army  officers  of  national  note. 

Frontenac  at  the  present  time  is  a  popular  summer  resort. 
The  Frontenac  Inn  occupies  a  point  projecting  into  the  lake, 
consisting  of  several  acres  of  ground.  About  this  hotel  are 
cottages  in  picturesque  positions,  and  in  the  neighborhood  are 
croquet  and  tennis  lawns,  boat  houses,  bathing  houses  and  stables. 
There  are  fine  opportunities  for  boating,  fishing  and  hunting, 
which  have  won  for  the  place  a  national  prominence.  There  are 
charming  drives  to  the  fine  points  of  view  on  the  surrounding 
bluffs  on  good  roads.  The  drive  along  the  lake  shore,  six  miles 
to  Lake  City,  affords  many  a  delightful  prospect.  An  Episco- 
palian chapel  offers  opportunities  for  Sabbath  worship.  Near 
by  is  the  Villa  Maria  school  for  girls,  conducted  by  the  Ursuline 

Frontenac  Inn,  one  of  the  most  desirable  summer  resorts  on 
the  Mississippi  river,  is  managed  by  Celestine  M.  Schaller,  whose 
able  conduct  of  the  place  is  bringing  back  to  Frontenac  some  of 
the  prominence  which  in  former  days  it  occupied  in  the  summer 
plans  of  people  in  search  of  rest,  amusement  or  recreation.  It 
is  a  comfortable  building,  with  airy  rooms,  plenty  of  sunshine 
and  with  a  beautiful  view  from  every  window.  Situated  along 
a  picturesque  drive  are  a  number  of  roomy  and  comfortable 
cottages  which  are  used  by  the  guests  of  the  Inn.  The  Inn  and 
the  cottages  are  surrounded  by  a  beautiful  park.  Fishing,  boat- 
ing, croquet,  tennis  and  dancing  are  among  the  amusements 
offered,  while  those  who  enjoy  walks  and  drives  can  find  no  more 
picturesque  surroundings.  Many  of  the  large  Mississippi  boats 
stop  at  the  Inn  and  a  buss  connects  the  place  with  the  railroad 
at  Frontenac  station.  The  table  at  the  Inn  is  widely  known  for 
its  excellence.  Miss  Schaller  is  a  capable  manager,  and  the  place 
is  being  improved  year  by  year  under  her  direction. 

Frontenac  Station  is  on  the  S.  M.  &  St.  Paul  railway,  twelve 
miles  south  of  Ked  Wing.  It  has  a  German  Lutheran  church,  a 
stone  yard,  a  grain  elevator,  a  saloon,  general  stores  and  black- 
smiths. The  town  hall  is  also  located  in  this  village.  The  stone 
quarries  are  worthy  of  extended  note.     The  stone  is  of  a  light 


cream  color  and  is  used  in  large  quantities  for  building  pur- 
poses, tombstones  and  monuments.  George  W.  Garrard  is  the 

The  Frontenac  stone  quarry  has  been  operated  more  or  less 
since  the  early  fifties.  Its  light  cream  stone,  used  for  general 
ornamental  work,  is  no'ted  throughout  the  United  States,  and  is 
used  in  the  interior  of  the  Cathedral  of  St.  John  the  Divine,  the 
great  church  of  the  Episcopal  denomination  in  New  York,  and 
one  of  the  handsomest  church  edifices  in  America,  which  will 
cause  its  praises  to  be  sung  by  countless  generations  to  come. 
Among  three  hundred  samples  of  stone  submitted,  from  the  best 
quarries  in  the  world,  the  Frontenac  stone  was  selected  as  being 
the  most  suited  for  interior  work  of  the  most  exquisite  nature. 
Other  smaller  contracts  have  all  shown  the  adaptability  and 
beauty  of  this  stone.  George  "Wood  Garrard,  the  owner  and 
manager  of  the  quarry,  has  taken  an  artistic  as  well  as  a  busi- 
ness interest  in  the  Frontenac  product. 

General  Israel  Garrard,  for  nearly  half  a  century  the  patri- 
archal sage  and  patron  of  Frontenac,  was  probably  a  man  of 
wider  and  more  distinguished  fame  than  anyone  else  who  has 
resided  in  this  county.  Of  him  it  lias  well  been  said:  "General 
Garrard  was  beloved  by  all  who  knew  him,  for  his  kindly  and 
courtly  manner  toward  all — for  he  was  a  peer  among  the  finished 
gentlemen  of  his  age — and  by  many  he  was  regarded  with  a  love 
that  could  but  spring  from  hearts  that  had  been  soothed  in 
times  of  tribulation  and  distress  by  his  more  than  generous 
sympathy  and  substantial  assistance.  The  extent  of  his  benevo- 
lence, touching  the  needs  of  scores  of  the  distressed  in  this  region 
and  elsewhere,  will  never  be  fully  known.  For.  though  his  lib- 
erality to  all  who  were  in  distress  is  known  to  have  been  munifi- 
cent and  far-reaching,  he  was  one  who  never  permitted  his  loving 
kindness  to  be  noised  about." 

Israel  Garrard  was  born  in  Lexington.  Ky.,  October  22,  1825, 
the  oldest  son  of  Jeptha  D.  Garrard  and  Sarah  Bella  Ludlow, 
his  wife.  He  was  descended  on  the  paternal  side  from  James 
Garrard,  one  of  the  earliest  settlers  and  governors  of  Kentucky, 
and  on  the  maternal  side  from  Israel  Ludlow,  one  of  the  original 
proprietors  of  the  townsite  of  Cincinnati.  As  a  boy  Israel  Gar- 
rard was  a  pupil  of  Ormsby  M.  Mitchell,  afterward  attending 
Cary's  Academy  and  also  Bethany  College  in  "West  Virginia. 
He  read  law  with  Judge  Swayne.  at  Columbus,  Ohio,  and  gradu- 
ated from  the  Harvard  law  school,  at  Cambridge.  Mass.  At  the 
age  of  twenty-nine,  in  company  with  Dr.  Louis  H.  Garrard, 
General  Garrard  came  into  the  wilds  of  Minnesota  on  a  hunting 
trip.  For  several  weeks  he  camped  on  the  shores  of  Lake  Pepin, 
and  being  impressed  with  its  beauties,  determined  to  make  the 


spot  his  future  borne.  He  took  up  a  tract  of  land  several  hundred 
acres  in  extent,  running  for  over  seven  miles  along  the  shore, 
and  over  half  as  far  hack  from  the  water.  This  land  was  in 
the  famous  half-breed  tract,  and  Colonel  Garrard  obtained  it 
from  the  old  Jean  Baptiste  Faribault,  paying  for  the  half-breed 
scrip  to  the  old  French-Indian,  on  the  spot  where  the  city  of 
Faribault  now  stands.  The  original  hunting  trip  was  made  in 
the  fall  of  1854,  and  the  purchase  was  confirmed  in  1857.  After 
the  hunting  trip  in  1854  Dr.  Garrard  went  to  Europe  for  two 
years,  while  General  Garrard  remained  at  Frontenac  with 
Everett  Westervelt.  the  successor  of  James  Wells,  the  Indian 
trader.  In  1857,  when  the  half-breed  scrip  was  issued  and  the 
purchase  of  Frontenac  was  made,  the  Garrard  tract  was  divided 
into  quarters,  Everett  Westervelt  owning  one,  Dr.  Garrard  one, 
Israel  Garrard  one,  and  Kenner  Garrard,  then  in  the  amy, 
another.  General  Garrard  at  once  started  the  establishment  of 
St.  Hubert's  lodge.  The  lodge,  now  owned  by  his  son,  is  a  quaint 
mansion,  built  after  the  style  of  the  old  southern  houses  of  ante- 
bellum days.  A  stag's  head  with  a  cross  between  the  antlers 
is  the  coat  of  arms  of  the  residence,  after  the  patron  of  hunters. 
St.  Hubert,  who,  having  as  a  roysterer  dared  to  desecrate  Good 
Friday  by  a  riotous  hunt,  was  stopped  by  a  spirit  stag  with  a 
crucifix  on  his  forehead,  after  which  the  knight,  awe-struck 
dropped  on  his  knees  in  the  forest,  surrounded  by  his  retainers, 
and  devoted  his  life  to  the  cause  of  religion,  the  wild  hunters 
becoming  monks,  and  Hubert  their  abbot,  the  castle  being  con- 
verted into  a  monastery.  Albert  Durer,  the  father  of  etching, 
long  ago  portrayed  the  scene,  and  a  heleotype  of  the  etching, 
from  the  Gray  collection  at  Harvard,  occupies  a.  place  of  honor 
in  the  library  of  the  Garrard  mansion.  Around  St.  Hubert's 
lodge  at  Frontenac  were  gradually  erected  small  cottages,  in 
which  were  domiciled  the  working  people  of  the  estate.  These 
were  brought  from  Cincinnati  by  General  Garrard  and  were, 
almost  without  exception,  Germans. 

When  the  Rebellion  broke  out,  General  Garrard,  faithful  to 
the  Union,  hurried  south.  He  raised  a  troop  of  cavalry  at  Cin- 
cinnati, equipped  it  at  his  own  expense  and  then  presented  it 
to  the  governor  of  Ohio.  Of  this  regiment,  the  Seventh  Ohio 
Cavalry,  he  was  the  colonel,  having  had  some  previous  experi- 
ence during  the  siege  of  Cincinnati,  on  the  staff  of  Major 
McDowell,  commanding  the  organization  of  city  and  state  forces. 
After  the  mustering  in  of  his  regiment,  until  the  close  of  the 
war,  he  was  absent  from  the  field  but  eight  days,  and  then  his 
command  was  in  camp  recruiting.  He  commanded  ;i  brigade 
much  of  the  time,  and  after  the  capture  of  Stoneman  on  the 
Macon  raid  before  Atlanta  he  commanded  what  remained  of  the 


division.  June  21.  1865,  he  was  promoted  to  brigadier  general 
by  brevet,  and  on  July  4  of  the  same  year  he  was  mustered  out. 
On  taking  leave  of  his  regiment  he  was  presented  with  a  cavalry 
standard,  on  which  was  embroidered  the  following  epitome  of 
his  service:  "Carter  Raid,  Dutton  Hill,  Monticello,  West's  Gap, 
Xnffmgton  Island,  Cumberland  Gap,  Blue  Springs,  Blountville, 
Rogersvillc.  Morristown,  Cheek's  Cross  Roads.  Bean  Station, 
Dandridge,  Massy  Creek,  Fair  Garden.  Synthiana,  Atlanta,  Duck 
River,  Nashville,  Plantersville,  Selma  and  Columbus."  On  the 
plate  on  the  staff  is  an  inscription  expressing  the  regiment's 
confidence  in  him  as  a  leader  and  its  respect  for  him  as  a  patriot 
and  gentleman. 

At  the  close  of  the  war  the  general  returned  to  Frontenac, 
and  with  occasional  trips  to  the  East,  spent  the  remainder  of  his 
life  on  his  estate.  He  loved  books  and  was  a  great  reader.  His 
generosity  was  proverbial  among  the  people  of  southern  Min- 
nesota. He  was  a  member  of  no  church,  but  contributed  to  all. 
He  almost  supported  the  little  Episeopalian  chapel,  and  the 
Lutherans  found  him  a  willing  contributor.  He  gave  the  Ursu- 
line  sisters  100  acres  of  land  on  which  to  build  their  convent, 
and  there  are  few  rooms  in  the  building  that  do  not  contain 
some  article  presented  by  him.  The  general  was  a  most  hospit- 
able man  and  entertained  many  well  known  people  at  St.  Hubert's 
lodge.  General  ( 'harles  King  was  a  frequent  guest,  and  several 
of  his  popular  novels  were  written  while  at  St.  Huberl  "s.  General 
King  was  so  impressed  by  the  beauty  of  Frontenac  that  he  made 
the  cottages  and  hotel  the  scene  of  several  stories.  Joseph  Jeffer- 
son made  St.  Hubert's  his  headquarters  for  many  a  fishing 
excursion,  and  the  army  officers  always  found  the  latch  string 
hanging  outward.  General  Garrard  was  very  fond  of  military 
men.  his  active  service  having  given  him  an  interest  in  them 
which  was  shared  by  his  two  brothers.  General  Kenner  Garrard 
and  Colonel  Jeptha  Garrard.  The  former  was  a  West  Point 
graduate,  and  the  latter,  like  his  brother  Israel,  presented  a  troop 
of  cavalry  to  his  governor. 

Israel  Garrard  was  married  in  May.  1856,  to  Catherine  Wood, 
the  oldest  daughter  of  George  Wood,  a  distinguished  New  York 
law7yer.  To  this  union  wTere  born  two  children,  George  Wood 
Garrard  and  Margaret  Hills  Garrard.  The  general  died  Sep- 
tember 21.  1901.  as  the  result  of  injuries  received  while  extin- 
guishing a  fire  caused  by  an  overturned  lamp.  He  is  laid  to  rest 
in  the  family  cemetery,  the  spot  being  one  which  he  and  his  wife 
selected  many  years  ago.  In  his  death  the  county  lost  a  dis- 
tinguished citizen,  hundreds  lost  a  warm  friend,  and  his  genera- 
tion lost  a  most  kindly  and  noble  soul.  Mrs.  Garrard  died 
January  12,  1867. 


Gecrge  Wood  Garrard,  son  of  General  Israel  Garrard,  was 
born  in  Peekskill,  X.  Y..  August  20,  1863.  He  was  educated  at 
Morgan  Park  Military  Academy.  Chicago  111.,  and  supplemented 
this  training  with  extensive  travels  in  Europe  and  the  Orient. 
Like  his  father,  he  has  been  a  collector,  and  the  Garrard 
mansion  now  contains  many  relics  and  works  of  art  which  he  has 
added  to  the  family  heirlooms.  His  collection  of  Japanese  curios 
is  particularly  interesting.  Mr.  Garrard  has  devoted  his  life  to 
managing  the  Garrard  estates,  and  at  the  present  time  is  manager 
and  owner  of  the  Frontenae  Stone  Company,  mentioned  else- 
where. He  was  married  in  1889,  October  31,  to  Virginia  Colden 
Hoffman,  daughter  of  Lindley  Murray  Hoffman,  a  prominent 
New  York  broker,  and  his  wife,  Margaret  Mott.  To  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  George  Wood  Garrard  have  been  born  three  daughters, 
Beulah  Murray,  Evelyn  Stuart  and  Catherine  Wood,  all  at  home. 


Goodhue  comprises  township  No.  Ill,  range  15,  and  was 
originally  a  part  of  Belvidere,  the  combined  township  having 
been  known  as  Elmira,  York  and  Belvidere,  successively,  the 
latter  name  being  retained  by  the  half  included  in  section  14 
to  the  present  day.  Goodhue  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Feather- 
stone,  on  the  east  by  Belvidere,  on  the  south  by  Zumbrota  and 
on  the  Avest  by  Belle  Creek.  In  the  western  part  there  is  an 
outrunning  of  Trenton  limestone,  making  a  high  table  land.  The 
remainder  of  the  township  is  lower,  with  broad  valleys  and  some 
ridges.  There  are  no  big  streams,  and  the  soil  throughout  the 
township  is  of  good  quality  and  well  adapted  for  the  usual  crops. 

The  first  settlement  in  the  township  was  in  1854,  when  Francis 
Yergens  and  John  Mann  came  in  and  staked  out  claims,  built 
cabins  and  started  to  establish  their  homes  in  the  wilderness. 
The  succeeding  year  these  two  were  followed  by  David  Hickock, 
John  Ingerbretson,  Harry  Danielson,  Oliver  Knutson  and  Knut 
Knutson.  David  Hickock  and  John  Mann  opened  their  houses 
for  the  accommodation  of  travelers.  Peter  Easterly  came  in 
1856  and  finding  that  Hickock  and  Mann  each  had  more  business 
than  they  could  attend  to,  opened  another  hotel,  which  also  had 
its  full  share  of  business  for  many  years.  Some  time  Later 
Hickock  and  Mann  both  abandoned  the  business,  and  for  a  con- 
siderable period  Easterly  kept  the  only  public  house  in  the  place. 

The  first  birth  in  Goodhue  was  in  1855,  when  a  child  was 
born  to  Mrs.  Francis  Yergens.  which  was  christened  Henry. 
The  wife  of  Daniel  Hickock  died  in  1856,  this  being  the  first 
death  in  the  township.  The  Rev.  Jabez  Brooks  officiated  at  this 
service,   and  the   sermon  he   preached   on   the   occasion   was  the 


first  religious  observance  of  a  public  nature  in  the  town.  The 
first  school  was  taught  by  Georgiette  Easterly  in  the  summer  of 
1857.  In  1858  H.  H.  Oleson  opened  a  blacksmith  shop,  which 
was  the  only  one  in  the  township  until  1868,  when  a  man  named 
Mutz  built  a  shop  near  Easterly's  hotel.  In  the  spring  of  1867 
the  Goodhue  Seed  Association  was  organized  for  the  purpose 
of  receiving  the  advantages  of  a  combination  which  would  pro- 
cure seeds  and  other  articles  at  wholesale  instead  of  retail  prices. 
The  officers  of  the  association  were:  President.  Samuel  Parker; 
secretary,  Harrison  Lowater;  treasurer,  T.  M.  Lowater. 

In  the  earlier  days  church  services  were  held  at  the  homes 
of  the  settlers;  sometimes  in  charge  of  a  clergyman,  lint  more 
often  conducted  by  some  of  the  pioneers  themselves.  An  early 
church  was  the  German  Lutheran  church,  organized  in  the  spring 
of  1868  by  the  Rev.  Christian  Bender.  At  that  time  it  had  but 
seven  members:  A.  Seeback,  Gotlieb  Seeback,  R.  Haas,  Charles 
Semke.  William  Betcher,  Herman  Kempe  and  Peter  Tipke.  A 
church  was  built  the  same  year  at  a  cost  of  $500.  Rev.  Mr. 
Bender  preached  the  dedicatory  service  the  last  Sunday  in 
August.  Later  a  new  church,  36x50.  was  erected  at  a  cost  of 
about  $2,500. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  the  home  of  Peter  Easterly.  April  5, 
1859,  of  the  voters  of  that  part  of  Belvidere  lying  in  section 
15,  the  matter  of  a  separate  township  was  favorably  acted  upon 
and  the  following  officers  were  elected  tentatively:  Supervisors, 
P.  Easterly  (chairman).  Ezra  Bennett.  Sylvester  Cranson;  town 
clerk,  John  Stowe ;  collector,  F.  Cranson;  assessor,  Sylvester 
Cranson ;  overseer  of  the  -poor,  H.  B.  Patterson.  At  the  same 
meeting  it  was  voted  to  call  the  new  town  Goodhue,  after  the 
county.  A  petition  was  prepared  and  this  having  been  granted, 
September  13,  1859,  township  111,  range  14,  was  constituted  a 
separate  body,  with  the  proviso  that  the  name  be  either  Lime 
or  Goodhue.  For  a  short  time  the  township  was  known  as  Lime. 
J.  Going,  then  county  clerk,  appointed  in  1859  the  following  pro- 
visional officers:  Supervisors,  Charles  H.  Mclntire  (chairman), 
L.  C.  Burke,  H.  B.  Patterson ;  town  clerk,  John  Stowe ;  justices, 
Samuel  Parker,  Sylvester  Cranson ;  constables,  H.  Olson  and  S. 
W.  Carney ;  assessor,  George  Spicer ;  collector,  F.  Cranson ;  over- 
seer of  roads,  John  Gleason ;  overseer  of  the  poor,  H.  Danielson. 
The  following  year  a  regular  board  was  elected.  The  name 
Goodhue,  which  from  the  beginning  had  been  the  choice  of  the 
people,  became  the  official  title  in  January,  1860.  Among  the 
early  chairmen  of  the  township  were  Charles  H.  Mclntire,  T. 
M.  Lowater,  Samuel  Parker,  A.  A.  Anderson,  David  Purdy,  F. 
Tether,  J.  Finney,  W.  H.  H.  Bruce,  E.  Kolbe.     The  early  clerks 


were:  L.  C.  Burke,  S.  S.  Gibson,  Isaac  Gallagher,  Lewis  John- 
son and  John  McHugh. 

Goodhue's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  consisted  of  Captain 
Hezekiah  Bruce,  W.  Harrison  Bruce,  Samuel  Budd,  Walter  E. 
Barnes,-  King  H.  Bennett,  Lieutenant  James  H.  Carney,  Henry 
Danielson,  Harmon  Easterly,  David  Hickock,  Lucius  H.  Hickock, 
Lewis  Johnson.  William  King,  Otis  Ludden,  Harry  Lowater, 
Marsell  B.  Millien,  Charles  W.  Mills,  Cecil  Miller,  Sofe  Rasmus- 
sen,  Charles  E.  Bolander,  Ernest  Base,  John  Erieson,  Theodore 
Kempter,  Herman  J.  Newhouse,  Christopher  Oleson,  Adelbert 
Reinhardt,  Andrew  Doudes,  George  E.  Bivers,  Asa  Gould,  Henry 
Brandes,  AVilliam  Gun,  George  Land. 

An  extensive  area  of  this  town  is  underlaid,  a  short  distance 
below  the  surface,  by  a  large  bed  of  clay  of  a  superior  quality, 
which  has  been  extensively  used  by  the  stoneware  works  at  Red 

Clay  Bank  is  a  stopping  place  on  the  Great  Western  railroad. 

Goodhue  village  is  a  bustling  settlement  which  has  enjoyed 
a  steady  growth,  and  is  believed  to  have  a  splendid  future 
ahead  of  it. 


Situated  almost  in  the  very  center  of  the  county  of  the  same 
name  we  find  the  village  of  Goodhue,  a  place  of  500  souls,  who  in 
a  sense  regard  themselves  as  farmers,  in  view  of  the  fact  that 
as  you  look  out  upon  the  country  in  any  direction  the  eye  beholds 
farms,  beautiful  farms,  consisting  of  160  up  to  400  acres,  studded 
with  tine  houses  and  large  barns,  a  source  of  great  comfort  and 
convenience  to  the  landlords  who  have  selected  agriculture  as 
their  occupation. 

When  the  Dulutb.  Red  Wing  &  Southern  railroad  from  Red 
Wing  to  Zumbrota  was  in  course  of  construction  during  the  year 
1888  it  was  then  that  the  village  of  Goodhue  came  into  existence, 
at  first  consisting  of  the  railroad  camps  which  were  here  located 
during  the  building  of  several  miles  of  the  road  up  and  down  the 
line,  the  road  being  completed  in  the  spring  and  early  summer 
of  1889.  When  there  was  no  longer  any  use  for  the  railroad 
camps  at  this  place  and  the  tents  and  so  forth  had  all  been 
removed,  there  was  still  a  mission  for  the  little  burg  to  perform, 
and  from  that  time  the  place  has  always  been  regarded  as  an 
important  trading  point,  keeping  pace  witli  the  demands  <>f  a 
large  and  wealthy  agricultural  community,  which  borders  on 
every  side,  until  now  there  are  fifteen  stores  of  various  kinds. 
to  say  nothing  of  the  numerous  business  houses,  including  tin1 
newspaper  office  of  the  "Goodbue  Enterprise." 

The  country  tributarv  to  Goodbue  on  the  north,  south,  east 


and  west,  some  years  before  this  village  "was  known,  and  before 
the  farmers  had  taken  up  diversified  farming  to  a  great  degree, 
wheat  raising  being  their  principal  avocation,  had  much  to  do  in 
the  making  of  Goodhue  county  responsible  for  Red  AYing's  repu- 
tation of  being  tbe  greatest  inland  wheat  market  in  the  world, 
which  at  first  sounds  boastful,  however,  is  true,  the  city  of  Red 
Wing  at  that  time  receiving  more  wheat  from  farmers'  wagons 
than  any  other  place  in  the  world.  While  very  much  of  this 
wheat  was  necessarily  brought  from  territory  as  far  away  as 
Owatonna,  ox  teams  usually  making  the  long  '"caravans"  that 
brought  in  the  bread  stuff  which  was  shipped  from  this  (then) 
small  place  to  the  eastern  markets.  Therefore  it  is  not  hard  for 
the  reader  to  place  a  value  upon  the  section  of  country  around  us 
which  then  figured  so  prominently  in  making  Red  Wing's  great 
grain  market  and  which  today  borders  on  this  village  and  whose 
farmers  in  the  main  market  their  grain  at  one  of  the  three  ele- 
vators here  found  and  who  buy  their  goods  in  the  town  which 
affords  so  good  a  market  place.  In  addition  to  the  elevators, 
the  village  for  a  number  of  years  boasted  of  a  fine,  up-to-date 
250-barrel  flouring  mill,  which,  according  to  the  way  of  mis- 
fortune, however,  about  a  year  ago  was  burned  to  the  ground. 
It  is  almost  necessary  that  a  point  of  this  kind  have  a  mill,  and 
today  there  is  talk  of  one.  though  not  so  large  as  the  old  one, 
being  founded  by  the  Farmers'  Co-operating  Company. 

The  business  men  of  Goodhue  generally  have  made  good,  and 
their  reputation,  from  a  financial  point  of  view,  is  an  enviable 
•  me.  although  it  is  not  possible  for  one  in  a  place  no  larger  than 
this  to  accumulate  the  money  that  can  be  done  in  cities,  yet 
Here  are  many  features  surrounding  this  particular  place  that 
spell  fascination  to  the  person  looking  for  a  good  place  in 
which  to  locate,  the  death  rate,  in  the  first  place,  being  the 
smallest  of  any  place  in  the  country,  good  schools,  adequate  fire 
protection,  a  supply  of  the  most  beautiful  city  water  that  was 
ever  drawn  into  a  glass,  and  those  who  believe  that  the  religious 
sects  have  much  to  do  with  the  advancement  o?  any  place  here 
have  the  opportunity  of  attending  the  Methodist,  Catholic,  or 
English  Lutheran  church,  while  only  a  short  way  east  of  the 
village  there  are  found  German  Lutheran  churches  and  parochial 

Before  passing,  it  seems  only  fitting  to  make  some  special 
mention  of  the  First  National  Bank  of  Goodhue,  which  began 
business  in  a  small  way  in  1900.  as  a  private  institution.  Busi- 
ness increased  so  rapidly  that  a  $12,000  brick  block  for  its  accom- 
modation was  soon  erected,  and  the  banking  house  was  made 
over  into  a  national  bank  and  today  its  deposits  are  $190,000. 
Figures    won't   lie.    and    figures    of    this    kind    cannot    help    but 


bespeak  the  prosperity  of  the  citizens  of  Goodhue  and  farmers 
doing  business  here.  The  officers  of  the  bank  are:  President, 
H.  M.  Scovell;  vice-president,  E.  J.  Maybauer;  cashier.  C.  A. 

One  of  the  best  creameries  in  the  state  (we  say  "best  in  the 
state"  because  of  its  ability  in  most  cases  to  pay  such  prices 
and  do  business  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  it  apparent  to  the 
farmer  that  this  is  the  place  where  he  can  sell  the  dairy 
product  to  the  greatest  advantage)  is  the  Goodhue  Creamery. 
Thus  the  consolidated  butter  factory  of  the  city  gets  from  this 
community  only  a  smattering  of  business,  while  all  who  know  the 
value  of  a  home  creamery  rejoice  daily  at  the  business  tactics 
here  ^adopted,  making  it  possible  to  point  with  pride  to  this 

Since  the  reputation  of  this  section  as  a  grain  raising  country 
has  so  long  been  established,  it  would  hardly  be  fair  to  the  stock- 
men to  pass  without  saying  that  the  horse  buyers  and  cattlemen 
of  the  cities,  when  they  want  something  choice,  find  Goodhue 
about  the  best  place  along  the  line  to  make  their  headquarters, 
where  the  owners  of  fine  horses  and  fine  cattle'can  he  seen  daily 
as  they  come  in  from  the  garden  spot  of  Goodhue  county. 

"The  Goodhue  Enterprise,"  which  is  published  on  Thursday 
of  each  week,  claims  for  its  special  aim  in  life  the  furnishing  of 
a  large  grist  of  local  and  neighborhood  news  to  its  700  sub- 
scribers, at  the  same  time  carrying  to  the  average  farmer  of  this 
part  of  the  county,  in  the  form  of  neatly  displayed  advertise- 
ments, the  store  news  which  the  merchants  of  the  village  furnish, 
telling  the  buyers  what  they  have  for  sale  and  urging  them  to 
come  here  whenever  it  is  possible  for  them  to  do  so.  'The  Enter- 
prise" was  established  in  1896.  the  first  issue  being  gotten  out 
on  Christmas  day  of  that  year,  by  what  was  known  as  the  Good- 
hue Printing  Company;  however.  D.  C.  Pierce,  who  continues  to 
publish  the  paper,  became  its  sole  owner,  and  although  Goodhue 
is  a  place  of  less  than  a  thousand  people,  this  publication  has 
ever  enjoyed  a  lucrative  patronage,  built  up  a  nice  business  and 
established  a  reputation  for  reliability  and  punctuality.  In 
politics  it  is  Republican. 

The  village  of  Goodhue  was  incorporated  at  a  special  elec- 
tion held  April  26,  1897:  President,  P.  D.  Kelly;  councilmen,  0. 
Parker,  F.  Holtz.  C.  L.  Parkin;  recorder,  C.  E.  Rucker.  The  fire 
department  was  organized  in  1898.  Fire  protection  at  present 
is  furnished  by  water  system  from  tank  on  a  high  elevation  in 
the  southwestern  part  of  town,  known  as  Cranson  Heights.  This 
tank  was  put  up  in  190:-!.  capacity  80,000  gallons.  The  former 
protection  was  furnished  by  chemical  system.  Goodhue  is  noted 
for  its  supply  of  excellent  pure  water.  Prom  a  deep  citj   well,  the 


same  being  furnished  nearly  every  house  in  town  by  means  of 
faucets.  The  village  marshal  is  William  A.  O'Reilly.  The  pres- 
ent village  officers  are :     President,  H.  M.  Scovell ;  councilmen, 

D.  C.  Bell,  Joe  H.  Majerus  and  Louis  N.  Schinnert;  recorder,  A. 

E.  Adler. 

The  leading  business  men  are :  First  National  Bank,  with  H. 
M.  Scovell,  president,  and  C.  A.  Arpke,  cashier.  Goodhue  County 
Telephone  Company — Pardiu  &  Meyer,  proprietors.  Hardware 
and  machinery — Nelson  &  Johnson,  proprietors.  Goodhue  Hard- 
ware and  Implement  Company — Lally  &  McNamara,  proprietors. 
Clothing  and  men's  furnishing  goods — Adler,  Schacht  &  Co.,  pro- 
prietors; A.  E.  Adler,  manager.  Jewelry,  watches,  etc.,  with 
pianos — H.  H.  Buck,  proprietor.  General  merchandise — J.  N. 
Banitt,  proprietor;  J.  H.  Quast.  Goodhue  Co-operative  Company 
— C.  Rueker,  manager;  John  Meyer,  proprietor.  Goodhue  Cash 
Si  ore — 0.  E.  Kyllo,  manager.  Drugs,  medicine,  etc. — Howard  & 
Co.,  G.  AV.  Robinson,  manager.  Newspaper — Goodhue  "Enter- 
prise," D.  C.  Pierce,  publisher  and  proprietor.  Meat  market — 
Heaney  Bros.  Hotels — Merchants.  Mrs.  Frank  P.  Ahern,  pro- 
prietor; the  Goodhue  Hotel.  J.  P.  Ahern,  proprietor.  Lumber — 
North  Star  Lumber  Company.  John  McHugh.  manager.  Millinery 
-Mrs.  J.  S.  Davis,  proprietor.  Cigar  factory — Hoist  &  Vieths, 
proprietors.  Harness  shop — F.  W.  Prahl,  proprietor.  Furniture 
and  undertaking — Zorn  &  Co..  proprietors.  Restaurant  and  con- 
fections— L.  X.  Schinnert.  proprietor. 

The  Modern  Samaritans,  organized  February  21,  1901,  with 
the  following  officers:  G.  F.,  0.  F.  Nelson;  scribe,  C.  E.  Rueker; 
treasurer,  Fred  Eppen.     The  present  officers  are  the  same. 

The  Red  Men,  organized  April  3,  1901.  The  officers  were:  S., 
0.  H.  Rehder;  sr.  sac,-..  1).  J.  McIIugh;  jr.  sag.,  A.  D.  Medhurst; 
prophet,  James  Chalmers;  chief  of  records,  Thomas  Heaney; 
keeper  of  wampum.  Thomas  Lally.  The  present  officers  are :  S., 
Francis  Barry;  sr.  sag.,  C.  J.  A.  Hanson;  jr.  sag.,  John  Richter; 
prophet,  D.  C.  Bell;  chief  of  records,  Thomas  Lally;  keeper  of 
wampum,  John  McNamara. 

The  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  organized  March,  1895. 
The  officers  were :  <  'ouncil.  John  McHugh ;  advisor,  Elmer  Cat- 
lin ;  banker,  0.  Parker ;  clerk,  William  Richtman.  Charter  mem- 
bers :  John  McHugh,  Elmer  Catlin,  0.  Parker,  William  Richt- 
man, James  Chalmers,  Thomas  Maley,  Eugene  Crowell.  P.  D. 
Kelly,  Joseph  Heaney.  F.  E.  Davis,  Dr.  S.  E.  Howard.  The  pres- 
ent officers  are  :  Council,  D.  M.  Franklin  ;  advisor,  C.  S.  Hodsdon ; 
banker,  H.  M.  Scovell;  clerk.  C.  E.  Rueker. 

The  Royal  Neighbors,  organized  June  15,  1900.  The  officers 
were :  Oracle,  Mrs.  Jo\m  McHugh ;  vice  oracle,  Mary  E.  Mc- 
Hugh ;  recorder,  Mrs.  ().  E.  Kyllo;  receiver,  Mrs.  Helen  Kelly; 


chancellor,  Mrs.  John  0.  Davis;  marshal,  Mary  Hoist;  inner  sen- 
tinel, Mrs.  John  O'Connell;  outer  sentinel,  Mrs.  Ella  Ahern; 
managers.  Ida  Hoist.  Hose  Edwards  and  Tillie  Casey. 

The  Ancient  Order  of  United  Workmen,  organized  in  1905, 
with  the  following  officers:  P.  M.  W.,  John  Eichter;  M.  W.,  C. 
IT.  Render;  foreman,  R.  C.  Kellogg;  overseer,  M.  H.  Gregoire; 
recorder,  D.  C.  Pierce;  financier,  T.  AY.  Lally;  receiver,  Hein 
Prigge;  gnide,  C.  Raaseh.  The  present  officers  are:  P.  M.  W., 
C.  Raaseh;  M.  W.,  M.  II.  Gregoire;  foreman,  A.  D.  Haas;  over- 
seer, C.  F.  Raaseh;  recorder.  C.  S.  Hodsdon;  financier,  T.  M. 
Lally ;  receiver,  (Jans  IT.  Hoist ;  guide,  John  Richter. 

The  Brotherhood  of  American  Yeomen,  organized  June  4,  1908, 
with  the  following  charter  members:  Joe  Heaney,  Robert 
Heaney,  F.  L.  Kempf,  A.  C.  Kempf,  W.  H.  H.  Kempf,  William 
Hope,  A.  M.  Peterson,  F.  P.  Ahern.  Emma  Dahlstrom,  C.  W. 
Sherwin,  A.  P.  Johnson.  M.  J.  Seovell,  Hattie  M.  Prahl,  F.  T. 
0 'Gorman,  Mary  Heaney,  Ella  J.  Heaney,  Nellie  D.  Kempf,  Will- 
iam H.  Kempf,  Elmer  Kempf,  Minnie  C.  Hope,  Annie  M.  Peter- 
son. Rose  Ahern.  O.  F.  Nelson,  A.  E.  Osgood,  John  Richter,  Mary 
J.  Tetcher,  J.  0.  O'Reilly.  The  officers  were:  Foreman,  0.  F. 
Nelson ;  master  of  ceremonies,  A.  E.  Osgood ;  master  of  accounts, 
Mary  Heaney ;  correspondent,  AYilliam  Hope ;  chaplain,  Mrs.  H. 
M.  Seovell;  overseer,  A.  P.  Johnson.  The  present  officers  are: 
Foreman,  0.  F.  Nelson;  master  of  ceremonies,  F.  L.  Kempf;  mas- 
ter of  accounts,  Mary  Heaney;  correspondent,  AVilliam  Hope; 
chaplain.  Nellie  D.  Kempf;  overseer,  Elmer  Kempf. 

For  the  above  article  on  the  village  of  Goodhue  the  editors 

of  this  work  are  indebted  to  Dwight  C.  Pierce,  of  the  Goodhue 

'Enterprise."     The  history  of  the  churches  is  found  elsewhere. 


Holden  is  one  of  the  western  tier  of  Goodhue  county  town- 
ships, and  like  the  others,  is  rich  in  agricultural  possibilities. 
It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Warsaw,  on  the  east  by  AYana- 
mingo,  on  the  south  by  Kenyon  and  on  the  west  by  Rice  comity. 
This  township  has  some  of  the  highest  land  in  the  county  and 
is  mainly  an  undulating  prairie,  but  is  much  diversified  through 
the  central  part  by  the  headwaters 'of  the  Little  Cannon  and  its 
tributaries.  There  are  patches  of  timber  in  several  localities. 
especially  in  the  northeastern  portion  and  along  the  Zumbro  in 
the  southern  part. 

In  the  summer  of  18f>4  there  came  to  this  township  a  young 
man  named  Hans  Ovaldson,  who  broke  about  four  acres  on  sec- 
tion 24.  He  was  followed  by  Ole  C.  Oakland,  who  broke  the 
same  amount  of  land  in  section  23.     The  following  year  both 


these  pioneers  raised  a  crop  of  wheat.  Neither  of  them,  however, 
became  permanent  residents  of  the  township.  In  the  fall  of 
1854  Jens  Ottun  made  a  claim  and  built  a  sod  hut  on  section 
33,  where  he  commenced  breaking  the  land  in  May,  1855.  On 
May  27  there  arrived  A.  K.  Finseth,  K.  K.  Finseth,  H.  K.  Finseth 
and  Ole  J.  Bakke.  The  Finseths  purchased  Mr.  Ottun 's  claim 
and  that  gentleman  returned  to  Wanamingo,  where  he  had  pre- 
viously made  a  claim.  Mr.  Bakke  staked  out  a  homestead  on 
section  33  and  Mrs.  Bakke  soon  afterward  joined  him,  she  being 
doubtless  the  first  white  woman  settler  in  the  township.  That 
she  had  her  share  of  pioneer  discomforts,  not  to  say  alarms,  is 
shown  by  a  story  of  the  early  clays  that  is  still  told  in  the  town- 
ship. It  seems  that  in  spite  of  the  removal  of  the  Indians,  many 
red  men  were  prowling  through  that  portion  of  the  county,  and 
the  squaws  were  particularly  troublesome.  One  day  while  Mrs. 
Bakke  had  gone  to  draw  a  pail  of  water  an  Indian  squaw 
entered  her  cabin,  and  evidently  concluding  thai  the  white  baby 
would  make  a  valuable  addition  to  her  family,  snatched  Mrs. 
Bakke's  infant  and  started  to  run.  Mrs.  Bakke,  upon  her  return. 
gave  a  cry  of  alarm  and  hastened  into  the  woods  after  the  fleeing 
squaw.  The  babj  seriously  impeded  the  progress  of  the  red 
woman,  who  was  more  accustomed  to  carrying  babies  on  her 
back  than  in  her  arms,  and  finally,  in  fright  at  the  pursuit,  she 
dropped  the  infanl  and  continued  her  flight.  Mrs.  Bakke  recov- 
ered her  child  and  no  harm  was  done  except  for  the  fright  that 
the  poor  mother  had  fell  at  this  attempted  pioneer  kidnaping. 

In  the  month  of  June.  1855,  Ole  O.  Houset  set  lied  on  section 
23.  Halvor  Ennerson  Vraalstad  on  section  27.  and  Thorbjorn 
Ennersoh  Vraalstad  on  section  35.  In  the  same  year  Ole  0. 
Xaeset  and  Erik  Anderson  settled  on  section  9,  NTels  Mikkelson 
Dalsbotten  on  section  10.  and  Mikkel  Johnson  on  section  15. 
Some  of  these  pioneers  erected  cabins  and  roofed  them  over, 
others  erected  walls  but  did  not  take  time  to  finish  the  roofs, 
some  lived  in  their  covered  immigrant  wagons,  others  had  even 
less  shelter,  the  main  object  being  to  raise  a  crop  during  the 
summer  months,  leaving  the  question  of  permanent  and  com- 
fortable abode  until  the  autumn  time,  when  the  harvest  would 
be  garnered  in  and  there  would  be  more  time  for  home  building. 
The  supply  of  provisions  which  the  settlers  had  brought  with 
them  was  soon  gone,  and  from  time  to  time  one  of  the  colony 
was  delegated  to  go  to  Red  AYing  or  Hastings  to  procure  the 
necessities  of  life.  This  journey  of  over  thirty  miles  was  long 
and  tedious,  and  even  dangerous,  especially  in  winter,  and  even 
after  trading  points  were  reached  the  prices  were  so  high  as  to 
be  almost  prohibitive.  During  the  summer  of  1855  many  new 
claims  were  staked  out.     A  few  were  occupied  in  the  fall,  but 


the  majority  of  these  claimants  did  not  locate  until  the  follow- 
ing spring.  Among  these  settlers  of  1855  are  said  to  have  been 
Nelson  Sollefson,  Thomas  Anderson,  Camite  Thomas,  John 
Thompson,  Antin  Anderson,  G.  K.  Worsing  and  Ole  Oleson.  The 
first  settlers  of  the  township  were  Norwegians,  and  their  sturdy 
character  has  since  remained  the  predominating  influence  in  the 
township.  In  the  early  days  a  number  of  German  families  settled 
in  the  western  part  of  the  township,  and  many  of  their  descend- 
ants still  remain  there. 

According  to  the  authorities  now  available,  the  first  white 
child  born  in  the  township  was  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  T.  E.  Vraalstad, 
in  September,  1855.  The  first  marriage  was  that  of  K.  K. 
Finseth  and  Bergitte  llalvorson,  the  ceremony  being  performed 
by  the  Eev.  II.  A.  Stub,  at  the  residence  of  the  bride's  father  in 
Rice  county,  September  13,  1856.  The  first  death  was  that  of 
Erik  A.  Elton,  who  died  in  the  fall  of  1855  and  was  buried  near 
the  north  line  of  section  :!.  An  old  history  gives  some  entirely 
different  facts  in  regard  to  the  first  birth,  marriage  and  death, 
but  upon  what  authority  is  not  known.  According  to  this  old 
history,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lars  Nelson  were  blessed  with  twins 
shortly  after  their  arrival  in  the  township,  these  twins  being  the 
first  births  in  the  township.  The  first  marriage,  declares  the 
same  authority,  was  that  of  Kettle  Eriekso'n  and  Margaretta 
Flom,  performed  by  Escjuire  Bowies,  of  Cannon  Falls,  and  the 
first  death  that  of  a  child  of  Ole  Oleson.  Another  authority 
says  that  the  first  child  was  born  to  Thorbjorn  Ennerson. 

In  1856  a  state  road  was  surveyed  through  the  southeast  part 
of  the  township,  and  the  following  year  Norway  postoffice  was 
established,  with  Ole  ().  Hauset  as  postmaster.  Mr.  Hauset 
served  until  his  death  in  1862.  Some  time  afterward,  the  office 
was  removed  a  short  distance,  across  the  line  into  AVanamingo 
township.  About  the  same  time  Holden  postoffice  was  estab- 
lished in  the  north  part  of  the  township,  with  T.  E.  Thompson 
as  postmaster.  Eidsvold  postoifiee  was  established  in  1875,  on 
the  daily  mail  route  between  Red  Wing  and  Faribault,  and  Hans 
Christianson  Westermo  was  named  postmaster.  In  1867  Law- 
rence Stagner  opened  a  store  in  the  western  part  of  the  town. 

The  first  two  winters  the  township  was  settled  were  very 
severe  and  much  hardship  was  endured.  The  winter  of  1857 
was  especially  long,  and  sleighs  were  in  use  in  the  latter  part 
of  April.  The  crops  that  year,  however,  were  good,  and  since 
that  time  the  people  of  Holden  have  enjoyed  almosl  uninter- 
rupted prosperity. 

In  the  early  days  the  township  was  attached  to  several  oiher 
townships  for  political  purposes,  and  in  1858.  after  the  township 
was   organized,   the  citizens  who  met   at    the   tirst    election   were 


practically  strangers,  the  people  in  the  different  localities  having" 
had  their  previous  intercourse  with  towns  to  the  north,  east, 
south  and  Avest  and  not  with  each  other.  Therefore  each  group 
of  electors  wanted  to  vote  for  men  in  their  own  locality,  with 
whom  they  were  acquainted.  After  the  first  two  or  three  elec- 
tions friendly  relations  were  established  and  the  machinery  of 
the  town  government  has  since  moved  harmoniously.  The  first 
officers  were :  Supervisors,  K.  K.  Finseth  (chairman).  H.  C. 
Klemer,  Charles  Nichols ;  town  clerk.  L.  K.  Aakers ;  assessor.  C. 
Nichols:  collector,  Charles  Fogelsang;  justices  of  the  peace,  W. 
C.  Crandall,  Ole  Oleson ;  constables.  Peter  N.  Langemo  and  H. 
E.  Vraalstad. 

During  the  following  four  years  the  chairmen  were  K.  K. 
Finseth,  L.  K.  Aakers,  Ira  Babcock  and  L.  Stagner,  and  the 
clerks  were  Lucius  Oakes,  A.  H.  Bjoraker,  Peter  Nelson  and 
Peter  Lengmoe. 

During  the  Civil  War  the  aggregate  amount  of  $14,000  was 
raised  to  give  as  a  bounty  to  volunteers,  and  consequently  no 
drafting  was  needed  to  fill  the  required  quota.  Those  who  en- 
listed from  Holden  were:  Byron  Aufmson,  Lieutenant  Lars  K. 
Aakers,  Henry  Aspen.  John  Ericson,  Henry  Ericson.  Filing  Eng- 
berson,  Joseph  Fogleson.  Arthur  A.  Flom,  Andrew  Hanson,  Ole 
Halverson.  Halver  Halverson,  Ole  0.  Huss,  George  Johnson,  John 
K.  Lysing.  Aslack  Oleson.  Ole'  Oleson.  Ole  Osker.  Butler  Oleson, 
Edward  Oleson,  Edward  Oleson.  Olans  Oleson.  Thurston  Opdahl, 
Christopher  Peterson.  Peter  J.  Peterson,  Peter  Quam.  John  J. 
Peterson.  [ngvall  Thorson.  Holton  0.  "Wing.  Charles  Zimmerman, 
Fred  Zimmerman,  German  Anderson,  Frederick  Bowers,  Louis 
Bratsell.  Edward  Boutsell,  James  Coburn,  Andrew  M.  Crane, 
John  Ellis,  John  Ferrin.  Uriah  Perrin,  William  A.  Fendley, 
Robert  Fairbanks.  Andrew  Hanson.  William  Harrison.  Hans 
Hanson,  Griffin  Holmes.  Ameal  Hillig,  James  F.  Hyland,  James 
Isenhour,  Richard  M.  Johnson,  Norman  Kinney,  Thomas  Ken- 
nedy, Joseph  Lapaire,  Samuel  Murphy,  H.  AY.  AIcGowan,  Charles 
H.  Parish,  Sebastian  Paulley,  Leonard  S.  Ricord.  Riley  Sturman, 
Edwin  M.  Snow.  AYilliam  Starkey,  Champion  Shilling.  James 
Byrne.  Charles  Boatman,  Sydney  Brownson.  John  Weaver, 
Thomas  Ward,  Abraham  Zimmerman,  C.  AY.  Zeiaka,  Elling  En- 
gerbretson.  Fin  gal  Fingalson.  G.  Grant,  Thomas  Walker  De- 
Ruyter  Buck,  Edwin  Cross.  Charles  Farrell,  John  E.  Jelly,  Evan 
Johnson.  Kaut  Oleson.  F.  J.  Ridgway.  Nels  Oleson.  Knut  Quam, 
Andrew  Scott.  Daniel  Glenn.  Alichael  Hayes,  Eric  Bergland. 
Michael  Hartman,  Captain  Thomas  Carney,  Andrew  Cahill.  James 
A.  Lesson,  Hans  H.  Oleson.  J.  L.  Amundson.  Ole  Jacobson,  Jr., 
Fred    Schmidt,    G.    AY.    Avery,    Henry   Knutz,    Edward    Kohler, 


James  McDonough,  .James  Melehoir,  Andrew  Orhlin,  John  Birber, 
Doctor  Gr.  Wilkes,  Albert   A.   Thayer,  Moses  Haines. 

Holden  is  a  discontinued  postoffice  thirty  miles  southwest  of 
Red  Wing  and  five  miles  north  of  Kenyon.  Mail  is  now  received 
via  Nerstrand  R.  P.  D.  No.  2. 

Nansen  is  a  discontinued  postoffice  twenty-eight  miles  south- 
west of  Bed  Wing  and  eight  miles  northeast  of  Kenyon.  Mail  is 
received  via  Kenyon  R.  F.  D.  No.  5. 

Einseth  Station  is  a  tiag  station  on  the  Chicago  &  Great 
Western  railway. 


Hay  Creek  receives  its  name  from  the  stream  which  touches 
the  west  central  portion  of  the  township  and  along  whose  banks 
in  the  early  days  the  settlers  found  large  quantities  of  wild 
hay.  The  surface  of  the  township  is  somewhat  uneven,  but  is 
rich  in  agricultural  possibilities.  A  deep  valley  crosses  the  town- 
ship from  east  to  west  in  the  northern  part,  and  another,  with 
various  branches,  crosses  the  township  in  the  center,  east  and 
west.  These  make  a  hilly  and  rolling  surface  for  the  whole 
town,  the  hills  being  from  two  to  four  hundred  feet  above  the 
valleys.  Yet,  owing  to  the  abundant  overspread  of  fine  clay  and 
loam,  practically  all  of  the  surface  is  tillable.  Many  of  the 
hillsides  are  covered  with  growing  timber,  and  the  valleys  were 
originally  heavily  wooded.  In  the  southeastern  part  is  Wells' 
creek.  Bullard  creek  drains  the  northern  part.  Hay  Creek 
comprises  township  112,  range  14.  and  is  bounded  on  the  north 
l)y  Red  AVing  and  Wacoota,  on  the  east  by  Florence,  on  the  south 
by  Belvidere  and  on  the  west  by  Featherstone.  It  was  organized 
with  its  present  boundaries  in  1858. 

The  first  settlement  was  made  in  the  spring  of  1854  by  a  Mr. 
Egar,  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  town.  Among  the  early  settlers 
were  George  Steel*  Ernest  Schubert,  Henry  Inzancee,  William 
Hayman,  Garry  Post,  David  Bartrom,  Simon  Peterson,  Benville 
Mosier,  Rudolph  Kruger,  Charles  Darling,  Jacob  Turner,  M. 
Eggle*ston,  G.  F.  and  William  Meyer,  John  Hack  and  James  B. 
Wakefield.  George  Frederick,  an  early  settler  of  Belle  Creek, 
also  lived  here  a  short  time  in  the  early  days.  The  early  settlers 
were  subjected  to  constant  annoyance,  the  whole  township,  with 
the  exception  of  a  small  portion  in  the  northwest,  being  within 
the  limits  of  the  half-breed  tract.  Meetings  were  held  and  the 
settlers  organized  for  mutual  protection.  Charles  Alders,  who 
in  1856  built  a  hotel  near  where  Borkhard's  hotel  was  later 
located,  was  one  of  the  many  who  suffered  the  annoyance  of  a 
previous  claimant.     He  had  his  first  log  cabin  nearly  completed 


when  another  man  appeared  to  dispute  his  claim  to  the  land. 
This  man's  claim  was  based  on  the  fact  that  he  had  been  there 
and  inscribed  his  name  on  a  tree  previous  to  Mr;  Abler 's  advent. 
The  former  claimant  was  backed  by  a  mob  of  men  armed  with 
clubs,  axes  and  other  weapons.  So  there  was  no  alternative 
bnt  for  Mr.  Aiders  to  pay  the  amount  of  money  demanded  for  a 
relinquishment  of  the  claim,  which  he  did,  and  later  opened 
his  house  to  the  public.  There  are  always  two  sides  to  every 
question,  and  while  Mr.  Aiders  was  given  a  great  deal  of  sym- 
pathy, it  would  look  in  modern  times  as  though  he  had  intended 
to  take  another  man's  claim.  He  was  but  one  of  many  who 
suffered  much  inconvenience  and  trouble  until  the  half-breed 
matter  had  been  settled  in  Washington,  after  which  the  actual 
settlers  were  left  in  peace. 

The  first  town  meeting  was  held  in  1858,  with  only  six  citizens 
present.  They  were  William  Ilayman,  Henry  Lorentzen.  S.  A. 
Wise,  J.  B.  "Wakefield.  Rudolph  Kruger  and  David  Bartrom. 
This  meeting  was  held  in  a  log  cabin  schoolhouse,  near  Wells' 
creek.  The  explanation  given  for  the  poor  attendance  is  one 
that  looks  strange  in  these  days.  It  seems  that  a  camp  meeting 
was  in  progress  in  a  grove  near  by  and  the  people  were  so  inter- 
ested in  matters  pertaining  to  the  future  life  that  they  had  no 
time  to  devote  to  such  temporal  affairs  as  a  town  election. 
Whether  the  six  who  attended  loved  religion  the  less  or  politics 
the  more  than  the  others  tradition  does  not  relate. 

A  log  schoolhouse  was  built  near  the  spot  where  the  Wells' 
creek  mills  were  afterward  erected,  in  1857,  and  a  school  was 
taught  there  by  a  young  man  named  Graves.  The  first  marriage 
was  that  of  Ernest  Schubert  and  a  Miss  Reinehart,  the  cere- 
mony being  performed  by  William  Hayman.  justice  of  the  peace. 
In  the  earliest  days  the  German  Lutherans  and  the  Methodists 
held  meetings  and  both  later  erected  comfortable  places  for 
church  worship.  Near  the  center  of  the  township  there  is  a 
substantial  town  hall.  In  1863  R.  H.  Matthews  built  a  mill  on 
Wells'  creek,  and  in  1865  John  Hack  and  G.  F.  Meyer  built  one 
on  Hay  creek.  Later  a  third  mill  was  built  on  Hay  creek,  but  was 
afterward  abandoned.  • 

The  chairmen  of  supervisors  of  the  town  from  1858  to  1869 
were :  Samuel  A.  Wise,  William  Hayman.  John  Benson,  Dunning 
Dewey  (six  terms).  Rudolph  Kruger  (two  terms),  George  Hack- 
man.  The  town  clerks  during  the  same  period  were:  Henry 
Lorentzen  (two  terms),  John  Hack  (six  terms),  Peter  J.  Erbar 
(five  terms). 

Hay  Creek's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  consisted  of 
Joseph  W.  Britton.  Fred  Baumbeck.  Henry  Burgtorf,  Reynolds 
Barton,  August  Buchholz,  Henry  W.  Cady,  W.  F.  Dewey.  C.  J. 


Henning,  Augusl  B.  Hilleg,  James  D.  Hill,  .John  Hennings,  An- 
drew  Johnson,  Rudolph  Kruger,  Elias  F.  Kimball.  Michael 
Stahler,  .J.  G.  Sc1k.11.  Jonathan  Thorns,  William  Thorns,  Charles 
Truman,  Josiah  Wakefield,  Alonzo  C.  Wakefield;  Peter  Wallower, 
Nicholas  Gross,  Nicholas  Oleson.  (  linton  G.  Stees,  Manville  Le- 
Weir,  Anthony  Stevens.  Robert  Millie,  Leundre  Isenhour,  Alfred 
Dudley,  dames  R.  Goodhue,  Thomas  Gready,  John  Hankins, 
Edward  Lent.  Peter  McMartin,  William  F.  Schmidt,  William 
Smith.  Lawrence  Twohy,  Andrew  Johnson,  Henry  Webert,  Henry 
Straitman.  David  Fresmith,  Lars  Oleson,  Jacob  Turner,  Fred 
Westendoff,  John  J.  Dewey,  Fritz  Klauser,  William  Piute  and 
Christian  Sempiel. 

Hay  Creek  village  is  a  discontinued  postoffice  six  and  a  half 
miles  south  of  Red  Wing.  Mail  is  received  by  Red  Wing  R.  F. 
D.  Nos.  2  and  4.  It  is  a  busy  little  settlement,  with  a  hotel, 
store,  church,  schoolhouse  and  several  residences. 


Leon  constitutes  government  township  11,  range  17,  and  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Cannon  Falls,  on  the  east  by.  Belle 
Creek,  on  the  south  by  Wanamingo  and  on  the  west  by  Warsaw. 
It  is  drained  by  branches  of  the  Little  Cannon  in  the  northwest- 
ern portion,  these  streams  causing  the  land  to  be  somewhat 
broken  in  that  locality.  In  the  valleys  there  is  a  light  growth 
of  timber.  The  eastern  part  of  the  township  is  drained  by  the 
waters  of  Belle  creek.  The  soil  is  rich  and  causes  Leon  to  be 
one  of  the  most  desirable  farming  sections  of  the  county.  The 
people  are  educated  and  progressive,  being  for  the  most  part 
Americans  of  Norwegian  and  Swedish  descent,  although  a  few 
of  the  sturdy  old  pioneers  of  Norwegian  and  Swedish  birth  still 
remain  to  tell  the  story  of  their  early  struggles  to  their  children. 
Of  Leon  it  has  been  truthfully  said:  "Its  cultivated  fields,  pos- 
sessing a  soil  of  marvelous  fertility,  its  broad  acres  of  arable 
land,  its  timber  and  water,  beautiful  residences,  barns  and 
granaries,  flocks  and  herds,  and  finally  the  health  and  general 
prosperity  of  its  inhabitants,  are  the  living  evidences  of  a  section 
of  country  rich  in  natural  resources  and  abounding  in  happy 

The  first  settler,  Haldro  Johnson,  a  Norwegian,  came  here 
from  Dane  county,  Wisconsin,  in  the  fall  of  1854.  He  made 
a  claim  on  section  20,  built  a  rude  cabin  and  spent  the  winter 
there.  The  following  spring  he  went  back  to  Wisconsin,  and 
married,  bringing  his  bride  with  him  to  the  new  country,  where 
tliey  were  to  establish  their  rooftree  and  live  in  happiness.  In  the 
summer  of  1855  came  the  following  Scandinavians  and  their  fami- 


lies  :  A.  J.  Rlalande,  Andrew  Larson,  Gutrom  Pederson,  Ole  Peder- 
son,  J.  Wamberg,  John  Bottolfson.  M.  Edstrom.  C.  A.  Haggstrom, 
William  Olson  and  Rognold  Johnson.  They  at  once  staked  out 
claims  and  broke  the  land,  most  of  which  still  remains  in  the 
possession  of  the  families  of  the  original  claimants.  In  1856 
came  Albert,  Calvin,  Samuel,  David  and  Horace  McGaughey, 
F.  F.  Dimmick,  James  Cox,  Seth  Davis.  Charles  A.  Johnson, 
William  Greaves  and  Ellery  Stone  with  his  sons.  The  eastern 
people  who  settled  in  the  central  and  southeastern  part  of  this 
township  in  the  early  days  did  not  as  a  rule  remain  long,  and 
consequently  few  of  their  names  have  been  handed  down  to 
posterity  in  this  county,  although  several  attained  prominence 
in  the  localities  where  they  afterward  settled. 

Frank  Johnson,  born  May  8,  1856,  and  died  September  7  the 
same  year,  was  the  first  white  child  born  and  the  first  person 
to  die  in  the  township.  The  first  school  was  taught  in  1857  by 
Daniel  Van  Amberg,  in  a  log  schoolhouse  near  where  William 
Olson  afterward  took  up  his  residence. 

Among  the  early  settlers  came  H.  Ferrell,  who  laid  claim  to 
a  section  of  land  and  surveyed  and  laid  out  town  lots,  naming 
the  place  Wastedo.  His  dreams  of  a  future  great  city  were  not 
realized,  and  a  larger  part  of  the  village  plat  is  now  devoted 
in  farms.  In  1857  E.  A.  Sargent  built  a  store  and  stocked  it  with 
general  merchandise,  and  the  next  year  Martin  Thompson  built 
another  store.  Blacksmith  shops  were  opened  in  1857  and  1865. 
In  more  recent  years  the  store  of  M.  T.  Opsal  at  this  point  became 
the  trading  center  of  the  town.  The  postoffice  at  Wastedo  was 
discontinued  some  years  ago  and  Cannon  Falls  R.  F.  D.  No.  1 
was  substituted. 

Of  Leon,  thirty  years  ago,  it  was  written:  "The  township  is 
now  inhabited  almost  exclusively  by  a  steady,  industrious  class 
of  people,  natives  of  Norway  and  Sweden,  and  their  descendants, 
the  Norwegians  residing  principally  in  the  southwestern  portion 
of  the  township,  and  the  Swedes  in  the  northeastern.  They  are 
all,  or  nearly  all.  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and  as  their  inter- 
ests are  thoroughly  identified  with  the  land  of  their  adoption, 
they  take  a  deep  interest  in  the  political  and  social  welfare  of 
the  country.  Many  of  them  are  men  of  wide  education  and  abil- 
ity, some  of  them  having  represented  their  districts  in  one  or  both 
branches  of  the  state  legislature,  while  others  have  filled  local 
positions  of  trust  and  honor."     This  is  no  less  true  today. 

To  the  Civil  War  Leon  contributed  the  following  soldiers: 
George  Brockman,  Charles  Berdan.  A.  J.  Bailey,  W.  D.  Bryant, 
Ephraim  A.  Bard,  Harry  Bristol.  John  Banks,  Lewis  Butterson, 
David  E.  Burden.  Edwin  Cox,  Almeran  Davis,  Peter  Froyd.  II. 
M.  McGaughey,  Eward  G.  Bailey,  Elec  Albertson.  Christian  Lud- 



wigson,  Morris  Harrison,  John  Ehrichson,  Knute  Oleson,  Ellery 
Stone,  Andrew  McCausland,  AVilliam  H.  Druping,  Andrew  Eric- 
son,  B.  F.  S.  Ives,  C.  II.  Bullock,  Charles  H.  Bond,  George  H. 
(  ross,  Norman  Daniels,  Sidney  Deming,  William  II.  Ganis,  Will- 
iam L.  Kenyon,  Andrew  Morrison,  John  Stanton,  A.  H.  Van  Voor- 
hies,  Lyman  Waldon,  George  "Wells,  Peter  A.  Holm,  John  Johnson, 
Yors  Larson,  Fred  Miller,  James  Swerger,  Oscar  L.  Stranahan, 
H.  M.  Stranahan,  Matthew  Sidmore,  Newell  J.  Sumner,  F.  H. 
Shaw,  James  G.  Wiley,  Fenn  Iswell,  Joseph  E.  Smith,  Charles 
Barcow,  Henry  Fane,  Peter  Mewrer,  Fred  Mohrmann,  Xavier 
Demarra,  William  Zime,  Ole  Loe,  Smith  Martenas,  Thor  Oleson, 
Thomas  Cramwill,  James  <  'onroy,  A.  P.  Oliver,  L.  G.  Price  and 

D.  Van  Amberg. 

July  5,  1858,  the  first  township  election  was  held  in  the  store 
of  E.  A.  Sargent.  Mr.  Sargent  was  clerk  of  election  and  A.  E. 
McGaughey  was  the  forwarding  clerk.  Fifty  votes  were  polled? 
•From  that  time  until  1879  the  officers  were  as  follows,  the  first 
named  of  the  supervisors  under  each  year  being  the  chairman : 
Supervisors,  1859,  Ellery  Stone,  George  Seassons,  William  Olson; 
1860,  S.  X.  McGaughey.  John  Ingebrightsen,  J.  Vanderberg;  1861, 
Alexander  Merritt,  A.  Larson,  J.  K.  Stranahan;  1862,  Alexander 
Merritt,  John  Ingebrightsen,  Seth  Davis ;  1863,  James  McGinnis, 
A.  Larson,  F.  I.  Collins;  1864,  Alexander  Merritt,  S.  Anderson, 

A.  Larson;  1865,  Alexander  Merritt,  K.  J.  Onstad,  Fred  Miller; 
1866.  Thomas  Balfour.  John  Ingebrightsen,  John  B.  Lee;  1867, 

E.  D.  Stone.  John  Ingebrightsen,  Fred  Miller;  1868,  F.  F.  Dim- 
mick,  John  B.  Lee.  Charles  Holm;  1869,  William  Greaves,  E.  D. 
Stone,  S.  Anderson;  1870,  S.  Anderson,  F.  I.  Johnson.  E.  D. 
Stone;  1871,  E.  D.  Stone.  Charles  Anderson,  John  B.  Lee;  1872, 
E.  D.  Stone,  James  B.  Lee,  Charles  Anderson;  1873-1877,  E.  D. 
Stone,  Charles  Anderson,  T.  S.  Medje,  1877,  Thomas  Balfour, 
John  Haggstrom,  Charles  Edstrom;  1878,  John  Haggstrom,  Nils 
Skog,  Knut  K.  Hougo.  Clerks,  1858,  George  F.  Sargent;  1859-61, 
E.  G.  Bailey;  1861-63,  E.  A.  Sargent;  1863-65,  D.  Van  Amberg; 
1865,  E.  A.  Sargent;  1866-68,  E.  G.  Bailey;  1868,  Thomas  Balfour; 
1869-73,  M.  T.  Opsal ;  1873,  John  Edstrom.  Assessors,  F.  F.  Dim- 
miek,  Fred  Miller,  John  Surratt,  F.  F.  Dimmick,  D.  Van 
Amberg,  Nere  Holgeson,  S.  Anderson,  C.  J.  Wing.  Ed.  L.  Otter- 
ness,  Mons  S.  Frevig.  Collector,  E.  D.  Stone,  1869-60.  Treas- 
urers. William  Olson,  E.  Stone.  AVilliam  Olson,  Ed.  L.  Otterness, 
M.  T.  Opsal.  Justices  of  the  peace.  D.  C.  Stranalian.  S.  X.  Mc- 
Gaughey. James  McGinnis,  M.  Bryant,  J.  K.  Stranahan,  Ira  Bab- 
cock,  E.  A.  Sargent,  Fred  Miller.  John  Miller,  M.  Bryant.  A.  A. 
Flom,  John   Miller.     Constables.  E.  D.   Stone,  0.  L.  Stranahan. 

B.  F.  Davis,  John  Lagerstrom,  H.  P.  Davis.  A  B.  Crow,  John 
Lagerstrom.  A.  Olson,  H.  M.  Stranahan,  B.   P.  Davis.  Jonathan 


Poe,  J.  A.  Holm,  H.  M.  Stranahan,  0.  S.  Urevig,  John  A.  Holm, 
D.  E.  Berdan,  0.  S.  Urevig,  John  Lewis,  O.  S.  Urevig,  P.  J. 
Peterson,  Ed.  Berdan,  K.  K.  Hougo,  J.  Helm. 

The  oldest  church  in  the  township  is  the  Spring  Garden 
Swedish  Evangelical  Lutheran  church.  The  Urland  congregation 
of  the  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  church  was  organized  in 
the  winter  of  1871. 

In  1859  the  Rev.  Mr.  Barnes  organized  a  Presbyterian  church, 
and  during  the  following  year  the  Methodist  people  perfected  an 
organization,  but  both  of  these  attempts  expired,  owing  to  lack 
of  support. 

George  Wright  Matchan,  deceased,  will  long  be  remembered 
for  his  sterling  worth  and  noble  Christian  character.  One  of  a 
family  of  fourteen  children,  he  was  bom  at  Hilton.  Yorkshire, 
England.  August  8,  1830.  in  the  house  where  his  parents  settled 
at  their  marriage,  and  where  both  died,  after  a  continuous  resi- 
dence of  more  than  sixty  years  of  happy  life.  Here  was  spent 
his  boyhood  and  early  manhood,  and  in  April.  1850.  he  married 
Mary  Ann  Shields,  daughter  of  William  and  Frances  (Miller) 
Shields,  also  born  a1  his  native  place.  April,  1858,  the  family 
consisting  of  Mr.  and  .Mrs.  Matchan  and  three  young  sons,  George. 
Robert  and  William,  emigrated  to  Canada,  taking  passage  in  a 
sailing  vessel  of  the  type  of  thai  day.  After  a  stormy,  trying 
voyage  of  forty-nine  days  at  sea,  l  hey  landed  at  Quebec,  from 
whence  they  went  to  Farmersville.  Ontario,  subsequently  settling 
on  a  farm  near  the  village  of  Green  Bush,  about  twelve  miles 
westerly  from  Brockville.  on  the  St.  Lawrence.  Here  were  born 
to  them  two  children.  Alinira  and  Edward.  April,  1864,  the 
family  ('migrated  to  the  United  States,  living  for  a  few  months 
at  Waukesha,  Wis.  During  the  summer  of  1864  Mr.  Matchan, 
leaving  his  family  at  Waukesha  to  follow  later,  started  for  Min- 
nesota in  quest  of  a  home,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year  rented 
the  farm  of  James  Seofield,  in  the  town  of  Roscoe,  where  his 
family  joined  him.  remaining  until  the  spring  of  1866,  and  where 
was  born  to  them  another  daughter,  Laura.  The  summer  and 
winter  of  1866-7,  they  lived  on  the  farm  of  T.  D.  Rowell,  east 
of  the  village  of  Zumbrota,  moving  thence  to  the  farm  lying 
soiithwesterly  from  Zumbrota  village,  in  the  town  of  Roscoe, 
which  Mr.  Matchan  had  purchased  in  the  fall  of  1865  of  Josiah 
Thompson,  then  living  at  Zumbrota.  This  farm  consisted  of  160 
acres,  for  which  he  agreed  to  pay  $800,  paying  $100  cash  and 
$100  per  annum,  with  interest  at  ten  per  cent.  Here  were  born 
to  them  another  daughter,  Annie,  and  a  son,  "Wesley. 

Many  were  the  trials  and  great  the  discouragements  encoun- 
tered before  the  final  victory  over  debt  and  necessary  farm  bet- 
terments, but  the  good  old  farm  yielded  not  only  a  comfortable 

ruis  *■•  ■ 

'  *• 



George  W.   Matchan 

***-    PWnt1- 

Mrs.  George  W.  Matchax 




living  for  the  family  during  all  the  years  of  its  subjugation  and 
improvement,  but  in  response  to  good  cultivation  made  possible 
the  purchase  of  an  additional  eighty  acres  adjoining,  at  a  much 
greater  price  per  acre  than  its  own  first  cost,  and  the  building 
of  a  hue  home  in  the  village  of  Zumbrota,  at  a  cost,  including  the 
lands,  of  over  $5,000,  to  which  the  family,  then  consisting  of 
himself,  wife,  Annie  and  Wesley,  removed,  remaining  until  the 
fall  of  1906,  when,  because  of  declining  years  and  health,  he  sold 
with  the  idea  of  purchasing  a  home  of  less  size,  where  he  and  the 
wife  and  mother  might  pass  the  last  years  of  their  lifetime  with 
the  least  care  and  responsibility.  In  this  respect,  however,  his 
calculations  were  defeated.  He  died  at  the  home  of  his  dauedi- 
ter,  Mrs.  Laura  Secore,  Red  Wing,  February  .">.  1907.  At  the 
tillage  home  above  mentioned,  April.  1900.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Matchan 
celebrated  the  fiftieth  (golden)  anniversary  of  their  wedding,  at 
which  were  in  attendance  all  of  their  eight  children,  the  wives 
of  those  married,  all  their  grandchildren  and  most  of  their 
nephews  and  nieces,  numbering  in  all  fifty-five  persons.  Mr. 
Matchan  from  his  early  boyhood  was  identified  with  the  Meth- 
odist church,  being  one  of  the  few  original  organizers  of  the 
First  Methodist  Episcopal  church  at*  Zumbrota,  with  which  he 
was  identified  as  member,  and  in  one  and  another  official  capac- 
ity, until  the  time  of  his  death.  Mr.  Matchan  was  a  man  of 
positive  character  and  intense  conviction,  clinging  at  all  cost 
to  the  right,  frowning  publicly  and  privately  upon  that  he  con- 
sidered wrong.  His  word  once  given  was  sacred,  and  no  incon- 
venience or  sacrifice  was  too  great  for  him  to  suffer  that  he 
might  fulfill  the  simplest  promise.  Heg  left  surviving  him  five 
sons  and  three  daughters,  and  his  wife.  Mary  Ann. 

The  oldest  son,  George  L.,  is  a  prominent  attorney  residing 
at  the  city  of  Minneapolis.  The  second  son,  Robert  D..  a  well 
known  physician  and  surgeon,  also  resident  of  Minneapolis, 
where  for  two  decades  he  has  continuously  occupied  the  chair 
of  surgery  in  the  homeopathic  department  of  the  medical  school 
of  the  State  University  of  Minnesota.  The  third  son,  William, 
resides  at  Milton,  N.  D.,  where  he  is  engaged  in  the  lumber  and 
grain  business.  A  daughter,  Almira  Osborne,  resides  at  Payette. 
Idaho.  Edward  M.  resides  on  the  old  home  farm  in  Roscoe, 
where  he  is  making  good  both  as  a  farmer  and  citizen.  Laura, 
wife  of  J.  A.  Secore,  resides  at  the  city  of  Anoka,  where  her  hus- 
band occupied  the  important  position  of  superintendent  of  the 
department  of  manual  training  in  the  public  schools  of  that  city. 
Annie,  wife  of  Rupert  Staiger,  resides  at  Zumbrota.  where  they 
own  their  home  and  large  grounds,  which  represent  no  inconsid- 
erable increment  indicative  of  their  thrift  and  future  prosperity. 
Wesley  G.,   the  youngest  of  the  eight,  was  a    graduate   of  the 


medical  department  of  the  State  University,  and  for  eight  years 
and  more  until  his  death,  occupied  an  envious  position  in  his 
chosen  profession  in  the  city  of  Bismarck,  capital  of  our  sister 
state  of  North  Dakota,  where  he  died  July  21,  1909,  cut  off  be- 
fore reaching  the  prime  of  his  manhood,  for  he  was  less  than 
thirty-three  years  of  age  at  the  time  of  his  death.  He  had  never- 
theless, by  persistent  effort  and  consistent  living,  attained  a 
standing  in  his  profession  and  in  business  and  social  circles  of 
his  home  city,  not  often  reached  by  men  of  maturer  years,  and 
because  of  his  manly  character  and  genial  kindly  nature,  his 
death  was  mourned  by  the  entire  community,  men,  women  and 
children,  representing  all  walks  in  life,  pausing  at  his  bier  for 
that  last  look  of  homage  to  the  memory  of  their  dead  friend. 
The  wife,  mother,  widow,  now  seventy-five  years  of  age,  residing 
at  the  old,  new,  village,  Zumbrota,  sad  because  of  the  loss  of  her 
loved  ones,  yet  contentedly  happy  in  the  reflection  of  their  vic- 
tories and  in  the  possession  of  the  respect,  affection  and  love  of 
all  her  living  offspring,  relatives  and  friends,  which  are  legion. 
She  still  works  while  waiting,  firmly  secure  in  the  knowledge, 
resulting  from  a  life  of  practiced  Christian  faith  and  works,  that 
the  future  holds  for  her  only  good,  gleaning  in  her  declining 
years  the  honey  of  the  flower  of  a  life  well  spent,  basking  in  the 
sunshine  of  the  hope  of  the  meeting  in  that  great  beyond,  where 
awaits  for  such  as  she,  life  eternal,  and  the  "well  done,  thou 
good  and  faithful  servant,  enter  thou  into  the  joy  of  thy  lord." 
The  homely,  trustful,  energetic,  faithful  life  work  of  these 
two  old  Goodhue  county  pioneers  will  shine  forth  in  the  pages 
of  this  history  of  the  achievements  of  those  who  made  Goodhue 
county  what  she  is,  in  the  galaxy  of  stars  which  make  up  the 
great  state  of  Minnesota,  as  a  guide  for  others  here  and  to  come, 
to  whom  is  left  the  completion  of  a  great  work  so  inauspiciously 


Minneola,  originally  a  part  of  Zumbrota  township,  but  organ- 
ized separately  in  June,  I860,  comprises  township  110,  range  16, 
and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Belle  Creek,  on  the  east  by 
Zumbrota,  on  the  south  by  Koscoe  and  on  the  west  by  Wana- 
.mingo.  It  is  crossed,  east  to  west,  by  the  north  branch  of  the 
Zumbro,  which  is  augmented  along  its  winding  course  by  springs 
and  rivulets  which  supply  the  township  with  plenty  of  water, 
making  the  farms  well  adapted  for  agriculture  and  stock  raising. 
The  surface  has  great  changes  of  level.  The  highest  land  is  in 
the  northwestern  part  of  the  town  and  the  lowest  is  in  the 
valley  near  the  village  of  Zumbrota  in  the  southeastern  part. 
The  changes,  however,  except  in  the  immediate  descents  into  the 


Zunibro  valley,  are  gradual,  making  in  general  an  undulating 
surface.  The  soil  is  rich,  deep  and  fertile.  In  several  portions 
are  a  few  natural  groves  of  forest  trees,  and  shade  trees  surround 
many  of  the  houses,  adding  beauty  and  sheltering  houses  and 
barns  from  storms. 

The  first  claim  in  the  township  was  made  by  Christian  Peter- 
son on  section  26  in  May,  1855.  Mr.  Peterson  erected  a  rude 
hut  of  brush,  banked  with  sod,  which  did  service  during  the 
summer  while  he  was  breaking  the  land  and  planting  the  first 
crop.  In  the  fall  he  improved  this  habitation  with  the  addition 
of  some  boards.  In  June  of  the  same  year  John  Mabee  and  A. 
C.  Erstad  arrived,  and  shared  with  Mr.  Peterson  the  rigors  of 
that  first  winter  in  what  was  practically  an  unbroken  wilder- 
ness. Mabee  located  his  claim  on  section  35,  where  he  lived  until 
the  spring  of  1856,  when  he  returned  to  Norway.  Erstad  made 
his  claim  on  section  26,  and  in  1856  occupied  the  deserted  claim 
of  Mabee,  which  he  continued  to  make  his  home  and  where  he 
later  erected  a  beautiful  residence,  In  1856  there  came  a  number 
of  other  settlers,  among  whom  were  Daniel  Eames,  the  Swenson 
brothers  and  Julius  Peck,  and  probably,  according  to  an  ancient 
authority,  Andrew  Christopherson  as  well.  Mr.  Peck  had  the 
distinction  of  having  brought  into  the  township  the  first  pair  of 
horses.  Previous  to  this  time  oxen  had  been  the  only  beasts  of 
burden  in  the  township,  being  used  for  plowing,  for  draught 
purposes,  and  even  for  conveying  the  pioneers  from  place  to 
place.  Daniel  Eames  died  in  1859,  his  being  the  first  death  in 
the  township.  The  first  birth  in  the  township  was  that  of  Eddie 
Crowell  in  1857.  Another  early  birth  was  that  of  a  child  to 
Albra  Twombley.  also  in  1857.  Church  service  was  held  by  the 
Rev.  Charles  Shedd  early  in  1856,  soon  after  his  arrival.  The 
first  marriage  Avas  that  of  George  Rees  and  Harriet  Wightman, 
June,  1858.  The  first  school  was  taught  by  Charles  Locke  in 
the  home  of  Julius  Peck.  This  school  was  supported  by  private 
subscription,  there  being  at  that  time  no  regularly  organized 
school  district.  A  public  school  was  taught  by  Mrs.  Daniel 
Eames  in  her  own  house. 

A  tragedy  of  the  early  days  occurred  in  July,  1862.  A  violent 
thunder  storm  arose,  during  which  time  a  bolt  of  lightning  fell 
upon  the  house  of  A.  J.  Grover,  striking  the  roof  and  parting, 
a  portion  of  the  electricity  passing  down  the  roof  and  the  other 
portion  to  the  person  of  Mrs.  Grover,  who  was  in  a  chamber, 
killing  her  instantly.  The  other  persons  in  the  house  were  not 
so  seriously  injured,  though  severely  shocked.  The  house  was 
also  set  on  fire,  but  prompt  assistance  saved  il  from  destruction. 

In  1856  a  flouring  mill  was  built  by  the  .Messrs.  Nichols  and 
Ford   in    the   southeastern   part    of   the   town,   on    the    Zumbro. 


Another  mill  was  erected,  probably  by  the  Messrs.  Nelson  and 
Olson,  about  six  miles  above  the  first  mill,  located  on  the  ljne 
between  Minneola  and  Wanamingo. 

In  1867  the  Norwegian  Lutherans  erected  the  first  frame 
church,  in  the  southeast  corner  of  the  township,  at  a  cost  of 
$3,500,  with  a  seating  capacity  of  about  500  people.  The  first 
minister  was  the  Rev.  B.  A.  Muus.  The  same  denomination  later 
built  another  large  church  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town. 

The  Methodists  organized  a  society  in  1868.  Later  German 
Lutheran  and  German  Methodist  churches  were  organized.  Rev. 
Mr.  Walton  preached  an  early  sermon  in  the  home  of  Daniel 
Eames.  Mary  Dickey  was  an  early  school  teacher.  In  1871 
a  schoolhouse  was  erected  on  section  23,  and  was  first  taught  in 
by  John  Aldrieh.  A  company  composed  of  Ezra  Wilder,  H.  H. 
Palmer,  T.  P.  Kellett  and  others  built,  in  the  early  days,  a  large 
cheese  factory  on  section  26,  within  the  limits  of  this  township. 

The    township    was    first    united    with    Zumbrota    under    one 
organization.      The   first   supervisors   were   I.    <  \    Stearns,   T.   D. 
Rowell  and  George  Sanderson.    In  December,  1859,  a  notice  was 
posted  in  several  places,  requesting  the  voters  living  in  township 
110,  range  16.  to  meet  on  the  fifteenth  of  that  month  at  the  resi- 
dence1 of  Daniel  Eames  to  take  into  consideration  the  expediency 
of  a  separate  organization,  choose  a  name  for  the  town,  and  if 
deemed  best,  to  elect  the  necessary  officers   for  doing  town  busi- 
ness.    At  the  meeting  held  in  accord  with  the  order,  N.  Mulliken 
was  called  to  the  chair  and  J.  B.  Locke  chosen  secretary.     The 
names  of  Paris  and  Minneola   were  presented  for  consideration. 
Tin1   latter    was   finally   agreed   upon    as   the  name  for   the  new 
organization.      Minneola    is    an    Indian    term,    signifying    "much 
water."     There  were  thirty-two  voters  present,  and  it  was  de- 
cided to  elect  town  officers.     This  election  resulted  in  the  follow- 
ing officers:     Supervisors,  -I.  B.  Locke  ('chairman),  Brant  Thomp- 
son.   J.    (lark:    clerk,    R.    Person;    assessor.    Henry    E.    Shedd; 
justices.  A.  J.  Grover  and  N.  Mulliken  ;  constables,  AY.  B.  Williams 
and    E.  L.  Kingsbury.     A.  J.   Grover  and  J.  B.  Locke  were  ap- 
pointed a  committee  to  present  this  action  to  the  county  board. 
They  did   so,  but   the  matter  was  deferred  by  that  board  until 
both  townships  could  act  on  the  matter.     The  township  of  Zum- 
brota. at  its  annual  meeting  in  the  spring  of  1860,  approved  of 
the  separation.     The  organization   was  perfected  by  a   meeting 
held  at  the  home  of  J.  B.  Locke  June  18,  1860. 

The  following  men  enlisted  from  Minneola  during  the  Civil 
War:  Charles  Adams,  Morgan  Abel.  Arthur  Brown,  Cyrus  B. 
Chase.  Steven  G.  Cady.  John  H.  Docker.  Christ  Eastman,  Grinnell 
Pales,  Hans  Halvorson.  Bottel  Larson.  Halvor  Ockelbey,  Claus 
Oleson,   William  N.   Peck,   Elizur  Peck,   Peter  Peterson,   Morris 


Rees,  Ole  E.  Strand,  Torkel  Swenson,  Ole  E.  Strand,  Lieutenant 
William  B.  Williams,  David  AVightman,  Thomas  Corcoran,  Bap- 
t  iste  Cardingle,  Joseph  Delaney,  Pierce  Garvais,  Baptiste  Garvais, 
Francis  A.  Hamlin,  Levi  Label,  Jr.,  Horace  AY.  Moore,  John  McWill- 
iams,  William  H.  Nourse,  Bonde  Oleson,  Erastus  Pierce,  Xavier 
Paul,  Timothy  Shearer,  Charles  Carter,  Carl  Schlenty,  William 
Payne,  Frank  Stroback,  Jacob  Mosbrugger,  Atlas  Marshall,  Ed- 
ward  Trowbridge,  Walter  B.  Boyd,  Amos  Eastman,  Patrick  Killen, 
Charles  S.  Spendley,  Alfred  B.  Tyler,  Peter  Akers,  August 
Beckard,  AYilliam  Plumb,  Christopher  L.  Johnson,  Lars  Johnson, 
Martin  Johnson,  Barnt  Thompson,  AYilliam  M.  Farnham,  Philip 
Sudheimer,  Charles  Strong. 


Kenyon  lies  in  the  southeast  corner  of  Goodhue  county,  and 
comprises  township  112,  range  18.  It  is  the  highest  township  in 
the  county,  and  has  an  undulating  surface  which  was  originally 
almost  wholly  prairie.  The  north  branch  of  the  Zumbro  flows 
through  the  northwestern  part,  and  along  this  stream  there  are 
several  groves  of  young  trees.  There  are  occasional  small 
sloughs,  with  turf-peat,  in  the  uplands,  but  in  the  summer  seasons 
they  are  dry  and  furnish  a  coarse  hay.  Deep,  fertile  soil  pre- 
vails generally  throughout  the  township. 

As  the  early  settlement  was  all  in  the  northern  and  north- 
western part,  the  early  history  of  the  township  and  village  is 
practically  identical.  In  1855  came  a  number  of  settlers,  among 
them  being  L.  A.  Felt.  Chris  and  Sever  Halvorson,  L.  N.  Bye,  N. 
Hollenbeck  and  a  man  named  Natice.  These  were  soon  followed 
by  J.  H.  Day,  Addison  and  E.  B.  Hilton.  James  Browley,  S.  A. 
Baker,  Stephen  Bullis,  0.  S.  Gunhus,  0.  E.  Erickson  and  AY.  B. 
Burnham.  Successive  crops  of  untouched  prairie  grass  had  hard- 
ened the  sward,  and  the  early  settlers  had  much  difficulty  in 
breaking  the  glebe.  But  they  set  to  work'  with  courage,  and  soon 
the  wilderness  was  fruitful  with  the  crops  which  the  rich  soil 

In  May,  1856,  James  H.  Day  and  James  M.  LeDuc  claimed  the 
land  on  which  the  village  now  stands,  and  subsequently  I  wo  men 
named  Howe  and  Hilton  became  part  owners  <>\'  the  land.  By 
these  four  men,  the  village  was  laid  out  and  plaited.  James  H. 
Day  erected  the  first  residence  in  June,  185t>.  and  a  store  building 
was  erected  the  same  year.  This  was  occupied  by  Crowley  & 
Baker  as  a  general  store.  Stephen  Bullis  built  the  firsl  hotel  in 
March,  1857,  and  during  the  same  year  a   steam  saw  mill   was 

constructed.     Town  and  village  are  named   from  one  of  ll arly 



The  first  death  occurred  in  the  summer  of  1857,  Lydia  Gross 
being  unable  to  withstand  the  rigors  of  pioneer  life.  The  first 
birth  was  that  of  George,  son  of  W.  B.  Burnham,  born  in  the 
spring  of  1857.  The  first  marriage  was  that  of  Freeman  Colla- 
more  and  Mary  Bullis,  in  January,  1858.  The  first  school  was 
taught  in  the  winter  of  1857  by  W.  S.  Bill,  who  also  conducted 
the  first  religious  services. 

According  to  the  official  lists,  those  who  enlisted  in  the  Civil 
War  from  Kenyon  were:  John  Bury,  David  Bury,  Frederick 
Bury,  John  Bury,  Jr.,  Freeman  F.  Collamore,  Ole  Engerbretson, 
Austin  P.  Felt,  Lieut.  Roscoe  Hilton,  Clark  Harding,  Thomas  L. 
Johnson.  Lars  Neilson,  Ole  Otterson,  Albert  Otterson,  Halvo 
Tolfson,  Alvin  H.  Wiggins,  Thomas  Erickson,  Chi  us  Hoist,  Joseph 
Hoist.  Jacob  Hoist.  C.  D.  Harding,  Frederick  Lachner,  Lewis 
Mohler,  B.  E.  Olin,  Thomas  H.  Britton,  Knut  Otterson,  Carl  Han- 
son, T.  Pi.  Bullis.  Simeon  Elcock,  William  A.  Parry,  William 
H.  Hill,  Henry  < '.  <  lollina,  Peter  Rourk.  Peter  Johnson,  John  Lind- 
quist,  George  Bossout,  Andrew  Some,  John  Muckenham,  S.  H. 
Bohannolm  and  William  Stanchfield. 

The  township  was  organized  May  15,  1858,  and  the  following 
officers  were  elected:  Supervisors,  A.  Hilton  (chairman),  S.  Bul- 
lis and  W.  B.  Burnham:  town  clerk,  S.  A.  linker;  justices  of  the 
peace.  J.  H.  Day  and  C.  G.  Averell;  assessor,  D.  F.  Harley;  col- 
lector, L.  A.  Felt ;  constables,  D.  F.  Harley  and  AY.  F.  ( "lapp ;  over- 
seer of  the  poor,  F.  Day. 

Four  churches  supplied  the  religious  demands  of  the  people 
in  the  early  days.  In  1870,  the  Norwegian  Lutherans  erected  on 
section  5,  a  stone  church  capable  of  seating  600  people.  It  was 
one  of  the  congregations  of  the  Rev.  B.  J.  Minis.  On  section  7, 
another  Norwegian  Lutheran  church,  a  stone  building  with  a 
seating  capacity  of  400  people,  was  erected  in  1872.  The  first 
Baptist  church  was  organized  May  4,  1867,  with  seven  members. 
In  1873  the  Rev.  Mr.  Dubois  of  the  Episcopal  church  held  service 
at  the  village  and  in  1875  an  organization  was  perfected,  with 
the  following  officers:  Wardens,  Dr.  A.  W.  Hewitt  and  E.  R. 
Marshall;  vestrymen,  S.  A.  Bullis,  B.  D.  Bullis.  William  Elcock 
and  William  Turner.  A  church  capable  of  holding  200  people 
was  erected  in  1875  and  dedicated  July  25,  1876.  Originally  the 
population  of  the  township  was  largely  Norwegian,  and  that  of 
the  village  American,  but  at  the  present  time  Americans  of  Nor- 
wegian descent  or  birth  predominate  throughout  both  town  and 
village.  Aside  from  the  village  of  Kenyon,  there  are  two  stations 
in  the  township,  both  on  the  line  of  the  Chicago  and  Great  West- 
ern.    They  are  Bakko  and  Skyberg. 

Kenyon  Village  lies  thirty- five  miles  southwest  of  Red  Wing 
on  the  Zumbro  river  and  the  C.  G.  W.  and  C.  M.  &  St.  Paul  rail- 


ways.  It  is  incorporated  and  has  a  population  of  1,300.  It  has 
three  hotels,  two  banks,  a  creamery,  a  flour  mill,  three  grain  ele- 
vators, a  canning  factory,  an  electric  light  plant,  water  works,  an 
opera  house,  a  well  equipped  fire  department,  a  good  graded 
school.  The  churches  are:  The  Episcopal,  Baptist,  Methodist, 
German  Methodist,  German  Lutheran  and  Norwegian  Lutheran. 
There  are  two  weekly  papers  published,  the  Leader  and  the  News. 
There  are  two  telegraph  companies,  one  express  company,  the 
Wells,  Fargo  &  Co.,  and  one  telephone  company. 



Pine  Island  Township  and  Village — Progressive  and  Prosperous 
— Roscoe — Stanton — Vasa  — Wacoota  — Wanamingo  — Wana- 
mingo   Village — Warsaw — Dennison   Village — Welch. 

When  the  first  hardy   pioneers   penetrated  the  wilderness  as 

far  as  the  site  of  the  present  villain'  of  Pine  Island  in  the  early 
fifties,  they  found  a  beautiful  spot  called  by  the  Indians  "Wa-zu- 
wee-ta,"  which  translated  into  English  means  •"Island  of  Pines," 
and  here,  owing  to  its  natural  advantages  of  wood  and  running 
water,  combined  with  deep  and  fertile  soil,  the  early  settlers,  in 
search  of  homes,  stopped  and  built  their  cabins;  and  the  erstwhile 
wilderness  rapidly  assumed  the  proportions  of  a  center  of  civili- 
zation for  a  large  surrounding  country. 

The  term  "Wa-zu-wee-ta,"  or  Island  of  Pines,  referred  to  a 
strip  of  land  on  the  south  side  of  the  river  reaching  from  about 
where  Main  street  now  is  well  upon  Newton's  hill,  which  was 
heavily  timbered  with  stalely  white  pines  and  was  completely 
surrounded  by  a  heavy  growth  of  hardwood  timber.  This  spot 
was  a  favorite  resort  of  the  Dakotah  Indians,  and  here,  in  their 
skin  tepees,  they  used  to  pass  the  cold  months,  sheltered  from 
winter's  storms  by  the  surrounding  hills  and  the  heavy  timber, 
through  which  roamed  untold  numbers  of  deer  and  elk. 

The  Indian  name  was  so  appropriate  that  it  was  retained,  but 
'  Wa-zu-wee-ta, "  or  Island  of  Pines,  was  too  large  a  mouthful 
for  the  taciturn  pioneers  and  the  name  speedily  became  Pine 
Island.  A  pretty  story  is  told  of  Chief  Wacoota.  then  at  the  head 
of  the  Red  Wing  band  of  Dakotah  Indians,  that  when  he  was 
asked  by  the  United  States  commissioners  to  sign  the  treaty  that 
would  require  his  people  to  relinquish  their  homes  on  the  Missis- 
sippi river,  replied  that  he  would  willingly  sign  if  he  could  have 
his  future  home  at  Pine  Island. 

The  town  is  located  on  sections  31  and  32  of  township  109, 
range  15,  and  is  as  above  indicated,  the  early  settlers  found  a 
eountry  heavily  wooded,  for  the  most  part  with  hardwood  timber 
and  watered  by  the  middle  branch  of  the  Zumbro,  which  divides 
in  what  is  now  the  eastern  part  of  the  village,  the  north  branch 


IllSTuKY   ()[-'  GOODHUE  COUNTY  203 

flowing  directly  through  the  town  and  the  south  branch  passing 
the  south. 

It  is  generally  understood  thai  II.  B.  Powers  was  the  first  man 
who  came  and  built  his  cabin  in  This  town  in  the  year  1854.  A 
close  second  was  Josiah  Haggard,  a  youth  of  nineteen  or  twenty 
years,  who  came  the  same  spring,  located  a  claim  and  built  his 
cabin  about  where  the  residence  of  Dr.  Charles  Hill  now  stands. 
This  claim  was  jumped  by  a  man  named  Howard,  and  Haggard 
crossed  the  Zumbro  and  made  his  second  claim  of  land  now  cov- 
ered by  business  blocks  and  residences.  Hoses  Jewell  and  his 
son,  Solomon,  came  the  next  fall  and  the  former  pre-empted  the 
Haggard  claim,  the  owner  ha  vino-  made  but  a  half-hearted  at- 
tempt to  fulfil  the  conditions  of  the  law.  .Moses  Jewell  returned 
to  Wisconsin  for  the  wilder,  leaving  here  his  son.  Solomon,  who 
has  been  a  resident  of  the  community  almost  continuously  since 
that  time  and  still  owns  a  large  tract  of  the  original  Moses  Jewell 
pre-emption.  Nelson  Denison,  another  pioneer,  pre-empted  a 
claim  farther  east  the  same  season  and  a  large  number  of  settlers 
arrived  in  that  and  the  following  seasons.  Among  these  Giles  and 
George  Hayward,  W.  S.  Newton,  J.  A.  Tarbox,  Philip  and  Henry 
Tome.  John  Lee,  John  ('lance.  Sylvester  Dickey.  C.  R.  White  and 
others.  Moses  Jewell  and  family  occupied  a  log  house  about 
where  White  street  now  crosses  Main  street,  and  there  the  first 
marriage  took  place  between  his  daughter,  Sarah,  and  A.  B.  Cron, 
July  13,  1856.  although  another  marriage  was  solemnized  at  about 
the  same  time  between  II.  B.  Powers,  the  young  settler,  and  Mary 
E.  Miller.  At  about  this  time  'autumn  of  1856)  the  first  school 
was  organized  in  a  log  building  about  where  the  Citizens  State 
Bank  now  stands,  with  Annette  Seek  as  teacher.  Other  schools 
were  established  in  the  vicinity  shortly  afterward,  among  which 
was  one  taught  by  Thomas  McManus.  The  first  school  building 
was  erected  the  following  year  near  the  Geo.  Paige  residence  on 
the  north  side  of  the  river.  John  Salmon  was  the  first  preacher 
and  held  services  at  the  homes  of  the  settlers.  The  first  child 
born  in  the  community  was  Martha  Cron.  now  Mrs.  S.  P.  Collins. 
The  first  death  was  that  of  Michael  Horn  in  the  winter  of  1856. 
In  1856  Haggard  &  Hayward  began  the  erection  of  a  saw  mill 
under  the  supervision  of  Rice  Hamlin,  a  young  Pennsylvania 
millwright,  and  the  father  of  Charles  and  Henry  Hamlin,  who 
later  became  prominent  in  the  affairs  of  the  village.  Tins  mill 
was  run  in  the  early  years  by  Dowry  &  Powers  and  about  200,- 
000  feet  of  lumber  was  manufactured.  In  1858,  the  mill  was  sold  • 
to  A.  J.  Tarbox,  and  later  passed  into  the  possession  of  AY.  AY. 
Cutshall.  who  continued  to  operate  it  until  about  1902.  when  it 
was  dismantled  on   account  of  the  scarcity  of  saw  timber.     In 


the  late  sixties  a  steam  Hour  mill  was  erected  on  the  bank  of  the 
river  below  the  saw  mill  by  Tarbox  &  Jewell,  but  several  years 
ago,  after  a  checkered  history,  it  was  pulled  down  and  the  ma- 
chinery and  lumber  was  sold.  Another  flour  mill  was  built  on 
the  water  power  just  below  the  confluence  of  the  two  branches 
of  the  Zumbro  by  a  man  named  Jacobs  and  for  a  number  of  years 
did  a  flourishing  business,  but  in  1876  it  was  burned  and  was  never 
rebuilt.  The  dam  was  shortly  afterward  carried  out  and  the  land 
formerly  covered  by  the  waters  of  the  mill  pond  have  since  be- 
come valuable  for  pasturage. 

Pine  Island  Village  was  surveyed  and  platted  in  the  winter  of 
1856-57,  on  land  owned  by  John  (lance,  Moses  Jewell  and  J.  A. 
Tarbox.  For  many  years  the  principal  business  part  of  the  vil- 
lage was  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  and  grew  rapidly  to  a 
flourishing  business  point.  The  business  portion  of  the  village, 
however,  gradually  moved  southward,  until  at  the  present  time 
nearly  all  the  business  houses  of  the  village  are  on  the  south  side 
of  the  river. 

The  first  hotel  was  built  by  E.  Denison  in  1857  and  old  settlers 
still  remember  how  the  ladies  of  the  village  plied  their  needles 
for  days  to  supply  the  new  hotel  with  the  necessary  bed  and  table 
linen.  John  Lee  had  previously  built  a  hotel  on  the  old  St.  Paul- 
Dubuque  road  near  where  Poplar  Grove  church  now  stands  and 
the  landlord  was  also  postmaster  of  the  place,  but  the  fact  of  the 
existence  of  the  hotel  or  postoffice  is  now  scarcely  remembered. 
The  early  settlers  received  their  scanty  mail  from  Oronoco,  where 
a  settlement  had  existed  for  a  number  of  years,  but  in  1856  a 
postoffice  was  established  with  John  Clance  as  postmaster.  J.  A. 
Tarbox.  las.  McManus,  S.  S.  Worthing,  Fletcher  Hagler,  Chas. 
Parker,  Henry  Hamlin,  Henry  Tome  and  George  II.  Tome  have 
since  held  this  responsible  position,  the  last  named  gentleman  be- 
ing the  present  incumbent. 

The  Avar  history  of  the  village  and  the  country  immediately 
surrounding  it.  could  it  be  written  in  full,  would  make  interest- 
ing reading.  It  has  been  said,  probably  with  more  or  less  justice, 
that  Pine  Island  has  furnished  more  soldiers  to  the  government 
in  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  place,  than  any  town  in  the  coun- 
try. Be  that  as  it  may,  it  is  a  fact  that  of  the  Minnesota  regi- 
ments which  took  part  in  the  Civil  war  and  the  Sioux  war  of 
j 863-4.  Pine  Island  was  liberally  represented  in  all.  with  the 
possible  exception  of  the  Ninth  Infantry,  while  a  number  enlisted 
with  Wisconsin  regiments.  Again  in  1898  the  young  men  of  Pine 
Island  responded  to  call  to  arms,  and  a  few  found  soldiers'  graves 
in  distant  lands. 

In  the  spring  of  1878  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railroad 


Company  built  a  branch  line  through  the  village,  giving  the  peo- 
ple of  the  village  and  surrounding  country  much  needed  trans- 
portation facilities.  In  the  early  days  the  only  means  of  trans- 
portation was  by  wagon  over  the  rough  country  roads,  and  the 
nearest  markets  were  Red  Wing  and  Lake  City  on  the  river.  In 
1902  the  Great  Western  Railroad  Company,  having  purchased  the 
Duluth,  Red  Wing  and  Southern  railroad  from  Red  Wing  to 
Zumbrota,  extended  the  line  through  this  place  to  Rochester,  con- 
necting with  their  line  at  that  place,  so  that  at  present  the  rail- 
road service  enjoyed  by  the  people  of  this  vicinity  is  nearly  all 
that  could  be  desired.  In  the  spring  of  1878  the  village  of  Pine 
Island  was  incorporated  and  separated  from  the  township.  The 
first  council  to  serve  the  village  was  composed  of  the  following: 
President,  Charles  Hill;  trustees,  Messrs.  Dickey,  Thompson  and 
Lowery;  recorder,  G.  II.  Glidden.  In  1899  the  people  voted  bonds 
in  the  sum  of  $6,000  and  installed  an  excellent  system  of  water- 
works. Water  is  obtained  from  a  well  drilled  in  the  solid  rock 
and  located  beneath  the  mill  power  house  and  power  for  pump- 
ing is  obtained  from  the  mill  power  engine.  The  water  mains 
have  since  been  extended  so  as  to  afford  city  water  and  fire  pro- 
tection to  nearly  every  portion  of  the  village.  An  electric  light 
plant  was  installed  at  the  mill  in  1899  by  Loomis  F.  Irish  and 
electricity  is  now  being  used  in  all  parts  of  the  village,  both  for 
public  and  private  lighting.  The  year  1900  saw  the  beginning  of 
the  present  excellent  telephone  system,  when  Thomas  II.  Bunn 
put  in  a  small  switchboard  and  built  a  few  miles  of  line.  The 
system  has  grown  rapidly  and  now  penetrates  all  parts  of  the 
village  and  many  miles  into  the  surrounding  country  in  all  direc- 
tions. Pine  Island  is  justly  proud  of  its  schools.  From  the  log 
shack  of  1857  the  school  moved  to  a  brick  school  building  erected 
in  1864,  built  on  the  site  of  the  present  school  building,  but  this; 
building  was  outgrown  and  a  commodious  wooden  building  took 
its  place,  in  1883.  This  building  served  its  purpose  admirably  for 
many  years,  but  the  school  again  outgrew  its  quarters  and  in  1904- 
an  additional  building  of  brick  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  .$10,500. 
This  building  furnishes  quarters  for  the  high  school  and  tin- 
seventh,  eighth  and  ninth  grades,  library,  gymnasium,  labora- 
tories and  several  class  rooms.  Out  from  these  schools  a  number 
of  men  and  women  have  gone  who  have  attained  a  high  place  in 
the  work  of  the  world.  A  few  notable  examples  are  a  United 
States  diplomatic  representative  now  stationed  in  Spain,  a 
representative  in  Congress,  a  professor  at  Harvard  Uni- 
versity, several  men  in  the  United  States  civil  service,  and  teach- 
ers of  both  sexes  in  large  numbers..  The  village  boasts  of  over 
forty  business  places,  including  two  banks,  two  grain  elevators. 


.several  general  stores,  a  creamery  and  a  roller  mill,  the  latter  in- 
stitution being  built  in  1895  by  Bidwell  &  Doty,  and  now  owned 
and  operated  by  Loomis  P.  Irish. 

In  the  spring  of  1909  the  electors  of  the  village  voted  munici- 
pal bonds  in  the  sum  of  $3,000  to  be  used  toward  the  construction 
of  a  new  city  hall,  and  the  building  was  finished  in  October  of  the 
same  year  at  a  cost  of  about  $12,000.  It  is  a  fireproof  structure 
40x60  feet  in  size  and  contains  a  large  hall,  fire  station,  jail,  coun- 
cil rooms,  etc.,  and  is  withal  a  fine  structure  and  admirably 
situated  to  the  needs  of  the  village.  The  fire  department  consists 
of  about  forty  officers  and  men  under  Chief  J.  A.  Kaiserlik,  divi- 
ded into  three  companies,  and  thoroughly  equipped  with  fire 
fighting  apparatus. — Ralph  W.  Holmes. 


Pine  Island  is  in  the  southeast  corner  of  Goodhue  county,  com- 
prises township  109.  range  15,  and  is  hounded  on  the  north  by 
Zumbrota,  on  the  east  by  Wabasha  county,  on  the  south  by  Olm- 
sted county  and  on  the  west  by  Roseoe.  The  valley  of  the  Zum- 
bro,  in  the  southern  part,  is  a  mile  wide.  In  the  early  days  the 
northern  and  southwestern  portions  were  heavily  limbered,  and 
much  of  this  timber  has  been  allowed  to  remain  standing.  The 
geologic  formations  of  this  township  differ  materially  from  the 
rest  of  the  county,  but  like  its  neighboring  Goodhue  county  town- 
ships, its  soil  is  rich,  and  its  farmers  consequently  prosperous. 
The  superior  advantages  of  wood  and  running  water,  combined 
with  rich  rolling  prairie  land,  naturally  attracted  a  large  number 
of  settlers  in  the  early  days,  and  even  previous  to  this,  the  place 
had  been  a  favorite  resort  of  the  Indians. 

The  men  who  enlisted  in  the  Civil  War  from  Pine  Island  were: 
Edward  Ash,  Jr.,  William  0.  Ackerman,  Silver  Austin,  John 
Bump,  Benjamin  H.  Briggs,  Norval  Bishop,  Ole  P.  Burg,  Calvin 
B.  Clark,  S.  P.  Corning,  William  B.  Chandler,  Capt.  Otis  S.  Clark, 
Edw^ard  V.  Dickey,  Ed  Dowling,  Jasper  W.  Dickey.  William  B. 
Dickey,  Henry  Detmaring,  Sylvester  Fox,  Peter  E.  Fladlang, 
Marseilles  Glazier,  John  Goodman,  Philip  S.  Hamlin,  Charles  C. 
Hardy,  John  T.  Hardy,  William  S.  Hackins,  William  H.  Halstead, 
James  L.  Hurley,  N.  N.  Hardy,  William  B.  Kitchell,  C.  A.  Kirk- 
man,  Joshua  C.  Kitchell,  A.  K.  Kirkman,  William  Krapp,  G.  B.  D. 
Leighton,  Eichard  McGee,  D.  Metselder,  S.  W.  Miller,  N.  D.  Mar- 
ble, S.  M.  Mommans.  William  H.  McGee,  E.  W.  Maynard,  Capt. 
Orlando  Morehouse,  E.  AY.  Maxwell,  J.  C.  Miller,  Lieut.  Edward 
O'Brien,  Milo  Parker,  John  P.  Peterson,  Simeon  W.  Eowe,  D.  C. 
Eessegriere,  C.  A.  Sumner,  John  Shanbolt,  Fletcher  A.  Sheldon., 
Lieut.  II.  M.  Stanton,  Joel  E.  Sampson,  Geo.  AY.  Smith,  Frank 


Snyder,  Benjamin  Streethers,  Tacitus  Streethers,  George  II.  Suits, 
John  Sneyder,  Sanform  Summers,  Jesse  E.  Smith,  William  Seag, 
Joel  X.  Sheldon.  George  Tilden,  L.  G.  Thompson,  Capt.  W.  W. 
Wilson,  William  S.  Wills,  Peter  Anderson,  Marshall  Hickock,  J. 
F.  Bateman,  Benjamin  II.  Briggs,  J.  A.  Cutshall,  William  II.  Hal- 
stead,  Abraham  ihibbs,  Cyrus  B.  Chase,  E.  W.  Maynard,  Lieut. 
Fletcher  Hagler,  Emerson  Harris,  Tacitus  Strutins,  Daniel  Eddy, 
Albert  Harrison.  James  Pratt,  Thomas  Campbell,  John  Mohr, 
Daniel  Ilobbs,  James  M.  Pe'ttengill,  Horace  M.  Johnson,  Joseph 
Ahnermann.  Ira  Bateman,  Franklin  Buma,  Conrad  Durst,  C.  D. 
Dickey,  John  Eddie,  Elias  R.  Kain,  Henry  Momany. 

Following  is  a  resume  of  the  officers  of  the  township  of  Pine 
Island  during  the  first  twenty  years  .of  its  existence:  At  the  first 
animal  election,  held  .May  11.  1858,  soon  after  the  township  wras 
constituted,  there  were  elected:  Supervisors,  C.  R.  White,  J.  C. 
.Miller,  E.  D.  White;  clerk.  J.  A.  Tarbox;  collector,  G.  F.  Nye; 
assessor,  John  Harper:  justice  of  the  peace,  J.  S.  Pierce;  overseer 
of  the  poor,  Closes  Jewell;  constables,  G.  F.  Nye,  S.  Demming. 
There  were  elected  at  the  second  annual  meeting,  April  5,  1859: 
Supervisors,  Oscar  E.  Smith.  Edmond  White,  W.  S.  Newton; 
clerk,  Harrison  31.  Stanton;  assessor.  S.  P.  Hardy:  overseer  of  the 
poor.  Moses  Jewell;  collector,  G.  F.  Nye.  At  the  third  annual 
meeting,  held  April  3,  I860,  there  were  elected:  Supervisors, 
Sylvester  Dickey,  Nelson  D.  Marble,  John  Harper;  clerk.  II.  M. 
Stanton;  superintendent  of  schools,  Dr.  Charles  Hill;  assessor 
William  Krapp ;  treasurer,  Peter  Momany;  justice  of  the  peace, 
S.  S.  Worthing;  constables.  James  Pratt,  J.  D.  Ells.  July  13, 
I860,  0.  Morehouse  was  appointed  assessor,  vice  William  Krapp, 
resigned.  At  the  fourth  annual  meeting,  held  April  2,  1861,  there 
were  elected:  Supervisors,  Otis  S.  Clark,  WTilliam  Mead,  Oscar  A. 
Dickey ;  clerk,  H.  M.  Stanton ;  assessor,  Calvin  P.  Clark ;  treas- 
urer, Peter  Momany;  justices  of  the  peace,  Thomas  McManus, 
William  S.  Haskins ;  constable,  Jacob  C.  Cook ;  pound  master, 
Truman  Parker.  April  8,  1861,  H.  M.  Stanton  was  appointed 
town  superintendent  of  schools.  April  15,  1861,  J.  C.  Dickey 
was  appointed  assessor,  vice  0.  P.  Clark,  resigned.  At  the  fifth 
annual  meeting,  held  April  1.  1862.  there  were  elected:  Super- 
visors, Henry  Ahneman,  C.  C.  Robinson,  P.  S.  Felton ;  clerk, 
Thomas  McManus ;  assessor,  Henry  Harper ;  treasurer,  Jasper  W. 
Dickey ;  justices  of  the  peace,  Thomas  McManus,  Peter  Momany ; 
constables,  J.  C.  Cook,  John  Salmon ;  pound  master,  Moses  Jewell. 
At  the  sixth  annual  meeting,  held  April  7,  1863,  there  were 
elected:  Supervisors,  William  P.  Hall,  J.  C.  Miller.  L.  W.  Holman : 
clerk,  S.  S.  Worthing;  assessor,  Henry  Ahneman  ;  treasurer,  Jere- 
miah Wheeler;  constable,  S.  Demming.  At  the  seventh  annual 
meeting,  held  April  5.  1864.  there  were  elected  :  Supervisors,  Mar- 


tin  Tarbox,  Alexander  Freeman,  W.  E.  Nichols;  clerk,  Thomas 
McManus;  assessor;,  Henry  Ahneman ;  treasurer,  Sylvester 
Dickey:  justices  of  the  peace,  Thomas  McManus,  W.  S.  Newton; 
constables,  J.  C.  Cook,  H.  F.  Emery.  On  January  28,  1865,  S.  S. 
AVorthing  was  appointed  town  clerk  vice  Thomas  McManus.  At 
the  eighth  annual  election,  held  April  4,  1865.  there  were  elected: 
Supervisors.  Henry  Ahneman.  J.  C.  Miller.  W.  S.  Newton;  clerk, 
D.  F.  Woodward;  assessor,  Henry  Ahneman;  treasurer,  Sylvester 
Dickey ;  justices  of  the  peace,  D.  F.  "Woodward,  P.  S.  Fenton ; 
constables,  George  W.  Swarthout,  AVilliam  Mead.  At  the  ninth 
annual  meeting,  held  April  3,  1866,  there  were  elected:  Super- 
visors, Lyman  Clark,  W.  C.  Xewton.  E.  L.  Swartout;  clerk,  Hervy 
(i.  (lark:  assessor,  Henry  Ahneman;  treasurer.  \Y.  M.  Thomp- 
son: justices  of  the  peace,  D.  F.  Woodward,  II.  Ahneman;  con- 
stables. J.  W.  Palmer,  James  Pratt.  At  the  tenth  annual  meeting 
held  April  2.  ISnT.  there  were  elected:  Supervisors,  Sylvester 
Dickey.  ('.  ( '.  Robinson,  George  W.  Hayward;  clerk.  Hervy  G. 
Clark:  assessor  Oscar  E.  Smith;  treasurer,  J.  ('.  Dickey;  con- 
stable,  J.  < '.  Cook.  At  the  eleventh  annual  meeting,  held  April 
7.  L868,  there  were  elected:  Supervisors,  Charles  II.  Leavitt,  J. 
AV.  Dickey.  George  A.  Hayward;  clerk,  II.  <i.  Clark;  assessor.  W. 
( '.  Crandall;  treasurer,  S.  S,  Worthing;  justices  of  the  peace.  D. 
F.  Woodward,  Thomas  E.  Cooper;  constables,  AYilliam  Hunter, 
James  K.  Roberts.  At  the  twelfth  annual  meeting,  held  April 
6,  1869,  there  were  elected  :  Supervisors,  D.  L.  B.  Parrington,  E. 
L.  Swartout.  J.  AV.  Dickey:  clerk.  Charles  L.  Hubbs;  assessor, 
AV.  C.  Crandall;  treasurer,  S.  S.  Worthing;  justices  of  the  peace. 
C.  H.  Leavitt,  D.  F.  AVoodward ;  constables,  A.  G.  Atha,  0.  N. 
Page.  A  lay  16,  1870,  G.  AV.  Page  was  appointed  town  clerk,  vice 
F.  D.  AVorthing,  resigned.  At  the  fourteenth  annual  meeting, 
held  March  14,  1871,  there  were  elected:  Supervisors.  William 
N.  Thomson.  0.  E.  Smith.  James  Parker;  clerk,  George  AV.  Page; 
assessor,  AV.  C.  Crandall ;  treasurer,  S.  S.  AVorthing;  justice  of  the 
peace,  Henry  Ahneman.  May  2,  1871,  P.  S.  Fenton  was  duly  ap- 
pointed supervisor,  vice  0.  E.  Smith,  who  failed  to  qualify.  At 
the  fifteenth  annual  meeting,  held  March  12,  1872,  there  wTere 
elected :  Supervisors,  Thomas  E.  Cooper,  Henry  Degener,  Arthur 
Haunsinger;  clerk,  George  AV.  Paige;  treasurer.  S.  S.  AVorthing; 
assessor,  AV.  C.  Crandall;  justices  of  the  peace,  W.  E.  Sergeant, 
Henry  Ahneman ;  constable,  L.  D.  Hart.  March  23,  1872,  Joseph 
Ahneman  was  appointed  constable  for  the  remainder  of  the  year. 
Aiay  29.  1872.  G.  AV.  Paige  was  appointed  assessor,  vice  Crandall, 
who  failed  to  qualify.  March  1,  1873.  James  Parker  was  appoint- 
ed chairman  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  vice  Cooper,  resigned. 
At  the  sixteenth  annual  meeting,  held  March  11.  1873.  there  were 
elected:  Supervisors.  C.  H.  Leavitt.  James  Parker.  P.  S.  Fenton; 

HIST/OB'S   OF  GOODH1  E  (  OUNTY  209 

clerk,  (i.  W.  Paige.  The  official  record  for  L873  is  incomplete; 
no  one  living  remembers  the  remainder  of  the  officers  that  year. 
At  the  seventeenth  annua]  meeting,  held  March  10,  1874,  there 
were  elected  :  Supervisors,  .lames  Parker,  John  Mohr,  Matthias  P. 
Ringdahl;  clerk.  G.  W.  Paige;  assessor,  G.  W.  Paige;  treasurer, 
S.  S.  Worthing;  just  ices  of  the  peace.  W.  E.  Sergeant  and  H. 
Ahneman;  constables.  F.  I).  Worthing  and  Henry  Tome.  John 
Mohr  failing  to  qualify,  an  appointment  hoard  met  .March  28, 
1874,  and  Henry  Hahneman  was  appointed  supervisor  in  his  place. 
At  the  eighteenth  annual  meeting,  held  March  10,  1875,  there 
were  elected:  Supervisors,  James  Parker.  Henry  Ahneman,  M.  P. 
Ringdahl;  clerk,  G.  W.  Paige;  assess.)]-.  <;.  \V.  Paige;  treasurer, 
S.  S.  Worthing;  poundmaster,  Henry  Ahneman.  At  the  nine- 
teenth annuaJ  meeting,  held  .March  14.  1876,  there  were  elected: 
Supervisors,  C.  H.  Lcavitt,  Giles  Hayward,  Thomas  Halloway; 
clerk.  A.  H.  Kellogg;  assessor.  Ladd  Robie;  treasurer,  H.  T.  Per- 
kins; justices  of  the  peace.  Henry  Ahneman.  Fletcher  Hagler; 
constables.  Henry  Tome.  Charles  Dickinson.  May  1,  1876,  Charles 
Edison  was  appointed  assessor,  vice  Ladd  Robie;  who  failed  to 
qualify.  At  the  twentieth  annual  meeting,  held  March  13,  1877, 
there  Mere  elected:  Supervisors,  Charles  H.  Leavitt ;  Thomas  Hal- 
loway, Knut  Clementson;  clerk,  A.  H.  Kellogg;  treasurer,  H.  T. 
Perkins;  assessor.  Charles  Edison;  poundmaster,  J.  C.  Dickey. 
July  6,  1877.  H.  S.  Perkins  was  appointed  to  the  office  of  town 
treasurer,  vice  H.  T.  Perkins,  deceased.  At  the  twenty-first  an- 
nual meeting,  held  March  12,  1778,  there  were  elected:  Super- 
visors, E.  L.  Swartout,  George  Newhouse,  Geo.  Reinhart ;  clerk, 
A.  H.  Kellogg ;  treasurer.  A.  B.  Cron ;  assessor,  Charles  Edison  ; 
justices  of  the  peace.  Fletcher  Hagler,  Henry  Ahneman ;  con- 
stables. Henry  Tome.  H.  A.  Perkins. 


Roscoe  comprises  township  109,  range  16,  and  is  bounded  on 
the  east  by  Pine  Island,  on  the  south  by  Dodge  county,  on  the, 
west  by  Cherry  Grove  and  on  the  north  by  Minneola.  The  south- 
eastern part  is  cut  up  into  lots  and  is  practically  a  suburb  of 
Pine  Island  village.  In  natural  features  Roscoe  very  closely 
resembles  the  township  of  Pine  Island.  It  has  fine  prairie  lands, 
somewhat  elevated  in  the  north  and  descending  in  rolling  undu- 
lations to  the  valley  of  one  of  the  branches  of  the  Zumbro  in 
the  south.  The  drainage  is  through  the  Zumbro  and  its  branches 
in  the  south  and  a  few  creeks  in  the  north.  In  the  southern  part 
of  the  township  are  tracts  wooded  with  white  and  burr  oak,  sugar 
maple,   elm   and   poplar.     With   running  water,   fine   timber  and 


deep  prairie  soil,  it  made  a  most  desirable  place  for  the  location 
of  the  early  settlers. 

James  Haggard  and  AY.  Wilson  came  in  1854.  Their  claims 
were  on  section  5,  where  they  erected  cabins  and  prepared 
for  permanent  settlement.  AVilson,  however,  after  some  time, 
returned  to  his  old  home  in  the  East,  and  Haggard,  discouraged 
by  the  burning  of  his  cabin,  went  to  Brown  county,  where  he 
became  a  prominent  citizen.  Shortly  after  t he  coming  of  Hag- 
gard and  AVilson  there  arrived  Simon  Sackett,  D.  F.  Stevens 
and  H.  D.  Devoe.  They  were  followed  the  next  year  by  Fletcher 
Hagler,  J.  R.  Good,  David  Coleman,  J.  Kutherford,  William 
Farnam,  Alexander  Long,  P.  G.  Wilson,  William  Fry,  T.  D. 
Hall  and  J.  J.  Hagler.  Fletcher  Hagler,  above  named,  had  his 
claim  where  the  village  of  Roscoe  now  stands.  He  built  the 
first  frame  dwelling  in  the  township  and  served  as  postmaster, 
but  afterward  became  one  of  the  poineers  of  Pine  Island.  Oliver 
Webb,  a  lineal  descendant  of  the  Pilgrims,  came  in  1856.     John 

C.  Hepner,  for  many  years  the  village  blacksmith,  came  the  same 
year  and  built  a  blacksmith  shop.  Among  others  who  came  at 
about  the  same  time  were  two  brothers  named  Dickinson,  B.  W. 
Halliday,  G.  G.  McCoy.  H.  B.  Powers  and  Charles  Dana.  The 
latter  named  the  town  from  the  township  of  Roscoe,  Illinois, 
where  he  had  previously  lived. 

In  1856  Messrs.  Hagler  and  Good  built  and  stocked  a  store 
for  general  merchandise.  This  store  was  kept  in  operation  about 
two  years  and  then  discontinued  on  account  of  the  financial 
depression.  In  the  spring  of  1856  the  same  company  had  a 
village  plat  surveyed  and  the  blocks  and  streets  laid  out.  It 
never,  however,  reached  the  gigantic  proportions  of  which  the 
proprietors  so  fondly  dreamed,  although  the  proprietors  helped 
all  they  could  by  getting  a  hotel  built  and  a  postoffice  started. 
An  early  history  says:  "These  pioneers  experienced  their  full 
share  of  the  hardships  incident  to  the  opening  and  settling  of 
a  new  community.     At  once  time  Mrs.  Stevens,  the  mother  of 

D.  F.  Stevens,  having  sent  her  son  to  Dubuque  for  household 
supplies,  relates  that  for  two  months  she  did  not  look  upon  the 
face  of  a  white  person  except  that  of  her  young  daughter;  and 
the  only  bread  they  had  to  eat  was  made  from  corn  given  her 
I>y  the  Indians  and  ground  by  herself  in  a  coffee  mill." 

The  first  religious  services  in  tfie  town  were  held  at  the  home 
of  Mrs.  Stevens  in  the  fall  of  1854,  the  Rev.  John  Salmon  offici- 
ating. The  first  church  organization  took  place  in  the  school- 
house  at  Roscoe  in  the  spring  of  1857.  The  first  Sunday  school 
was  organized  in  1858,  and  Loren  Webb,  son  of  Oliver  Webb, 
was  the  first  superintendent.  In  the  spring  of  1855  Mrs.  Haskell 
Burch,  while  living  in  a  covered  wagon,  awaiting  the  completion 


of  a  better  habitation,  gave  birth  to  twins,  being  the  first  white 
children  to  sec  the  light  of  day  in  the  township.  II.  ('.  Emery 
and  Mrs.  Mahala  Saeketl  were  the  first  couple  united  in  matri- 
mony, the  ceremony  being  performed  in  July,  1856.  The  first 
deatli  occurred  the  same  year,  that  of  William  Fry.  The  first 
school,  erected  in  18-">7.  was  taught  by  Annette  Leek  the  same 
year.  J.  T.  Mitchell,  who  came  in  1856,  assisted  in  starting  a 
pioneer  school  on  the  southeast  corner  of  section  11,  later  known 
as  McCoy's  district.  This  school  was  first  taught  by  Sophia 
Blancharcl,  in  the  spring  of  1858.  Miss  Blanchard  afterward 
became  Mrs.  John  Gove. 

The  township  settled  up  rapidly.  The  predominating  people 
in  the  town  are  now  Americans  of  Norwegian  descent  or  birth. 
There  are  also  many  residents  of  Swedish  and  German  birth  or 
descent,  and  there  still  remain  a  few  of  the  descendants  of  the 
old  eastern  families,  but  these  latter  for  the  most  part  have 
moved  away.  The  town  is  pre-eminently  one  of  prosperity,  rich 
land,  beautiful  homes,  and  a  progressive,  contented  people.  The 
second  generation  is  for  the  most  part  well  educated,  and  the 
third  generation  is  making  rapid  strides  in  the  public  schools. 
Two  calamities  which  occurred  in  the  early  days  have  fixed 
themselves  firmly  in  the  minds  of  the  people.  The  first  hap- 
pened in  1860.  Jeremiah  Kay,  one  of  the  pioneers,  had  followed 
the  rush  of  the  gold  seekers  to  Pike's  Peak,  leaving  his  wife  and 
children.  He  prospered  in  his  new  location  and  was  contemplat- 
ing sending  for  his  family,  when  ocurred  the  sad  accident  which 
robbed  him  of  his  recently-born  twins.  In  the  month  of  June 
the  family  residence  was  stwick  by  lightning,  and  at  once  burst 
into  flames.  Mary  Jane  Shields,  a  girl  living  in  the  household, 
succeeded  in  getting  Mrs.  Ray  and  the  two  older  children  out 
of  the  house.  Mrs.  Ray,  however,  although  still  ill,  saw  that  her 
twins  had  not  been  saved  and  rushed  back  into  the  house. 
Blinded  by  smoke  and  weak  as  she  was,  she  was  unable  to  rescue 
the  babies,  and  they  perished  in  the  flames.  George  Lantz,  after 
escaping  the  murderous  rain  of  shot  and  shell  on  the  battlefields 
of  the  Civil  War,  perished  in  the  following  manner:  In  the 
winter  of  1865-66  he  went  to  Mantorville,  Dodge  county,  about 
twelve  miles  from  his  home,  on  horseback,  and  returning  in  the 
*  evening  a  blizzard  met  him.  While  passing  through  a  grove  of 
timber  he  was  warned  of  his  danger  and  told  that  it  was  prac- 
tically impossible  for  him  to  reach  home.  He  persevered,  how- 
ever, and  was  found  frozen  to  death  the  next  morning  within 
a  few  rods  of  his  own  home.  He  had  reached  a  fence.  ;md  in 
endeavoring  to  climb  over  made  a  misstep  and  fell  back,  to 
rise  no  more.  The  horse  was  found  at  a  neighbor's  barn.  It  is 
supposed  that  he  let  the  horse  go,  hoping  that  by  walking  he 


might  induce  sufficient   circulation   to  keep  warmth  and  life  in 
his  body  until  he  could  reach  his  house. 

The  first  town  meeting  was  held  .May  11,  1858,  with  the 
result  that  officers  were  elected  as  follows:  Supervisors.  Oliver 
•Webb  (chairman),  James  Mann,  N.  S.  Libby;  clerk,  William 
Sackett;  justices  of  the  peace.  Fletcher  Hagler,  James  Mann; 
collector,  J.  S.  Wiekham;  assessor,  J.  T.  Mitchell;  overseer  of 
the  poor,  Horace  Barber;  constables,  E.  P.  Penney,  J.  R.  Good. 
Among  the  early  supervisors  were:  Oliver  Webb,  G.  G.  McCoy, 
J.  B.  Dorman  (two  terms),  Reuben  Freeman,  J.  T.  .Mitchell,  C. 
W.  Libby,  J.  T.  Mitchell  (two  terms).  P.  Hagler,  B.  W.  Halliday. 
Among  the  early  town  clerks  were  William  Sackett  i  four  terms), 
•lames  Green,  S.  W.  Rice,  L.  it.  Rice  (four  terms),  H.  L.  Holmes. 

Roscoe's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  ranks  was  as  follows: 
R.  ( '.  Barnes,  E.  II.  Drake.  Norman  Dickinson.  Jerry  B.  Getman, 
I-].  A.  Bodge,  11.  L.  Holmes.  Iv  L.  Ives.  A.  J.  Johnson,  E.  P.  Kin- 
caid,  John  M.  Lee,  Josiah  Lothrop,  David  N.  Lake,  Samuel  Maine, 
Captain  G.  G.  McCoy,  Ormando  Merrifield,  Edmund  Parker, 
Andrew  X.  Perkins,  Elton  < '.  Parker,  Joseph  Pickering,  Silas  W. 
Rice,  Amos  G.  Scofield,  George  S.  Scofield,  David  B.  Scofield, 
Joseph  Townsend,  G.  W.  Van  Sydle,  M.  L.  Webb,  Captain  L.  A. 
Webb,  Richard  Waterman.  Lars  Kesphol,  D.  W.  Abbey,  Orris 
Fox,  James  Shield.  Alfred  Collins,  AVilliam  Shield,  John  Peterson, 
Hermon  Perkins.  Lyman  -I.  Ward,  Marion  Blacker,  AVilliam  H. 
Shadwell.  Charles  Cade,  Orlando  Freeman,  Lewis  Freeman, 
George  Fox.  William  Hemenway,  Amos  B.  Mitchell,  Francis 
Sackett,  Pythagoras  Wilson.  William  Bleedon,  John  Buhler,  Rich- 
ard Dressel,  John  Doyle,  Thomas  Dgvine,  John  Dolchy,  Frederick 
Hamman.  -John  Kreubeng,  Frank  Kuntz.  Swan  P.  Peterson,  Jacob 
Rosen,  John  Schugg,  Fred  Schannberg,  George  Gortman  and 
Benjamin  Light. 

Roscoe  Center  was  founded  in  1858.  At  that  time  it  was 
known  as  Sunapee,  and  Truman  Parker  was  appointed  post- 
master. The  name  was  changed  to  Roscoe  Center  in  1863.  At 
this  point  is  now  a  small  settlement,  and  here  also  is  the  Nor- 
wegian Lutheran  church,  a.  commodious  structure  capable  of 
seating  500  people. 

Roscoe  village  is  also  a  hustling  little  settlement.     The  post- 
office  is  now  discontinued  and  mail  is  received  by  the  Zumbrota  , 
R.  F.  D.  No.  4.     The  village  is  thirty-two  miles  southwest  of 
Red  "Wing  and  eight  miles  southAvest  from  Zumbrota. 

Stanton  consists  of  that  portion  of  township  112,  range  18, 
lying  in  Goodhue  county.     It  is  divided  into  river  terrace  and 
upland,  the  greater  portion  of  it  being  the  former.     There  are 


two,  and  in  some  places  three,  distinct  ten-aces,  which  are  prac- 
tically level,  extending  along  both  sides  of  Prairie  creek  and  the 
Cannon  river.  The  latter  valley  is  frequently  more  than  a  mile 
wide,  and  embraces  Large  and  valuable  farms.  The  upland  is 
undulating  and  has  a  soil  similar  to  that  of  the  terraces,  although 
its  sub-soil  is  usually  clayey  rather  than  gravelly.  There  is 
timber  along  some  portions  of  the  Little  Cannon  and  sparsely 
along  the  hanks  of  Prairie  creek.  The  section  along  this  creek 
is  broad  and  beautiful,  bordered  by  the  higher  prairie  lands, 
which  venders  il  picturesque  and  charming  to  all  who  behold  it. 
The  township  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Cannon  river,  which 
separates  it  from  Dakota  county,  on  the  east  by  Cannon  Falls, 
on  the  south  by  Warsaw  and  on  the  west  by  Dakota  county. 
Stanton  Avas  the  original  name  applied  to  this  township,  but  at 
its  organization  it  was  changed  to  Lillian,  Stanton  not  having 
proved  acceptable  to  the  state  authorities.  It  was  later,  however, 
changed  back  to  Stanton,  the  name  being  given  in  honor  of 
William  Stanton,  Sr.,  one  of  the  earliest  settlers.  The  township 
was  originally  a  New  England  settlement,  most  of  the  pioneers 
being  natives  of  Vermont  and  of  Puritan  ancestry.  Some  moved 
further  west,  but  many  of  them  remained,  and  their  descendants 
still  live  on  the  original  farms. 

Late  in  the  fall  of  1854  John  and  George  Seasons  made  claims 
on  the  Little  Cannon  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  township.  Soon 
after,  Jonathan  and  Alonzo  Dibble  and  William  Thomas  settled 
near  them.  In  1855  came  the  real  influx  of  immigration,  when 
a  party  of  New  Englanders  arrived  from  Wisconsin,  where  they 
had  previously  made  a  settlement.  The  party  consisted  of  Nor- 
man Daniels,  AYilliam  Stanton.  Sr.,  William  Stanton,  Jr.,  Robert 
Deakin,  Samuel  Daniels  and  George  Gould.  There  were  also  a 
number  of  others  in  the  party,  as  well  as  the  families  of  those 
mentioned.  In  the  fall  of  the  same  year  Peter  Fagen  and  Hugh 
Wooden,  with  the  father  and  two  sisters  of  the  latter,  settled 
here,  but  one  by  one  the  entire  family  of  the  AVoodens  died, 
leaving  no  survivors. 

The  first  death  was  that  of  Mrs.  George  Seasons.  The  mar- 
riage rites  were  performed  for  the  first  time  for  George  Gould 
and  Experience  Daniels,  in  October,  1855.  The  first  religious 
services  in  the  town  were  held  in  the  wrinter  of  1855-56,  at  the 
house  of  William  Stanton,  Sr.,  Rev.  J.  W.  Hancock,  of  Red  Wing, 
officiating.  William  Cleveland  taught  the  first  school.  Rev. 
Hancock  says:  "The  log  house  built  by  William  Stanton,  Sr., 
near  the  road  leading  to  Faribault  from  the  nearest  Mississippi 
towns,  was  for  several  years  the  only  place  for  tin  entertainment 
of  travelers  between  Cannon  Falls  and  the  further  West.  Mr. 
Stanton's  latch  string  was  always  hanging  out.  and  every  civil- 


appearing  stranger  was  welcome  to  such  accommodation  as  he 
had.  He  frequently  entertained  fifty  persons  the  same  night. 
Not  many  of  those  who  came  to  settle  at  that  time  were  able  to 
have  good  sized  log  houses.  Sod  houses  and  board  shanties  were 
common.  The  years  which  have  passed  since  then  have  brought 
great  changes." 

In  the  early  days  there  were  two  flouring  mills,  one  owned 
by  Messrs.  Bailey  and  Collins  on  the  Big  Cannon,  and  the  other 
by  Messrs.  Wilcox  and  Archibald  on  the  Little  Cannon.  The 
latter,  known  as  the  Oxford  flouring  mill,  was  burned  several 
years  ago.  The  Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  built  in  187-1  on 
section  32.  It  is  28x44  and  cost  $2,000.  The  Oxford  Methodist 
church  was  completed  in  June,  1873,  size  26x40.  These  churches 
were  the  first  in  the  township. 

Stanton's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  was  as  follows: 
Jonathan  Clifford,  Ezra  Cornell.  Emanuel  Deaken,  Daniel  Good- 
hue, William  Goudy.  John  W.  Gould,  Samuel  Gould,  Charles 
Goodhue.  L.  B.  Hat.  Hiram  Hoffstetter,  AVhitney  Jewell.  Elisha 
A.  Jackson.  John  W.  Moore.  W.  II.  McDonald,  William  E.  Poe, 
Jonathan  S.  Poe,  Reby  S.  Philbert,  James  L.  Scofield,  Charles 
M.  Scofield,  Edwin  Season,  Sylvester  Trusdell,  Edward  Thomas, 
Joseph  Thomas,  Elijah  T.  Thomas,  Gilbert  Trusdell,  Charles  Vier- 
kent,  Edmund  Deaken,  John  Chase,  James  Strange,  Otis  B. 
Bailey.  James  Babb.  Jr..  David  Denny,  Henry  Drought.  Patrick 
Quinlan.  Eli  Marsh.  Andrew  Norelius,  William  Harrison,  August 
Kaunlke,  Reinhart  Reibath. 

Stanton  is  a  station  on  the  Chicago  &  Great  Western  railroad, 
in  Stanton  township,  twenty-five  miles  southwest  of  Red  Wing. 
It  has  a  hotel,  postoffice,  a  church,  schoolhouse  and  several  places 
of  business. 

Oxford  Mills  is  situated  on  the  Little  Cannon,  and  here  were 
located  the  Oxford  flouring  mills.  Here  are  now  a  Methodist 
church,  residences  and  other  buildings. 

Cascade  is  a  settlement  in  the  northwestern  part  of  the 


Vasa  k  the  center  of  the  Swedish  settlement  in  Goodhue 
county.  The  township  comprises  all  of  township  112,  range  16, 
and  all  of  that  part  of  township  113,  range  16,  that  lies  south 
of  the  Cannon  river.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Cannon 
river,  which  separates  it  from  the  town  of  Welch,  on  the  easi 
by  Featherstone,  on  the  south  by  Belle  Creek  and  on  the  west 
by  Cannon  Falls.  Belle  creek  crosses  the  township  from  south 
to  north  and  flows  into  the  Cannon  river.     The  surface  is  some- 


what   broken  or  rolling,   but    the  soil  is  excellent.     Sections  19, 
30  and  31  constitute  a  high  table  land. 

To  this  rich  land,  in  1853,  came  S.  J.  Willard,  Colonel  Hans 
Mattson,  Charles  Roos,  Gustaf  Kemp  and  Peter  Green.  They 
all  made  claims  and  Roos  and  Kemp  stayed  through  the  winter, 
the  other  returning  to  Red  Wing  to  find  work  until  the  spring 
of  1851,  when  they  began  in  earnest  to  build  homes  and  to  break 
the  soil.  A  few  accessions  were  made  to  the  colony  that  year, 
and  one  of  them,  whose  name  is  now  forgotten,  died  soon  after 
his  arrival.  This  was  the  first  death,  and  his  mortal  remains 
were  tenderly  and  reverently  conveyed  to  their  last  resting  place 
in  the  land  he  had  crossed  the  ocean  to  look  upon  but  which  he 
did  not  live  to  enjoy. 

The  first  marriage  celebrated  was  that  of  Hans  Mattson  and 
Cherstie  Peterson,  November  21,  1855.  A  school  was  taught  here 
in  the  fall  of  1856  by  a  Mr.  Button.  Another  was  taught  in  the 
Swedish  language  by  James  Engberg.  Meetings  were  held  on 
the  Sabbath  and  Lutheran  church  services  read  by  Hans  Mattson 
until  the  minister  arrived. 

Vasa  is  named  from  Gustavus  Vasa,  the  Christian  king  of 
Sweden,  who  established  the  Lutheran  religion  in  his  kingdom. 
Since  the  first  settlement,  Vasa  has  been  famed  far  and  near,  and 
its  reputation  is  nationwide  as  the  home  of  Dr.  E.  Norelius.  the 
venerable  patriarch  of  the  Swedish  Lutheran  Evangelical  church. 
The  story  of  the  early  days  of  Vasa  is  told  by  Dr.  Norelius. 
Colonel  Hans  Mattson  and  S.  J.  Willard  in  another  chapter  of 
this  history. 

Vasa  township  was  organized  in  1858,  and  its  area  has 
remained  unchanged  since  that  date.  The  first  officers  were : 
Supervisors,  Charles  Himmelman  (chairman),  Charles  Charleson, 
Nils  Peterson ;  clerk,  Swante  J.  Willard ;  assessor,  Nils  Swanson ; 
collector,  John  Sundell ;  overseer  of  the  poor,  Matts  Mattson ; 
constables.  Nils  Johnson  Erick  Anderson;  justices  of  the  peace, 
T.  Granvill  Person,  Franklin  Morrison;  overseers  of  roads.  Swan 
P.  Peterson,  Gustus  Carlson  and  William  F.  Fessenden. 

Among  the  early  officers  of  the  township  Avere :  Chairmen  of 
supervisors — 1858,  Charles  Himmelman;  1850.  William  F.  Fessen- 
den;  1860,  1861,  1862,  T.  G.  Pearson;  1863,  A.  P.  Wilson;  1864, 
Lars  Mattson;  1865,  A.  G.  Anderson;  1866,  John  Hakanson;  1867. 
1868,  1869,  A.  G.  Anderson.  Town  clerks— 1858,  S.  J.  Willard: 
1859,  John  Norelius;  1860,  S.  J.  Willard ;  1861,  1862,  A.  P.  Lester; 
1863,  Charles  Himmelman;  1864,  1865,  John  Wickey;  1866,  1867, 
1868,  T.  G.  Pearson;  1869,  J.  W.  Peterson. 

According  to  the  official  list  of  the  adjutant  general,  the  follow- 
ing men  who  enlisted  in  the  Civil  War  gave  Vasa  as  their  home: 
Olof  Anderson,  John  A.  Anderson.  Nils  Ahfahamson,  Charles  M. 


Yates,  Frank  Carlson,  Victor  Freeman,  George  Washington,  George 
W.  Knight,  George  Bohinbaek,  Ben  Benson,  Charles  E.  Charleson, 
Charles  M.  Beers,  Halvor  Ekeland,  Olaf  Fahlin,  Peter  Johnson, 
John  Johnson,  John  Larson,  John  Monson,  John  P.  Ofelt  John 
F.  Olson,  Paul  Paulson,  Nils  Ringdahl,  Charles  Roos,  Gustav 
Swenson,  Charles  J.  Sundell,  Jonas  SAvan,  John  Stice,  Charles 
Gustavson,  John  Hokason,  Ivan  Salmonson,  Reuben  Taylor,  Con- 
rad Windhusen,  Eder  B.  Pelles,  Carl  Bruhn,  John  Hershberger, 
Robert  V.  Langdon.  H.  F.  Merriman,  S.  L.  Merriman,  Harvey- 
Ward,  Michael  McGrath,  Felix  Hills,  Joseph  McNally,  Horation 
Vaughn,  Carl  Sehroske,  Ephraim  Dudley,  Benjamin  Burgess, 
Charles  Berlin,  John  Dablow,  Joseph  Griffin,  Patrick  Hefferman, 
Lafayette  Leavitt,  Matt  Mattson,  Thomas  McDonald,  Ole  Oleson, 
Charles  Oleson,  Olin  Wiltse,  Olin  K.  Ryalan,  George  Blake,  Peter 
Dressell,  Henry  G.  Henderson,  Henry  Luhring  and  Frederick 

Vasa  village  has  a  population  of  about  300.  It  is  the  only 
postoffice  in  the  county  that  is  not  situated  on  a  railroad,  its 
shipping  points  being  Red  Wing,  Welch  and  Cannon  Falls.  Swe- 
dish Lutheran  and  Methodist  churches  supply  the  religious  de- 
mands of  the  people,  and  a  creamery,  feed  mill  and  two  stores 
add  to  its  industrial  importance.  Here  is  also  .  located  the 
Orphan's  Home. 


Wacoota  township  preserves  the  name  of  the  chief  whom  the 
while  men  found  in  charge  of  the  Indian  band  at  Red  Wing  in 
the  late  forties  and  early  fifties.  His  name,  Wah-coo-tay, 
variously  translated  as  Waueouta,  Dacouta  and  Waccota,  means 
the  ''Shooter."  or  "Leaf  Shooter,"  literally  the  "Shooter  of  the 
Leaves  of  the  Indigenous  Pines." 

The  township  of  Wacoota  consists  of  a  few  sections  lying 
along  the  Mississippi  river  at  the  head  of  Lake  Pepin.  It  has 
many  hills  and  bluffs,  but  in  the  valleys  are  many  fine  farms. 

The  first  white  settler,  George  W.  Billiard,  arrived  about 
1850,  bringing  Abner  W.  Post,  who  built  for  him  the  first  house 
erected  in  the  township.  Bullard  had  a  license  from  the  United 
States  government  to  trade  with  the  Indians.  This  gave  him 
some  rights  upon  the  Indian  lands,  which  at  that  time  were  not 
opened  to  the  whites ;  but  although  he  did  enjoy  some  Indian 
trade,  the  larger  part  of  his  customers  were  lumbermen  from 
across  the  river.  In  May,  1852,  even  before  the  signing  of  the 
treaty,  the  influx  of  immigration  started.  In  1853  Bullard  and 
Post  erected  a  sawmill,  the  first  west  of  the  Mississippi  river,  it 
is  believed.     A  village  was  platted,  and  for  a  time  it  looked  as 


though  Wacoota,  commanding,  as  it  does,  the  head  of  the  lake, 
was  to  become  a  great  and  important  city.  Up  to  1854  travelers 
were  entertained  at  the  home  of  Mr.  Bullard.  The  increasing 
travel  and  the  number  of  lumbermen  who  arrived  caused  a 
demand  for  a  hotel,  and  during  that  year  one  was  erected  by 
J.  B.  Smith.  This  hotel  was  afterward  removed  to  Mt.  Pleasant, 
in  Wabasha  county,  and  did  service  as  a  residence  for  the  Rev. 
Mr.  Williams.  In  1855  Daniel  Saunders  built  another  hotel, 
which  in  1864  was  removed  to  the  township  of  Featherstone, 
where  it  was  converted  into  a  dwelling  house  for  the  Rev.  Ezra 
Tucker.  These  two  hotels  in  1857  were  found  to  be  insufficient 
for  the  demand.  The  village  became  a  headquarters  for  lumber- 
men, and  at  this  point  were  rafted  the  logs  from  the  pineries 
further  north.  So  prosperous  were  the  people  at  this  point  that 
they  contested"  with  Red  AVing  for  the  location  of  the  county 
seat,  and  but  for  the  cleverness  of  the  Red  Wing  voters,  might 
have  got  it.  Bullard,  wishing  to  get  his  full  share  of  the  money 
which  was  pouring  into  Wacoota,  erected  a  third  hotel  in  the 
village  in  1857.  This  building  was  40x60  feet  and  furnished  in 
good  style.  After  the  tide  had  turned  and  the  flood  of  business 
had  gone  to  other  places,  Bullard  sold  this  hotel  to  Messrs. 
Tibbetts  &  Hackett,  of  Lake  City,  who  removed  it  to  that 
place  in  the  winter  on  the  ice.  With  the  advent  of  the  Civil 
War  more  than  one-half  of  the  legal  voters  enlisted.  After 
the  war  was  over  the  glory  of  Wacoota  had  departed;  and  today 
it  remains  not  the  proud  and  populous  county  seat  that  had  been 
fondly  dreamed,  but  a  quiet  rural  community,  whose  prosperous 
farmers  do  their  trading  in  that  city  which  Wacoota  at  one  time 
hoped  to  rival. 

Wacoota  village  is  now  a  station  on  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee 
&  St.  Paul  railroad.  About  three-quarters  of  a  mile  from  the 
railroad  station,  after  passing  through  a  small  grove,  one  arrives 
at  Vivian  Park,  at  the  head  of  Lake  Pepin.  Here  the  waters 
of  the  great  river  expand  into  a  wide  and  deep  basin,  which  has 
all  the  attributes  of  a  great  lake,  whose  waters  are  still  except 
when  stirred  by  the  wind.  There,  on  the  high  ground  over- 
looking the  lake,  have  been  built  a  number  of  cottages,  where 
many  families  go  to  spend  the  hot  summer  months  amid  the 
refreshing  scenery  and  bracing  breezes. 

The  first  birth  in  Wacoota  was  in  the  family  of  G.  W.  Bullard. 
in  1852.  The  same  child  died  in  1854,  this  being  the  first  death 
in  the  township.  The  first  marriage  was  that  of  Joseph  F. 
Thompson  and  Melissa  Pingrey,  in  1855,  James  B.  Smith,  a 
justice  of  the  peace,  performing  the  ceremony.  In  the  fall  and 
winter  of  1854  J.  F.  Pingrey  taught  a  school  in  a  ball  over  a 
store.     Rev.  J.  AY.  Hancock  and  Matthew  Sorin  held  services  as 


early  as  1853.  The  township  was  organized  at  the  time  of  the 
general  act  in  1858. 

Mrs.  Julia  B.  Nelson,  at  a  meeting  of  the  old  settlers  of  the 
Lake  Pepin  valley  some  years  ago,  related  some  of  her  early 
experiences,  from  which  the  following  extract  is  taken:  "Had 
I  ever  been  scalped  by  a  savage  Sioux,  or  scared  to  death  by 
harmless  Chippewas ;  had  I  ever  lived  in  a  seven-by-nine  log 
house  on  three  grains  of  corn  a  day;  had  I  ever  practiced  driving 
four-in-hand  with  an  ox  team ;  had  I  ever  raised  vegetables  on 
territorial  ground,  or  raised  the  chickens  that  crowed  when 
Minnesota  was  admitted  to  the  Union,  it  would  not  be  inappro- 
priate to  call  upon  me  in  an  old  settlers'  meeting,  and  I  should 
be  both  proud  and  happy  to  respond.  As  the  case  stands,  if  1 
speak  and  confine  myself  wholly  to  the  facts,  I  fear  you  will 
not  he  greatly  entertained  and  will  conclude  that  as  an  old 
settler  I  am  a  fraud  and  a  failure.  On  a  darkish  night  in  June 
of  1857  the  steamer  Henry  Clay  landed  at  the  town  of  Wacoota, 
and  from  that  boat  stepped  my  father,  Edward  Bullard,  who 
had  been  down  the  river  and  brought  back  with  him  some  horses, 
some  cattle,  and  two  awkward  school  girls,  one  of  whom  was 
myself.  Although  it  was  late  at  night,  I  saw  a  good  many 
lights  in  the  darkness  and  thought  I  had  really  come  to  a  town. 
Passing  to  my  new  home  T  heard  men  sAvearing  inside  one  of  the 
three  hotels  in  the  place  and  thought  I  had  come  to  a  new 

"I  couldn't  make  a  claim  and  develop  the  resources  of  the 
country,  but  I  did  what  I  could  by  attending  the  spelling  schools 
and  lyeeums,  which  were  in  full  blast.  About  two  years  after 
I  began  to  'teach  the  young  idea  how-to  shoot.'  and  have  fol- 
lowed that  business  much  of  the  time  since.  (Note — Mrs.  Nelson 
has  now  retired  and  lives  in  Red  Wing,  where  she  is  still  prom- 
inent in  religious,  temperance,  equal  rights  and  philanthropic 
work. — Ed.)  Speaking  of  Sabbath  keeping  in  the  early  days, 
'when  there  was  no  sound  of  the  church-going  bell.'  an  aunt 
of  mine  who  came  to  the  state  before  I  did.  who  had  no  neigh- 
bors, and  whose  husband  had  gone  on  a  journey  of  several  days, 
kept  the  Sabbath,  as  she  supposed,  and  the  next  day  put  out  her 
washing.  Her  husband,  returning,  notified  her  to  her  horror  that 
she  had  been  washing  on  Sunday.  Great  changes  have  been 
wrought  before  our  eyes,  great  improvements  have  been  made 
in  our  time,  but  what  pleases  me  most  of  all,  more  than  the 
thought  of  railroad  facilities  and  Avonderful  immigration,  more 
than  telegraphic  communication  and. spacious  and  beautiful  pub- 
lic buildings,  is  the  prosperity  of-  those  who  came  here  to  make 
homes,  bringing  with  them  only  health  and  hope  and  honest 
hearts  and  willing  hands.    To  see  those  who  worked  hard  behind 


cxen  riding  with  their  own  horses  and  carriages;  to  see  those 
who  lived  in  huts  now  occupying  comfortable  homes,  enjoying 
themselves  and  educating  their  children,  that  is  the  best  of  all." 
The  sixteen  men  who  enlisted  in  the  Civil  War  from  Wacoota 
were:  Morris  Eldred,  John  Eldred,  James  Farenside,  William 
Gordon.  Lot  C.  Hilton,  John  Jordan,  Nathaniel  Jordan,  Henry  M. 
Reade,  Henry  S.  Reed,  Josiah  Richardson,  Ludwig  Thiergart, 
Henry  E.  Van  Dyke.  John  R.  AY  inched,  Charles  Axel,  William 
Toms  and  R.  D.  Rich. 


Wanamingto  comprises  township  110,  range  17,  and  has 
remained  unchanged  in  area  since  the  township  organization  act 
of  1858.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Leon,  on  the  east  by 
Minneola,  on  the  west  by  Holden  and  on  the  south  by  Cherry 
Grove.  Wanamingo  is  crossed  east  and  west  by  the  north  branch 
of  the  Zumbro  in  the  southern  part,  but  the  valley  is  broad  and 
has  gentle  slopes.  In  the  northwestern  part  there  is  a  bran  eh 
of  the  Cannon.  The  surface  is  largely  prairie,  gently  rolling, 
with  very  fertile  soil,  well  watered  by  many  springs  and  running 
streams.  Where  these  are  not  at  hand,  water  is  found  by 
digging  a  few  feet  below  the  surface.  The  natural  groves  of 
timber  in  various  sections  add  variety  to  the  landscape.  No 
other  township  in  the  county .  it  is  said  affords  superior  advan- 
tages to  the  farmer. 

The  story  of  the  early  settlement  of  Wanamingo  has  been 
told  as  follows:  "The  first  settlers  came  here  in  1851,  and  were 
natives  of  Norway.  Early  in  that  year  Henry  Nelson  (Talla) 
came  to  Dodgeville,  Wis.,  from  California,  where  he  had  been 
staying  a  few  years  and  where  he  had  accumulated  a  snug  little 
sum  of  money.  About  the  same  time  his  older  brother,  Toge 
Nelson  (Talla).  then  a  widower,  came  back  to  the  same  place 
from  Australia,  where  he  also  had  earned  some  money.  The 
two  brothers  then  agreed  to  go  to  the  Northwest  together  and 
search  for  a  home.  Purchasing  a  team,  they  started,  and  after 
being  on  the  way  as  far  as  Root  river,  they  heard  that  the  terri- 
tory of  Minnesota  contained  good  farming  land,  with  wood  and 
water.  They  then  purchased  a  number  of  cattle  and  such  imple- 
ments as  they  would  need  for  beginning  farming  operations. 
They  were  now  joined  by  Thosten  Anderson,  another  of  their 
countrymen,  who  was  also  in  the  same  pursuit.  As  both  the 
Nelsons  were  determined  to  starl  in  farming  for  all  there  was 
in  it.  they  each  hired  a  man  to  help  them.  Henry  hired  William 
Williamson  (Runningen)  and  Toge  hired  Nils  Gulbrandson. 
Both  these  hired  men   were  carpenters  by   trade.      .Mr.  Cnlhrand- 


son  left  his  family  in  Wisconsin,  expecting  to  return  for  them 
in  the  fall,  providing  he  liked  the  new  country.  The  prairie 
schooners  were  ready  and  the  little  company  started  for  the 
unknown  land  May  21,  the  party  consisting  of  those  already  men- 
tioned and  Henry  Nelson  and  family,  Thosten  Anderson  and 
family,  and  two  sisters  of  the  Nelsons,  Mrs.  Jens  Ottun,  whose 
husband  had  not  yet  arrived  from  the  old  country,  and  Mrs. 
Nels  K.  Fenne,' whose  husband  was  then  in  California.  After 
rambling  over  the  new  territory  of  Minnesota  for  three  weeks 
they  came,  June  12,  to  the  place  now  called  Wanamingo.  They 
had  for  many  days  seen  no  white  persons  but  themselves.  At 
about.  11  o'clock  on  the  day  named  above  they  crossed  the 
north  fork  of  the  Zumbro.  Toge  Nelson  stopped  his  team  and,, 
looking  around,  saw  there  was  a  fine  park  with  beautiful  land 
adjacent.  He  exclaimed:  'Here  will  I  live  and  die.'  His 
words  were  fulfilled,  for  he  died  in  1889,  having  lived  in  that 
place  thirty-five  years.  The  whole  company  found  it  to  be  desir- 
able country  for  settlement,  and  so  began  their  improvements. 
Knowing  nothing  as  to  how  much  land  one  man  could  hold  as 
a  claim,  they  marked  off  large  portions,  for  they  expected  others 
of  their  countrymen  to  join  them  in  making  the  town  a  Norse 
settlement.  They  began  by  making  dugouts  and  sod  shanties 
for  living  and  sleeping  apartments.  They  broke  up  the  prairie 
for  field  culture  and  planted  some  corn,  sowed  buckwheat  and 
rutabagas.     They  also  planted  a  few  potatoes  that  season. 

"Four  weeks  after  this  party  had  made  their  stand,  two 
young  men.  Hans  Ovaldson  and  Andrias  Hesjelden,  came  to  the 
place,  having  followed  their  tracks.  These  young  men  belonged 
to  a  larger  party  of  immigrants,  whom  they  had  left  some  thirty- 
five  or  forty  miles  behind.  They  were  so  much  pleased  with 
the  location  that  they  started  back  immediately  for  their  com- 
rades. They  found  them  and  induced  nearly  all  the  party  to 
come  to  Wanamingo.  This  last  party  consisted  of  Andres  Baarn- 
hus,  John  Stroemme,  Guncler  Hestemyr,  Ole  0.  Oakland,  Haldor 
Johnson,  and  their  families.  About  the  first  of  August  another 
train  of  Norwegian  immigrants  came  on  from  Wisconsin,  but 
finding  the  township  of  Wanamingo  already  claimed,  they  went 
further  west  into  Holden  and  Kenyon,  some  even  beyond  the 
county  line  west,  to  make  claims. 

"In  the  latter  part  of  July  this  town  was  visited  by  two 
men  from  Red  Wing,  this  being  the  first  intimation  the  new 
settlers  had  of  the  existence  of  such  a  place.  These  men  informed 
them  that  Red  Wing  was  on  the  Mississippi  river,  about  thirty 
miles  distant,  in  a  northeasterly  direction.  This  information  was 
a  great  benefit,  as  they  knew  of  no  market  town  nearer  than 
Decorah,  Iowa.     In  August  Nils  Gulbrandson  went  to  Wisconsin- 


for  his  family,  and  it  was  agreed  that  he  should  there  meet 
-lens  Ottun.  who  had  arrived  from  Norway,  and  accompany  him 
to  Red  Wing-  on  the  steamboat.  Three  weeks  later  Toge  and 
Henry  Nelson  set  out  from  Red  Wing  to  meet  them.  After 
wandering  about  for  two  days  they  found  the  place.  In  the 
meantime  the  party  had  arrived,  but  both  men  had  taken  the 
cholera  while  on  the  steamboat.  Mr.  Gulbrandson  died  in  one 
hour  after  landing.  Mr.  Ottun  survived.  They  were  left  on 
the  shore  by  the  boat  hands.  Mrs.  Gulbrandson  took  charge  of 
her  dying  husband  and  grown-up  daughter.  The  latter  also  took 
the  disease,  and  died  shortly  after  the  father.  William  Freeborn, 
seeing  Mr.  Ottun  lying  on  the  levee  with  none  seemingly  to  care 
for  him,  offered  five  dollars  to  the  man  who  would  take  him  to 
some  house  and  care  for  him  over  night.  A  few  days  after  this 
the  Nelsons  arrived  in  Red  Wing  and  found  Ottun  so  far  recov- 
ered as  to  be  walking  about,  and  he,  in  company  wTith  Mrs. 
Gulbrandson  and  her  son,  returned  with  the  Nelsons  to  the  new 
settlement.  The  next  year,  Toge  Nelson  (Talla)  and  Mrs.  Gul- 
brandson were  married.  In  October,  1854,  the  Nelsons  went 
again  to  Red  Wing,  for  winter  supplies.  Nils  J.  Ottun,  son  of 
Jens  Ottun,  related  years  afterward  to  a  historian  that 
his  father  was  sent  by  the  party  for  flour  and  some  other  neces- 
sities. Having  only  ten  dollars,  his  wife  sent  a  gold  nugget  worth 
ten  dollars  more.  They  bought  two  barrels  of  flour.  Jens  Ottun 
worked  for  Toge  Nelson  that  winter,  splitting  rails,  leading  his 
son  Nils  and  the  mother  to  keep  house  alone.  The  mother  used 
to  measure  off  the  slice  of  bread  for  each  to  be  eaten  at  every 
meal,  the  same  size,  and  this,  with  a  little  butter  and  something 
they  called  coffee  for  drink,  constituted  their  everyday  diet 
through  the  winter.  In  the  latter  part  of  March  the  people  who 
had  settled  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town  came  to  them  for 
flour.  They  were  entirely  out,  and  the  snow  was  so  deep  they 
could  not  get  to  Red  Wing.  Only  one  barrel  was  then  left  in  the 
settlement.  That  was  one  of  the  two  that  Jens  Ottun  had  bought, 
and  it  was  equally  divided  among  all  and  was  made  to  last  until 
the  road  to  Red  Wing  became  passable.  The  first  death  among 
the  settlers  was  that  of  the  youngest  child  of  Thorsten  Anderson, 
named  Berith.  Mrs.  Jens  Ottun  was  requested  to  select  a  suit- 
able place  for  a  burial  ground,  and  a  farm  for  a  preacher.  This 
she  did  at  the  time  of  the  burial  of  this  child,  in  July,  1854. 
The  first  white  child  born  in  this  town  was  Knute  N.  Fenne,  in 
September  of  the  same  year.  The  first  marriage  was  a  double 
wedding  in  June,  1855.  Toge  Nelson  (Talla)  and  .Mrs.  Gul- 
brandson, already  mentioned,  and  John  J.  Marifjern  and  Soe- 
neva  Johnson  were  united  in  marriage  at  the  same  time,  by  Rev. 


Nils  Brant,  of  Oconomowoc,  Wis.  The  first  public  religious 
service  was  held  the  same  mouth  by  the  same  clergyman.  The 
laud  selected  for  the  preacher  was  for  many  years  occupied  by 
the  Rev.  B.  J.  Muus,  who  came  in  1859  and  for  about  forty-five 
years  remained  the  pastor  of  several  churches  in  that  locality. 

"A  few  American  families  came  to  this  town  in  1855  and 
made  claims  in  the  southern  portion,  on  the  Zumbro  river.  One 
of  the  settlers.  James  Brown,  platted  and  laid  into  lots  forty 
acres  of  land  for  village  purposes  and  called  the  place  Wana- 
mingo,  the  name  of  a  heroine  of  a  novel  popular  in  those  days. 
A  store  was  built  by  J.  T.  Wright  in  this  village. 

•"Tlie  first  settlers  had  some  difficulty  the  first  year  in  adjust- 
ing the  boundaries  of  their  several  claims.  Not  knowing  how 
many  acres  one  person  could  hold  and  pre-empt,  their  farms 
were  unusually  Large.  Everyone  wanted  timber,  prairie  land 
and  running  water.  This  was  in  the  latter  part  of  1855,  before 
they  found  that  each  could  hold  but  160  acres,  in  adjoining 
40-acre  lots.  In  some  cases  their  first  buildings  would  be  a 
mile  away  from  their  breaking,  as  the  late  comers  were  obliged 
to  claim  a  patch  here  and  a  patch  there  to  satisfy  all  needs.  So 
there  were  troubles  to  raeel  and  overcome  when  they  went  to  the 
land  office  1"  purchase  their  lands  from  the  United  Slates  gov- 
ernment after  it  came  into  the  market.  Many  had  hard  strug- 
gles to  encounter  in  that  settlement  during  the  first  two  years. 
They  had  not  the  means  to  pay  their  passage  over  the  sea  and 
were  obliged  to  devote  t  heir  earnings  to  that  outlay.  But  for 
the  fact  that  a  few  had  money  and  could  furnish  work  for 
others  who  had  none,  there  would  have  been  much  suffering. 
The  people  frmn  Norway  seemed  to  be  well  fitted  for  pioneers 
in  a  new  country.  As  farmers  they  have  proved  themselves 
t.i  be  mere  successful  than  any  other  nationality,  perhaps,  who 
have  come  into  the  county.  With  no  other  means  than  a  willing- 
ness to  work  at  any  labor  to  be  done,  with  stout  arms  and  faith 
in  God  and  their  fellow  men.  many  of  them  are  now  reckoned 
among  the  wealthiest  of  our  citizens  in  every  branch  of  business 
now  carried  on.  The  farms  and  farm  buildings  in  the  town  of 
Wanamingo  at  the  present  day  show  a  degree  of  thrift  and 
industry  equal  to  the  best  in  this  county.  The  first  wheat  crop 
was  raised  here  in  the  year  1856.  There  being  no  flouring  mills 
near,  it  was  all  kept  and  used  for  seed.  This  town  has  the 
honor  of  being  the  first  to  build  up  and  sustain  the  Norwegian 
Lutheran  church,  which  has  become  the  most  numerous  of  the 
Christian  churches  in  the  county." 

James  Brown  is  said  to  have  taught  the  first  school  in  the 
township.     The  first  store  was  probably  opened  on  section  4.  by 


Elans  .M.  Sande  and  Knui  Sanden,  in  the  spring  of  1857.  They 
-  ocked  ii  with  goods  and  carried  it  on  for  about  a  year,  when 
Mr.  Sanden  was  married  and  his  attention  turned  in  other  direc- 
tions. Mr.  Sande  also  concluded  thai  he  could  make  more 
money  farming,  so  the  mercantile  business  was  abandoned.  Both 
of  these  gentlemen  soon  became  well-to-do  farmers  of  the  town- 
ship.  "Another  early  storekeeper  was  Paulus  .Miller. 

The  Aspelund  Society  was  organized  in  1875,  for  the  mutual 
benefit  of  the  farmers.  A  store  was  creeled  on  section  16  and 
the  society  incorporated  in  1876.  The  tirst  officers  were:  Presi- 
dent. ( ).  .1.  Wing;  secretary,  X.  -I.  Ottun;  treasurer.  E.  E. 
Sevareid;  directors.  Henry  Nelson  Talla),  Hans  M.  Sande  and 
Ole  Lewis.     X.  -I.  Ottun  was  appointed  the  first  manager. 

To  the  Civil  War  Wanamingo  township  contributed  the  fol- 
lowing  soldiers:  Ellin g  Albertson,  Jermia  Anderson,  Arne  An- 
derson. Samuel  Arnold.  I).  \Y.  Brawn,  Henry  II.  Brown.  Asa 
II.  Dayton,  Anfin  Dalaker,  Ole  Evenson,  John  Ericson,  Hans 
Hoisted.  George  \Y.  Heart.  Harris  Harrison,  Ole  Johnson.  Olans 
Johnson,  Hans  Johnson,  Abraham  L.  Jackson,  Guilder  Killoe, 
Samuel  Knutson,  Ole  Larson.  Lewis  Lewison,  Martin  Martinson, 
Jolm  Xilson.  Charles  Xels'on.  Ole  Oleson,  Thomas  Peterson,  John 
Peterson.  F.  F.  Sandberg,  Lawrence  Thoreson,  Henry  J.  Burrell, 
Phillip  Buck,  John  M.  Clark,  Halver  Enderson,  Franklin  Fuller, 
Anthony  Farrell,  Otis  E.  Fowble,  Marshall  Gore,  Achiel  D. 
Ilollista.  John  S.  Hall.  Francis  G.  Hall,  Elias  Hoyt.  William 
Ilahn,  Julius  Johnson.  John  J.  Koenan.  George  Newyille,  John 
B.  Robinson.  Eleazer  Robbins,  Anson  Smith.  Almon  P.  Smith, 
James  B.  Stouthers,  Lorenz  Thoreson,  Gunder  Thompson,  Theo- 
dore Moonen,  James  A.  Miller,  Peter  MeDonough,  Jonathan  B. 
Serrell.  Halver  Stamerson.  Charles  J.  Dobering.  Francis  J.  Burke, 
John  Betcher,  AVilliam  H.  Blaker  .  Samuel  B.  Brown,  Laurens  E. 
Browrn,  Spaulding  AVhittemore,  Lucian  L.  Perkins,  Sela  Denny, 
Phillip  Buck.  Samuel  Johnson,  Charles  Martin.  John  Gutteridge, 
Joshua  Oliver,  Melvin  O.  Dutton,  John  Clementson.  Daniel  Me- 
Alonan.  AVilliam  H.  Applegat.  R.  G.  Applegat,  Peter  B.  Town- 
send,  John  Johnson,  Tenkel  XTelson,  Charles  Flack,  John  Peter- 
son, William  G.  Renearson,  Lodolf  Swanson.  Patrick  Connersy, 
Peter  Hoppe,  Andrew  Roberts,  Francis  Coule,  Archibald  Gallo- 
way, George  H.  Gaylord,  W.  B.  Harlan,  Jacob  J.  Hussell,  Jolm 
Mallory,  John  Ockerson,  George  C.  Ridley,  Ole  Severson.  John 
Williams,  Nels  Iverson,  Fikel  Jensen,  Frank  W.  Carlson,  George 
Chambers,  Samuel  B.  Roberts,  Dominick  Toole. 

At  the  organization  of  the  township.  May  11.  1858.  the  officers 
elected  were:  Supervisors,  0.  Hansen  (chairman),  N.  K.  Fenne, 
J.  G.  Brown ;  town  clerk,  J.  T.  Wright;  justice  of  the  peace,  W. 
R.  Brown;  constable,  WTarren  Tllson  ;  assessor.  X\  K.  Fenne.    Fol- 


lowing  is  the  list  of  the  early  supervisors,  the  first  named  under 
each  date  being  the  chairman :  1859,  George  AY.  Duffy,  Saave 
Kniulson,  Halvor  Olson;  1860,  T.  J.  Smith,  Halvor  Olson,  Thor 
Einertson ;   1861,   T.   J.    Smith,   Saave   Knudson,   Colben  Nelson; 

1862,  Hans  H.  Holtan,  J.  T.  Leet,  William  Williamson;  1863, 
Hans  H.  Holtan,  Coelboern  Nelson,  I.  C.  Swift;  1864,  A.  P. 
Jackson,  Knut  Sanden,  Hans  M.  Sande;  1865,  A.  P.  Jackson, 
Hans  M.  Sande,  Knut  Sanden;  1866,  A.  P.  Jackson,  Hans  M. 
Sande,  Knut  Sanden ;  1867,  A.  P.  Jackson,  Hans  M.  Sande,  Knut 
Sanden;  1868,  A.  P.  Jackson,  0.  J.  Wing,  N.  K.  Fenne ;  1869, 
Hans  H.  Holtan,  0.  J.  Wing,  Chris  Sanden;  1870,  1871,  1872,  the 
same;  1873,  0.  J.  Wing,  G.  C.  Gunderson,  Charles  Anderson;  1871, 
G.  C.  Gunderson,  Charles  Anderson,  John  Swenson;  1875,  1876, 
the  same;  1877,  G.  C.  Gunderson,  John  Swenson.  A.  T.  Rygh. 
Assessors— 1859,   N.   K.   Fenne;   1860.    Saave   Knudson;    1861   to 

1863,  Neri  Helgeson;  1864.  Charles  Paulson  ;  1865,  E.  E.  Sevareid ; 
1866  to  1868,  -John  Paulson;  1869.  Elef  Olson:  1870,  and  1871, 
Hans  M.  Sande;  1872  and  1873,  Ole  0.  Follingstad;  1874  to  1877, 
Hans  M,  Sande;  1878.  Ole  0.  Huset.  Justices  of  the  peace — 1859, 
W.  R.  Brown.  George  AY.  Duffy;  1860,  T.  J.  Smith;  1862,  W 
R.  Brown;  1863.  Charles  Paulson;  1864,  J.  P.  Leet;  1865,  Charles 
Paulson;  1866,  L.  P.  Leet;  1867.  0.  Paulson,  AY.  R.  Brown;  1868, 
A.  P.  Jackson.  N.  J.  Ottun ;  1869,  W.  R.  Brown;  1870,  A.  P. 
Jackson;  1871.  AY.  R.  Brown;  1872,  N.  J.  Ottun;  1873,  Christ 
Hveem ;  1874,  N.  J.  Ottun,  T.  T.  Corchran ;  1875,  Hans  M.  Sande ; 
1876,  N.  J.  Ottun;  1877,  Hans  M.  Sande;  1878,  Ole  0.  Huset. 
Clerks— 1859,  0.  Hansen;  1860,  and  1861,  W.  R,  Brown;  1862, 
A.  P.  Jackson;  1863,  Benjamin  (lark;  1864  and  1865,  J.  P.  Leet; 
1866  to  1868,  N.  J.  Ottun.  Collector— 1858,  Knut  Sanden,  served 
two  terms.  Treasurers — 1860,  William  AVilliamson ;  1862,  W.  R. 
Roulet;  1864,  G.  C.  Gunderson;  1866,  Charles  Paulson;  1868, 
J.  Paulson ;  1869,  Thorsten  Anderson ;  1870,  E.  E.  Sevareid.  Con- 
stables—1859,  Ole  Olson;  1860,  Ole  Olson,  S.  Glaz;  1862,  Lewis 
Throp;  1863,  AVilliam  Miller,  William  Johnson;  1864,  AVilliam 
R.  Roulet;  1865,  William  Miller;  1866,  William  Johnson;  1867, 
William  Johnson,  William  Miller;  1868,  Charles  Anderson;  1869, 
Thron  Julickson,  AYilliam  Johnson ;  1870,  AVilliam  Johnson ;  1871, 
Thron  Julickson;  1873,  Erik  Nelson ;  1875  and  1876,  John  Seven- 
son;  1877,  T.  I.  Laven.  Overseers  of  the  poor — 1858,  Torger  0. 
Rygh;  1859,  John  Wing;  1863,  Kling  Johnson;  1864  and  1865, 
Coelboern  Nelson ;  1866,  K.  J.  Naeset ;  1867,  Hans  H.  Holtan ; 
1868,  Hans  M.  Sande;  1869.  Torger  O.  Rygh;  1871,  Lars  Olson; 
1872  and  1873,  Swent  Johnson ;  1875,  Hans  M.  Sande. 

The  settlements  in   the  township  are  at  Hader.  AYanamingo, 
Aspelund  and  Norway. 

I11STOKY   <>!•'  GOODHUE  COUNTS  225 


In  1855  a  small  building  was  erected  by  W.  Wright  between 
sections  25  and  26  of  Wanamingo  township  and  in  this  shack 
were  sold  some  of  the  necessities  of  life  to  the  pioneers  of  those 
days.  This  store  was  sold  to  P.  .Miller,  who  again  sold  to  Smith 
&  Lamberg.  Their  successor  was  John  Kempe  and  later  A. 
Urness.  Before  the  sixties  another  store  had  been  erected  by  C. 
Dirstine,  whose  business  was  later  bought  by  Hermund  Serum. 
Failing  in  health  Serum  sold  to  Martin  Halvorson,  who  continued 
the  business  until  his  death,  nearly  thirty  years. 

In  those  early  days  Wanamingo  was  the  only  trading  point 
for  the  entire  surrounding  community.  The  marketing  of  grain 
and  other  business  matters  had  to  be  done  at  Red  Wing,  Fari- 
bault or  Hastings.  About  1856  a  postoffice  was  established  and 
received  the  name  of  Wanamingo.  Later  a  blacksmith  shop  was 
erected  by  Chrislock  &  Gunderson.  This  shop  was  later  bought 
by  J,  J.  Tiller.  Another  shop  was  erected  by  C.  R.  Chrislock,  a 
cobbler  shop  by  Hans  Isackson  and  a  harness  and  boot  and  shoe 
shop  by  Melchior  Munson.  A  schoolhouse  was  built  and  a  hotel 
erected  by  Wm.  Miller.  Every  little  while  surveying  crews  were 
out  in  the  neighborhood  and  rumors  had  it  that  one  or  more  rail- 
roads were  going  to  build  through.  Meanwhile  a  thriving  little 
inland  town  sprung  up  and  a  townsite  was  platted  by  private 

In  1857  or  1858  one  Clark  built  a  small  mill  nearly  one  mile 
further  east  on  the  Zumbro  river.  This  mill  was  bought  by  Nel- 
son &  Norby  and  a  larger  mill  was  erected  on  the  south  side  of 
the  Zumbro  river  on  the  town  line  between  Minneola  and  Wana- 
mingo townships.  Later  Norby  assumed  full  ownership  until 
one-half  interest  was  bought  by  Fordahl  Bros.  At  present  A.  J. 
Fordahl  is  the  owner.  In  1889  Ole  Sletten  erected  a  store  just 
opposite  the  mill.  Shortly  afterwards  a  cheese  factory  was  built 
and  started  in  operation  by  the  farmers.  This  was  sold  to  R.  0. 
Lund,  who  again  sold  to  Gutzler  Bros,  of  Kenyon.  The  factory 
was  remodeled  for  a  creamery.  The  company  failing,  the  patrons 
again  assumed  charge  of  the  creamery  in  proportion  to  the 
amount  due  them  for  cream  delivered. 

September  9,  1893,  the  first  steps  were  taken  for  the  organi- 
zation of  the  Diamond  Co-operative  Creamery  Company,  which 
name  his  since  been  changed  to  Minneola  Creamery  Company  and 
has  become  one  of  the  most  successful  co-operative  creamery  or- 
ganizations in  the  state. 

In  1904  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  &  St.  Paul  Railway  Company 
broadened  the  narrow  gauge  track  from  Wabasha  to  Zumbrota 
and  extended  the  track  to  Faribault,  at  which  time  the  present. 


townsite  of  Wanamingo  was  platted  by  the  Milwaukee  Land  Com- 
pany. The  village  has  experienced  a  steady  growth  since  the 
townsite  was  first  platted  and  at  present  has  a  population  of 
about  200  or  more  inhabitants.  That  the  place  has  become  one 
of  the  busiest  little  villages  in  southern  Minnesota  is  but  a  reflec- 
tion on  the  farming  community  in  which  it  is  located.  Wana- 
mingo  township  was.  according  to  the  census  of  1900,  the  richest 
agricultural  township  in  the  United  States  and  there  is  very  little 
if  any  difference  in  the  adjoining  townships  surrounding  the 
village.  A  genial  spirit  has  existed  between  the  business  of  the 
village  and  the  farmers  of  the  vicinity.  Business  enterprises  are 
controlled  by  local  capital,  the  farmers  holding  a  good  share. 

The  following  are  business  enterprises  represented  in  the  vil- 
lage at  present  : 

The  Farmers  State  Bank  of  Wanamingo,  with  a  capital  of 
$10,000.  was  organized  in  1904  through  the  efforts  of  Henry  M. 
and  Martin  Balvorson.  The  bank  received  its  certificate  of  or- 
ganization December  2.  1904,  and  commenced  doing  business 
February  1.  1905,  in  their  banking  house,  which  had  been  erected 
(luring  the  previous  fall.  Their  banking  house  is  a  one-story 
brick  building,  handsomely  erected  and  well  equipped  with  mod- 
ern furniture  and  fixtures.  The  stock  was  subscribed  and  is  held 
by  farmers  and  business  men  of  the  community.  The  bank's  busi- 
ness has  been  guarded  by  a  careful  and  conservative  management 
and  has  had  a  marvelous  increase  until  the  deposits  have  reached 
$220,000  and  loans  $185,000.  The  bank  has  a  permanent  surplus 
fund  of  $3,500.  The  directors  are:  O.  Follingstad,  X.  J.  Olness, 
('has.  O.  Roe.  E.  B.  Lunde,  T.  Thompson.  Hon.  C.  L.  Brusletten, 
Hon.  A.  J.  Bockne,  Martin  Halvorson  and  Henry  M.  Halvorson. 
The  officers  at  present  are:  O.  Follingstad,  president;  Henry  M. 
Halvorson,  vice  president  and  secretary:  X.  J.  Olness,  vice  presi- 
dent; Martin  Halvorson,  cashier. 

The  Minneola  Creamery  Company  was  organized  December  26, 
1893.  The  first  set  of  officers  were :  President,  J.  B.  Locke ;  treas- 
urer, O.  T.  Berg;  secretary  and  manager,  Edw.  G.  Hammer.  The 
directors  were  :  Henry  Weiss,  Henry  James.  XT.  J.  Olness  and  R. 
O.  Lund.  J.  B.  Locke,  who  probably  did  most  to  promote  the 
organization  of  the  company,  served  as  president  until  his  death. 
O.  T.  Berg  has  served  as  treasurer  of  the  company  since  organiza- 
tion. R.  0.  Lund  served  as  secretary  and  manager  from  1894  to 
1900.  Carl  Fossum  has  served  in  the  same  capacity  since  1900 
The  present  officers  are:  President.  L.  H.  Ofstie;  secretary  and 
manager,  Carl  Fossum ;  treasurer,  O.  T.  Berg.  The  directors  are 
Sam  0.  Aslackson,  Oscar  Steberg.  0.  R.  Reberg  and  0.  T.  Teigen. 
The  company  manufactured  last  year  over  550,000  pounds  of  but- 
ter, which   sold   for  over  $125,000.  .  Business  has  outgrown  the 

EISTOKY  OE  GOODIU'I-:  COl   \I'V  <j27 

present  planl  and  a  new  building  is  under  construction,  which 
will  be  one  of  the  most  modem  creamery  buildings  in  the  state. 
The  building  is  being-  erected  from  concrete  blocks  and  tile  blocks 
with  eenient  Hours  and  ceilings  and  the  building  is  arranged  so 
that  the  products  shall  be  handled  to  the  best  advantage  and 
labor  brought  down  to  the  minimum  cost.  M.  A.  Swee  is  the 
present    biitterinaker. 

The  Farmers  Elevator  Company  was  organized  July  8,  1905. 
The  first  set  of  officers  were:  President.  L.  J.  Gjemse;  vice-presi- 
dent, II.  0.  Xaeseth:  secretary,  .1.  A.  Norstad;  treasurer.  Henry 
M.  Halvorson.  The  directors  were  A.  T.  Tongen,  0.  S.  Haugen 
and  Alfred  Steberg.  The  company  has  a  paid  capital  of  $4,200, 
owns  two  well  equipped  elevator  buildings  and  has  a  surplus  fund 
of  $2,500.  (  has.  O.  Roe  served  as  manager  from  organization 
until  .July,  1909.  At  present  II.  O.  Xaeseth  is  manager  and  E.  G. 
Rosvold  assistant  manager.  The  officers  at  present  are:  Presi- 
dent, L.  J.  Gjemse:  vice-president,  T.  B.  Tunks;  secretary,  P.  L. 
Panlsness.  and  treasurer,  E.  I.  Morkri.  The  directors  are:  F.  R. 
Miller,  A.  A.  Steberg  and  Nels  Nerison. 

Farmers  Mutual  Telephone  Company  of  Goodhue  County  was 
organized  in  1903.  Has  200  phones  and  is  having  a  steady  growth. 
The  officers  are:  President.  O.  T.  Teigen;  vice-president,  P.  L. 
Paulsness;  secretary.  A.  Pordahl;  treasurer,  Martin  Halvorson; 
directors,  P.  L.  ITstad.  O.  R.  Reberg  and  L.  L.  Romo. 

Wanamingo  Flour  Mills,  fifty  barrel  capacity  and  feed  mill  in 
connection ;  A.  J.  Fordahl,  proprietor.  Milwaukee  Elevator  Com- 
pany, August  Moses,  agent.  Wanamingo  Lumber  Company,  deal- 
ing in  all  kinds  of  building  material  and  coal;  H.  S.  Swan,  man- 
ager. Myron  &  Olson,  hardware  and  machinery;  A.  0.  Berg7 
manager.  Syverson  Bros.,  hardware  and  farming  implements ; 
Martin  Syverson  and  Adolf  Syverson,  individual  partners.  Rom- 
ness  Bros.,  general  merchandise.  Nels  0.  and  Halvor  0.  Romness 
are  the  individual  partners.  J.  A.  Norstad  &  Co.,  general  mer- 
chandise; J.  A.  Norstad.  Wanamingo  Restaurant,  H.  N.  Setranr 
proprietor.  Ree  Restaurant,  B.  M.  Ree,  proprietor.  Johnson 
Telephone  Exchange ;  L.  J.  Johnson  proprietor.  Harness,  Shoe 
and  Repair  Shop;  A.  Brislance,  proprietor.  Dealer  in  Live  Stock, 
A.  A.  Steberg.  Meat  Market,  Paul  Jacobson.  Livery  and  dray, 
Richard  Tiller.  Blacksmith  Shop,  John  Wolf.  Photograph  Gal- 
lery, C.  E.  Pearson,  who  is  also  postmaster.  Weekly  Newspaper, 
Wanamingo  Progress,  Edw.  Oredalen,  editor. 

The  village  has  a  first  grade  school  and  a  church  is  being 
erected  by  the  Lutheran  Evangelical  denomination.  The  village 
furthermore  has  good  railway,  passenger  and  freight  service  and 
receives  its  mail  tAvice  daily.  The  citizens  are  enterprising  and 
progressive.     Good  business  blocks  are  being  erected,  beautiful 


homes  are  built  and  fitted  with  modern  conveniences,  and  cement 
walks  are  being  constructed.  There  is  no  reason  why  the  village 
should  not  continue  to  be  the  common  trading  point  of  the  sur- 
rounding community  and  grow  as  the  farming  community  de- 
mands it. —  By  Henry  Halvorson. 

The  Wanamingo,  Cherry  Grove  and  Minneola  Mutual  Fire  In- 
surance Company  was  organized  May  27.  1876,  in  accordance 
with  chapter  83  of  the  general  laws  of  the  state  of  Minnesota, 
approved  March  9,  1875.  The  following  named  gentlemen  signed 
the  articles  of  agreement :  Ole  P.  Floan,  N.  J.  Ottum,  Henry  Nel- 
son, 0.  J.  Wing,  Ole  R.  Lund.  Peder  N.  Xesseth,  Ole  J.  Romfo, 
Ole  T.  Berg,  Rognald  Olson,  John  A.  Borstad,  Ellef  Haugesag, 
Ole  J.  Kvittem,  Haagen  Nelson.  Swen  Olsen.  Tost  en  Kleven,  Ole 
Aufinson,  G.  II.  Stuvrud,  Ever  Iverson,  Gnnder  Bremseth,  Lars  J. 
Romo,  N.  A.  Stageberg,  Peder  X.  Lerfald,  John  J.  Lilleskov,  Hans 
Isackson,  Nils  0.  Nordly,  Thosten  Thompson,  Haagen  Thoreson, 
R.  H.  Chrislock,  Samuel  A.  Holland.  John  0.  Baar,  Johanes  J. 
Marejeren,  Lasse  N.  Morken,  Nils  K.  Fenne  and  A.  J.  Barsness. 
The  first  officers  were:  President.  Ole  P.  Floan;  secretary.  N.  J. 
Ottum;  treasurer,  Nils  0.  Nordby.  The  board  of  directors  con- 
sisted of  these  three  gentlemen  and  Filing  Albertson,  Ole  J. 
Romfo,  Ole  T.  Berg,  Ole  R.  Lund  and  Peder  X.  Xesseth. 

During  the  year  1885,  the  company  enlarged  ils  territory,  ad- 
mitting the  following  towns:  Roscoe.  Pine  Island.  Zumbrota, 
Belle  Creek.  Leon,  Goodhue,  Kenyon.  Holden  and  Warsaw,  so 
that  it  now  comprises  a  territory  of  twelve  townships.  It  has 
grown  steadily  until  at  the  present  time  it  has  a  total  of  1,150 
persons,  holding  over  1,200  policies,  covering  an  insurance  of 
$2,500,000.  The  company  has.  during  the  time  of  its  existence, 
sustained  and  paid  563  losses  amounting  to  $48,227.92.  During 
the  year  1906  a  special  meeting  was  held  to  prolong  the  com- 
pany's existence  for  another  term  of  thirty  years.  At  this  meet- 
ing all  the  then  existing  by-laws  were  repealed  and  a  new  set 
enacted,  one  more  director  being  added.  The  present  officers 
are :  President,  O.  J.  Wing,  Wanamingo ;  vice  president,  0.  T. 
Berg.  Cherry  Grove  (Mr.  Berg  has  been  a  director  thirty- three 
years,  since  the  organization  of  the  company)  ;  treasurer,  N.  A. 
Stageberg.  Wanamingo ;  directors,  P.  0.  Finstuen,  Roscoe ;  0.  0. 
Nordvold,  Zumbrota ;  0.  F.  Kalass,  Minneola ;  Oliver  Berg,  Pine 
Island ;  Edward  Rowles,  Belle  Creek.  The  company  has  two  spe- 
cial agents,  H.  0.  Oakland.  Yv  anamingo ;  0.  I.  Morkri,  Cherry 
Grove.  The  headquarters  are  in  the  township  of  Wanamingo. 
and  the  annual  meeting  is  held  in  the  village  of  Wanamingo  on 
the  third  Saturday  of  January.  The  company  is  now  doing  an 
immense  business  of  over  half  a  million  dollars  insurance  annu- 
ally.   In  1908  it  was  $546,635,  and  has  been  as  high  as  $576,825 

n*uc  u 


Martin  Halyorsox,  Sr. 


in  one  year.  The  yearly  expenses  are  very  low  compared  with 
other  companies  of  about  the  same  size.  During  1908  it  amounted 
to  only  $596.21.  This  shows  that  the  company  has  accomplished 
its  object  of  being  a  money-saving  institution.  The  insurance 
rate  prior  to  1906  in  this  company  was  three  mills  on  the  dollar 
for  five-year  terms,  bu1  this  rate  proved  to  be  inadequate  to  de- 
fray expenses  to  pay  the  losses,  so  the  rates  were  raised  to  five 
mills,  and  as  since  January  11.  1906.  no  assessment  has  been  made, 
it  appears  that  the  present  rates  are  sufficient.  The  following 
report  furnished  through  the  kindness  of  A.  H.  Tongen,  secretary 
of  the  company,  shows  the  great  amount  of  business  done  since 
.May  27,  1876.  The  policies  issued  have  amounted  to  5,513,  and 
have  covered  an  insurance  of  $9,272,364.  The  policies  cancelled 
have  amounted  to  4,319  and  have  covered  an  insurance  of  $6,871,- 
771.  This  leaves  in  force  1,194  policies,  covering  an  insurance  of 

Receipts — Membership  and  policy  fee,  $36,081.05;  assessments, 
.+23.284.00;  interest.  $507.51;  borrowed,  $795.54;  other  sources, 
$10.33;  total  receipts,  $60,678.43. 

Disbursements — Losses  caused- by  lightning  (444),  +20,170.88; 
losses  caused  by  fire  (88),  $24,833.80;  losses  caused  by  steam 
thresher  (19),  $967.71  ;  (total  losses,  $45,972.39)  ;  paid  back  bor- 
rowed money.  $795.54;  other  expenditures,  $12,912.17;  total  paid 
out.  $59,680.10;  credit  balance.  December  31,  1908,  $998.33;  total, 

Martin  Halvorson,  Sr.,  now  deceased,  was  a  pioneer  merchant 
of  "Wanamingo.  Quiet  in  his  manners  and  disposition,  he  never 
sought  public  life  or  office,  but  his  many  good  qualities  endeared 
him  to  all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact.  He  was  born  in  Nor- 
way in  1842,  and  came  to  America  in  1866,  locating  in  AVana- 
mingo  township.  Soon  after  arriving  in  this  county  he  entered 
the  employ  of  H.  C.  Serum,  who  kept  a  general  store  in  Wana- 
mingo village.  In  1872,  Mr.  Halvorson  purchased  the  establish- 
ment and  one  year  later  was  appointed  postmaster,  a  position  he 
held  until  1898.  His  store  was  a  great  success,  and  not  only  did 
the  farmers  for  miles  around  seek  his  place  to  purchase  goods, 
but  also  to  ask  advice  and  to  secure  Mr.  Halvorson 's  opinions, 
which  were  always  sure  to  be  sound  and  good.  Mr.  Halvorson 
was  married  in  1873  to  Greatha  Bjornethun,  also  a  native  of  Nor- 
way, by  whom  he  had  seven  children:  Henry.  Lena  (deceased). 
Rev.  Jens,  now  of  Ashland,  "Wis. ;  Lena,  now  Mrs.  (Rev.)  M.  Thom- 
son, of  New  Folden,  Minn. ;  Martin,  Frederick,  who  is  on  the  old 
homestead,  and  Gustav,  a  student  in  the  law  department  of  the 
state  university  at  Minneapolis.  Mr.  Halvorson  died  in  1899, 
and  his  widow  still  survives. 



Warsaw  lies  on  the  eastern  border  of  Goodhue  county  and 
comprises  township  11,  range  18.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Stanton,  cast  by  Leon,  south  by  Holden  and  west  by  Rice  county. 
The  Little  Cannon  river  passes  along  the  eastern  border,  and  in 
the  valley  of  this  river  appears  some  timber,  particularly  notice- 
able in  the  southeastern  portion.  The  larger  part  of  the  surface, 
however,  is  rolling  prairie,  with  deep  soil,  and  consequently  many 
fine  farms. 

"Happy  is  the  land  that  has  no  history."  says  an  ancient 
writer.  This  is  true  of  Warsaw.  Agriculture  has  been  the  impor- 
tant industry  in  the  township,  and  from  the  earliest  settlement 
the  story  of  Warsaw  has  been  one  of  increased  cultivation, 
where  the  people  live  in  peace  and  contentment,  free  from  the 
disputes  and  stirring  events  which,  while  they  made  interesting 
reading,  do  not  always  tend  to  the  real  benefit  or  growth  of  a 
locality.  In  .June.  IS.")."),  the  northern  part  of  this  township  was 
sillied  by  a  party  of  Americans  consisting  of  the  brothers. 
Musis.  William  and  Edwin  George,  Robert  McCorkle  (some- 
times given  ;is  McCoskel),  I-].  II.  Sumner,  Washington  King,  R. 
B.  Wilson,  -I.  E.  Wrigb.1  ami  Francis  McKee.  These  men  at  once 
started  farming,  and  while  tiny  endured  the  hardships  always 
incident  to  pioneer  life,  their  firsl  crops  were  good,  and  from 
some  of  tin'  worse  privations  they  were  spared.  In  1856  a  child 
was  born  to  Washington  King,  a  truly  important  event,  and  duly 
celebrated  by  the  pioneers,  who  all  wanted  to  take  a  peep  at  the 
little  stranger.  The  following  year,  1857,  John  Chambers  died 
and  tlie  funeral  was  attended  by  the  entire  population  of  the 
settlement.  In  the  summer  of  1858  Rev.  Isaac  Waldron  con- 
ducted the  first  religious  services,  in  a  room  of  a  house  owned 
by  Alex  McKee.  In  the  same  room  Emma  IJabcock  kept  the 
first  school,  in  the  summer  of  1859.  Mr.  Johnson  built  the  first 
blacksmith  shop  in  1864.  and  later  others  were  added. 

The  settlement  in  the  southern  part  of  the  township  Avas 
started  in  1856,  by  Anders  Anderson,  Nils  Gunderson,  Ole  and 
Ha  gen  Knutson.  Andrew  Thompson  and  others.  Soon  a  Nor- 
wegian eolony  grew  up  around  them. 

The  township  was  organized  in  1858.  with  N.  B.  Townsend  as 
chairman  and  J.  E.  Wright  as  clerk.    Other  early  chairmen  were 

Samuel   Carpenter.  Abram   Towne.  J.   L.   Wells.  Rice, 

R.  B.  Wilson  and  Chris.  Lochren.  Among  the  early  clerks  were 
William  George,  Edwin  George.  T.  Bowman.  Chris.  Lochren  and 
George  Sheets. 

Warsaw's  contribution  to  the  Civil  War  consisted  of:  John 
A.  Bond.  Cyrus  Bondurant,  Ulrich  K.  Burk.  Joseph  E.  Charles. 


Swen  Christopherson,  Clinton  L.  Babcock,  Ole  Christopher, 
Lyman  S.  Kidder,  Lot  Heustis,  William  McFall,  James  C.  Rhodes, 
Thomas  II.  Dailey,  Clark  Schellenberger,  Hiram  C.  Smith,  H. 
Zimmerman,  Calvin  Daniels,  Samuel  Eldredge,  C.  R.  Eldredge, 
Levi  King,  George  McKinley,  Silas  Mills,  Ole  Nelson,  Francis 
J.  Ridgeway,  Benjamin  II.  Ridgeway,  James  II.  Wright,  Joseph 
E.  Charles,  Herman  Scherf,  Swan  Hailing,  John  N.  Morrell, 
Andrew  Swanberg.  Morris  Tracy,  Ole  Torgeson,  John  Johnson, 
Ole  Hendriekson,  Andrew  Sanborg,  Benjamin  0.  Bong,  Osten 
Anderson,  Lewis  Kock,  Ernest  Zahn,  Daniel  F.  Dibble,  Patrick 
Gribbin,  Edwin  R.  Nafry,  Alfred  Alphinson,  Augustus  Houghton, 
William   Mills,   Henry    Martin,   Ole  Larson,  Walter  L.  Winton. 

There  are  three  small  settlements  in  the  township,  Dennison 
in  the  west,  Wangs  in  the  center  and  Sogan  in  the  eastern  part. 

Beautiful,  well  furnished  and  well  appointed  homes,  commo- 
dious barns,  sleek  livestock,  rich  acres,  an  educated  and  cultured 
people,  tells  the  story  of  Warsaw  of  the  present  day. 

Dennison  is  a  village  of  170  souls  situated  on  the.  western 
boundary  line  of  Warsaw  township,  being  about  one-third  in 
Rice  county.  The  name  is  derived  from  an  early  settler  who 
originally  owned  considerable  land  where  the  village  is  now 
located.  The  population  of  the  village  is  about  three-fourths 
Scandinavian.  The  first  men  to  start  in  business  in  the  village 
were  Karl  A.  and  Gunder  Bonhus,  who  conducted  a  general  store. 
After  eight  years  they  were  succeeded  by  A.  K.  Lockrem.  The 
Methodist  Episcopal  church  was  built  in  1883,  blown  down  in 
1885  and  rebuilt  the  same  year.  The  railroad  came  through  in 
1884,  and  was  operated  by  the  Minnesota  &  Northwestern.  The 
line  was  then  sold  to  the  Chicago,  St.  Paul  &  Kansas  City,  and 
subsequently  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Chicago  Great  Western. 
The  first  blacksmith  was  J.  W.  Downing.  The  first  hardware  and 
implement  store  was  that  of  Bunday  &  Ferguson,  established 
March  10,  1887.  The  school  bouse  is  a  comfortable  building. 
42x45  with  four  rooms,  built  of  brick.  It  provides  for  the  chil- 
dren living  in  the  incorporate  limits,  the  districts  having  origi- 
nally been  34  and  155,  respectively,  in  Rice  and  Goodhue  counties. 
The  village  now  has  a  bank  (branch),  one  hardware  store,  one 
lumber  yard,  three  general  stores,  a  harness  shop,  a  postoffice 
with  two  rural  routes,  a  barber  shop,  two  blacksmiths,  one  meat 
market,  one  farmers'  elevator,  a  pastuerizing  milk  plant,  a 
Methodist  church  and  a  public  school. 

The  Dennison  State  bank  is  a  thriving  institution  with  a 
capital  stock  of  $15,000.  The  officers  are:  President,  J.  C. 
Schmidt ;  vice-president,  W.  T.  Schmidt ;  cashier,  W.  W.  Wescott ; 
assistant  cashier,  O.  R.  Bolen. 



Welch  includes  the  east  half  of  government  township  114 
north  of  range  16  west,  and  the  whole  of  township  113  north  of 
range  16  west,  except  that  part  which  lies  south  of  the  Cannon 
river.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Mississippi  river,  on 
the  east  by  Burnside,  on  the  south  by  Vasa  and  on  the  west  by 
Dakota  county.  The  surface  is  much  broken,  but  rarely  rocky 
except  along  the  immediate  bluffs.  The  valleys  are  generally 
rich  alluvial,  but  in  the  northern  part  of  the  town  the  valley 
which  is  tributary  to  the  Mississippi  at  Etter  .is  gravelly  and 
sandy,  with  terraces  scantily  clothed  with  crooked  oaks  and 
bushes.  A  magnificent  view  is  afforded  from  the  high  land  near 
the  church  on  the  northwest  corner  of  section  15.  The  mounds 
south  of  Hastings  can  be  seen  distinctly,  also  the  smoke  from 
Bastings  and  the  high  land  above  Hastings  on  each  side  of  the 
St.  Croix  valley.  The  middle  of  the  township  is  rolling  prairie, 
the  northern  portion  consists  of  a  large  part  of  Prairie  Island, 
bordering  the  Mississippi   and  the  Vermillion  rivers. 

Those  interested  in  the  story  of  Welch  should  read  the  early 
history  of  Burnside,  the  record  of  the  early  days  being  identical, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  they  were  under  one  government.  The 
Indian  settlement  on  Prairie  Island  is  also  treated  of  under  the 
head  of  Burnside  in  this  history. 

Settlers  came  into  Welch,  both  from  Dakota  and  Goodhue- 
counties,  in  1855-56.  but  these  settlers  left  for  what  to  them 
seemed  more  desirable  locations  in  more  southerly  and  prairie- 
like townships.  These  settlers  left  no  record  of  their  occupancy, 
and  have  now  passed  from  memory.  The  permanent  settlers  did 
not  come  until  1857-58,  Welch  being  the  last  township  to  be 
taken  up  by  the  homesteaders.  Among  these  permanent  settlers, 
were  E.  W.  Carver.  William  Boothroyd,  Michael  Henry,  John 
Bloom,  Gohcham  Esta.  D.  0.  Swanson,  Benjamin  Beavers  and 
N.  C.  Crandall. 

March  23.  1864,  on  petition,  the  board  of  commissioners 
divided  Burnside  by  setting  off  the  east  fractional  half  of  town- 
ship 114,  range  16,  and  all  of  township  113,  range  16,  lying  north 
of  the  Cannon  river  and  called  it  Grant.  Another  township  in 
the  state  already  bore  that  name,  and  the  state  auditor,  under 
date  of  December  31.  1871,  directed  a  change  of  name.  January 
3,  1872,  the  commissioners  took  up  the  matter  and  changed  the 
name  to  Welch,  in  honor  of  the  late  Major  Abram  Edwards 
Welch,  of  Red  Wing. 

The  first  board  of  officers,  while  the  town  still  bore  the 
name  of  Grant,  were:  Supervisors,  A.  Coons  (chairman),  Joseph 
Eggleston,  Benjamin  Bevers;   town   clerk,  J.  B.  Waugh ;  treas- 


urer,  M.  O'Rourke;  assessor,  E.  "W.  Carver;  justice,  J.  B.  Waugh; 
constables,  P.  C.  Brown  and  D.  Black. 

On  September  6,  1864,  a  special  town  meeting  was  called, 
for  the  purpose  of  voting  a  tax  to  raise  money  to  pay  volun- 
teers to  fill  the  quota  required  from  the  town,  at  which  meeting 
it  was  voted  to  raise  $600  as  a  bounty  to  volunteers  for  the  Civil 
War.  Another  war  meeting  was  held  February  11,  1865,  for  the 
purpose  of  raising  more  bounty  money.  At  this  meeting  it  was 
voted  to  raise  $700  to  pay  volunteers,  if  they  could  be  obtained, 
and  if  not,  to  pay  men  who  stood  the  draft.  E.  W.  Carver  was 
selected  to  look  after  the  matter  of  obtaining  men  to  fill  the 
town's  quota.  Those  who  went  to  the  war  from  this  town  were; 
Philo  Brown,  J.  S.  Nelson  and  S.  S.  Twitchell. 

After  the  name  Of  the  town  was  changed  to  Welch  the  first 
board  consisted  of:  Supervisors,  M.  Henry  (chairman),  Thomas 
Brenner  and  Michael  Hart;  clerk,  J.  S.  Nelson. 

A  Swedish  Lutheran  church  was  erected  in  1878,  at  a  cost 
of  $4,600.  In  1886  a  store  was  built  at  Welch  Mills  at  a  cost  of 
$500.    In  1900  an  elevator  was  erected  at  a  cost  of  $1,500. 

The  residents  of  Welch  are  a  happy,  prosperous  people,  who 
have  achieved  much  success  in  their  farming  operations. 

Welch  Village,  formerly  called  Welch  Mills,  now  has  a  small 
flour  mill  with  elevator,  two  stores,  a  boarding  house,  two  black- 
smith shops,  a  station  on  the  branch  line  of  the  Chicago,  Mil- 
waukee &  St.  Paul  and  a  station  across  the  river  on  the  Chicago 
Great  Western. 



Zumbrota  Village — Its  Situation  and  Advantages — Modern  Zum- 
brota — Water,  Sewer  and  Public  Halls — Fire  Department — 
Industries — Banks — Hotels — Mills  and  Elevators — Creamery 
— Fraternities — Village  History  and  Officers — T.  P.  Kellett's 
Speech  —  Military  Company  —  Village  Schools  —  Public 
Library — Zumbrota  Township — Township  Officers  Since 
Early  Days — Soldiers  from  This  Township. 

Zumbrota  Village  is  rich  in  historic  lore,  being  one  of  several 
settlements,  projected  by  eastern  people,  and  designed  to  be 
places  to  which  should  be  transported  with  more  roomy  sur- 
roundings jiihI  wider  opportunities,  the  thrift,  education  and  cus- 
toms of  the  thickly  populated  East.  To  this  day,  these  sturdy 
eastern  pioneers  remain  in  the  township  and  village,  and  form 
the  backbone  of  the  community.  As  elsewhere  in  the  county,  the 
sturdy  Scandinavians  have  had  their  part  in  the  general  growth 
and  development  of  the  community,  while  in  the  village  itself 
are  many  comparative  newcomers  who  have  assisted  in  the  mate- 
rial and  business  progress  of  Zumbrota 's  industrial  and  commer- 
cial activity. 

The  history  of  this  community  has  been  gathered  from  various 
sources,  assisted  by  Edward  F.  Davis,  editor  of  the  Zumbrota 
"News,"  while  the  story  of  the  modern  village  is  largely  the 
work  of  his  gifted  pen. 

Zumbrota  village  is  the  trading  center  for  one  of  the  richest 
agricultural  sections  of  what  is  acknowledged  to  be  one  of  the 
richest  agricultural  states  in  the  Union,  commanding  a  large  part 
of  the  trade  of  the  farmers  of  Roseoe,  Minneola,  Pine  Island  and 
Zumbrota  townships,  as  well  as  other  adjoining  country  districts. 
It  is  admirably  situated  in  the  midst  of  a  rolling  prairie,  on  the 
north  branch  of  the  Zumbro  river  and  on  the  Northwestern,  Great 
Western  and  Milwaukee  railroads,  giving  it  exceptional  shipping 
facilities,  while  well  kept  wagon  roads  extending  fan-like  in  all 


111STOKY   OF  I >HUE  COUNTY  235 

directions,  make  it  easy  of  access  to  the  owners  of  the  rich  farms 
within  a  considerable  radius. 

Zumbrota  lias  been  considered  by  many  competent  judges  to 
be  an  ideal  home  town.  Near  enough  to  several  cities  to  make 
city  attractions  and  lectures  possible,  it  combines  all  the  best 
features  of  village  and  country  life,  with  none  of  the  temptations 
of  the  city  and  none  of  the  squalor  of  city  slums.  Its  schools  give 
the  children  exceptional  advantages,  and  the  social  features  fur- 
nish recreation  after  busy  days  of  business,  professional  or  agri- 
cultural endeavor. 

Modern  Zumbrota  has  a  beautiful  high  school  building,  afford- 
ing excellent  educational  facilities  which  takes  the  pupil  from 
primary  grades  through  a  college  preparatory  or  normal  course; 
a  Carnegie  library;  a  city  and  three  private  halls;  a  Congrega- 
tional. Methodist.  Synod,  Norwegian  Lutheran,  United  Norwe- 
gian Lutheran,  German  Lutheran.  English  Lutheran,  Catholic 
and  Episcopal  churches,  connected  with  which  are  the  various 
auxiliaries;  a  Lutheran  hospital;  several  literary  societies;  an 
annual  Lyceum  course;  a  large  number  of  fraternities,  and- three 
fraternity  halls:  a  weekly  newspaper;  a  beautiful  park;  a  band, 
and  a  company  of  state  militia.  It  also  has  a  large  clay  manu- 
facturing company:  three  elevators;  a  mill;  a  bank  with  a  capital 
stock  of  $45,000;  two  hotels;  two  lumber  yards;  one  creamery; 
a  cement  block  plant;  six  general  stores;  two  clothing  and  dry 
goods  stores;  two  furniture  stores:  two  photograph  galleries; 
three  barber  shops;  one  horse  and  auto  livery;  one  garage  and 
machine  shop;  four  blacksmith  shops;  two  jewelry  stores;  one  fur 
factory;  one  meat  market;  two  drug  stores;  one  laundry;  one 
bakery;  three  restaurants;  one  pool  room;  one  wagon  shop:  two 
hardware  stores;  one  cigar  factory;  two  harness  shops;  one  shoe 
store:  real  estate  and  collection  agency;  five  saloons;  four  mil- 
linery stores  and  one  tailor  shop.  Among  the  advantages  which 
makes  Zumbrota  a  valuable  place  of  residence  are  a  perfect  sys- 
tem of  water  works  and  sewerage;  excellent  streets  and  drive- 
ways extending  into  well  kept  country  roads ;  five  miles  of  cement 
sidewalks;  good  volunteer  fire  protection;  electric  lighting  plant; 
local  and  rural  telephone  system;  three  telegraph  lines,  and 
two  express  companies. 

The  professions,  aside  from  the  clergy,  are  represented  by  one 
lawyer,  two  dentists,  three  physicians,  one  veterinary  surgeon 
and  one  optician. 

Water  Works.  The  water  works  system  was  started  in  the 
summer  of  1883  and  consisted  of  three  blocks  of  mains  along  the 
main  street,  which  were  supplied  by  a  pump  in  the  Palmer  elevator 
and  the  water  taken  from  the  river.  This  was  for  fire  protection 
only.     Two  vears  later  the  system  was  extended   and   n   75,000 


barrel  reservoir  erected  on  a  hill  southeast  of  the  village,  a  well 
dug  and  a  pumping  station  erected  in  the  village,  which  now  sup- 
plies good,  pure  water  for  domestic  use  as  well  as  for  fire  pro- 
tection. In  1907  thirteen  blocks  of  six-inch  mains  were  extended 
to  various  sections  of  the  village.  The  system  is  owned  by  the 
village  and  under  the  supervision  of  the  council. 

Sewer  System.  In  1906  a  sanitary  sewer  system  was  installed 
and  takes  care  of  the  business  section  of  the  town.  A  survey  of 
the  whole  village  was  made,  but  as  yet  only  seven  blocks  have 
been  installed. 

Halls.  There  are  seven  halls  in  the  village,  three  of  which  are 
used  for  lodge  purposes,  one  city  hall  and  three  private  halls. 
The  Odd  Fellows  hall  is  owned  by  Mrs.  H.  H.  Palmer;  the  Ma- 
sonic, by  F.  C.  Marvin;  the  Woodmen,  by  Kolbe  &  Kalass.  The 
private  halls  are  owned  by  F.  C.  Marvin.  John  Anderson  and 
Sohn  &  Trelstad. 

The  Zumrota  City  Hall  was  built  of  wood.  00x40  feet,  two 
stories,  in  1887,  at  a  cost  of  $4,500,  under  the  supervision  .of  N.  T. 
Wedge,  The  building  committee  consisted  of  S.  B.  Bartean.  C.  E. 
Johnson.  F.  Gr.  Marvin  and  K.  S.  Sigmund.  The  building  contains 
a  hall  for  public  meetings,  also  the  volunteer  Ore  apparatus,  the 
headquarters  of  the  volunteer  fire  department,  and  a  jail,  con- 
sisting of  two  steel  cages. 

Fire  Protection.  Probably  no  village  in  the  stale  has  better 
fire  protection  than  has  Zumbrota,  and  for  that  reason  insurance 
rates  are  exceedingly  low.  The  village  supports  a  volunteer  fire 
department,  consisting  of  ninety  men  (the  third  largest  in  the 
state)  winch  is  divided  into  three  hose  companies  of  twenty  men 
each  and  one  hook  and  ladder  truck  company  of  thirty  men.  The 
apparatus  is  owned  by  the  city  and  kept  at  the  city  hall. 

Fire  Department.  The  fire  department  consists  of'Hook  and 
Ladder  Company  No.  1,  Hose  Company  No.  1,  Royal  Hose  Com- 
pany and  the  Clipper  Hose  Company.  There  is  one  hook  and 
ladder  truck  equipped  with  ladders,  hooks,  chains,  etc.;  three 
hose  carts  each  carrying  an  average  of  six  hundred  feet  of  hose. 
Each  company  has  its  own  separate  organization  and  officers,  who 
are  governed  by  a  set  of  department  officers  who  are  elected  by 
the  whole  department.  A  board  of  directors  consisting  of  two 
members  from  each  company,  the  chief  presiding,  attend  to  all 
business  matters  of  the  department.  The  department  was  organ- 
ized August  23,  1883,  at  which  time  M.  L.  Webb  was  elected  the 
first  chief ;  B.  C.  Grover,  first  assistant ;  C.  E.  Johnson,  second 
assistant;  William  B.  Bowdish.  secretary;  H.  II.  Palmer,  treas- 
urer. At  that  time  the  department  consisted  of  the  hook  and 
ladder  company  and  Hose  Company  No.  1.  P.  Dickenson  was 
elected  foreman  of  the  former  and  Axel  Anderson   foreman  of 


the  hitter.  The  Royal  Hose  Company  was  organized  February  11, 
1885,  and  its  tirst  foreman  or  captain  was  C.  E.  Johnson.  The 
Clipper  Hose  Company  was  organized  October  6,  1896,  and  after  a 
strenuous  fight  was  admitted  to  the  department  March  15,  1897. 
Its  first  captain  was  Frank  W.  Yochem.  The  present  officers  are 
A.  II.  Kellett,  chief;  II.  J.  Teich,  first  assistant;  Aug.  Biersdorf, 
second  assistant,  E.  F.  Davis,  secretary;  II.  E.  Weiss,  treasurer. 

Hospital.  The  Zumbrota  Lutheran  Hospital  was  erected  in 
1898  at  a  <-ost  of  about  $8,000,  under  the  auspices  of  various  Lu- 
theran societies.  It  is  a  fine  twenty-eight  room  building,  built 
of  pressed  brick  and  fitted  throughout  with  modern  conveniences. 
It  has  an  ideal  location  on  the  outskirts  of  the  village,  and  it  is 
greatly  regretted  by  the  people  of  this  vicinity  that  the  institu- 
tion is  out  of  com  mission  at  the  present  time.  However,  it  is 
expected  that  within  a  short  time  it  will  again  be  ready  to  re- 
ceive patients. 

The   principal   business   houses   of  Zumbrota   are   as  follows: 
Lumber  yards — Wedge,  Weiss   &   Co..   N.   T.  Wedge,   Henry  E. 
Weiss,  C.  L.  Grover,  proprietors;  Marvin  Lumber  Company,  F.  L. 
.Marvin,  proprietor,  AYilliam  Croxford.  manager.     Cement  blocks 
— Wedge,  Weiss  &  Co.     General  stores — New  Store,  Anto  Amli 
and  Anton  Johnson ;  City  Grocery  store,  J.  0.  Olson,  proprietor ; 
Lee  Schafer,  Martin  Satren.  L.  J.  Henning.  0.  N.  Berg.    Clothing 
and  dry  goods — The  Star,  R.  R.  Sigmond,  L.  W.  Olson;  Meyer  & 
Johns,  Fred  W.  Meyer  and  William  F.  Johns.    Furniture  stores — 
Langum  &  Nordvold.  J.  B.  Langum  and  Adolph  Nordvold  ;  Dan- 
ielson   Furniture   and   Music   Company.   Charles   Danielson,   pro- 
prietor,   J.    A.    Boraas,    manages.      Photograph    galleries — A.    J. 
Trelstad,  0.  G.  Stearns.     Barber  shops— Miller  &  Ellstrom,  J.  C. 
Miller  and  Richard  Ellstrom ;  R.  D.  Windslow.  Ben  Hainan.  Horse 
and  auto  livery — B.  0.  Grover  &  Son   (J.  D.).     Garage  and  ma- 
chine shop — Skillman  &  Ness,  Lambert  Skillman  and  A.  0.  Ness 
Blacksmiths — B.  A.  Nordly  &  Son  (Arthur),  R.  A.  Gorcler,  Joint 
Iloff,  Harry  Jewison.    Wagon  shop — H.  Keohler.    Jewelry  stores 
— J.  L.  Williams,  Edward  0.  Sohn.     Fur  factory— Teo.  Steelier 
Meat  Market— Hartwell  &  Matchan,  E.  T.  Hartwell  and  E.  M. 
Matchan.     Drug  stores— A.   S.  Baken,  J.  E.  Kyllo.     Laundry- 
Zumbrota    Steam,    P.    T.    Faus.      Bakery — City    Bakery,    Annen 
Olson,  proprietor.    Restaurants — Axel  Anderson  and  Lena  Howe. 
F.  W.  Johnson.     Pool  room — F.  W.  Stary.     Hardware  stores- 
Myron  &  Olson,  0.  A.  Myron  and  Charles  Olson  ;  Ira  D.  Warren  & 
Son   (S.  D.).     Cigar  factory— Henning  &   NTesseth,  George  Hen- 
ning and   Chris   Nesseth.     Harness   shops — B.    A.   Kolbe.    M.    II 
Baskfield.    Shoe  store— B.  A.  Kolbe.    Real  estate  and  collection 
A.  B.  Farwell.     Telegraph—  AVestern  Union,  E.  J.  Thomas,  a -cut 
at  Northwestern;  0.  K.  Anderson,  agenl   at    Milwaukee  depots; 


Postal  Telegraph,  William  Reimer,  agent  at  Great  Western  depot. 
Wells  Fargo  Express — William  Reimer,  agent  at  Great  Western 
depot,  and  O.  K.  Anderson,  agent  at  Milwaukee  depot.  American 
Express — E.  J.  Thomas,  agent  at  Northwestern  depot.  Millinery 
— Mrs.  J.  A.  Johnson,  Mrs.  M.  Ofstedahl.  Mrs.  Xettie  Anderson, 
Carrie  and  Mary  Dvergedahl.  Tailor — Charles  Anderson.  Pro- 
fessional men — Attorney.  A.  J.  Roekne :  dentists,  H.  B.  AVash- 
burn,  L.  M.  Woodbury;  physicians,  G.  0.  Fortney,  0.  0.  Larsen, 
K.  Gryttenholm :  optician.  L.  J.  Korstad;  veterinary  surgeon,  R. 
C.  Xickerson. 

The  First  State  Bank  of  Zmnbrota  whs  organized  in  the  spring 
of  1893  by  the  business  men  and  farmers  of  Zmnbrota  and  vicin- 
ity.' The  first  officers  were:  President.  0.  J.  Wing;  vice  presi- 
dent. Henry  Weiss;  cashier.  P.  A.  Henning;  directors,  the  three 
above  named  gentlemen  and  R.  0.  Lund  and  B..  J.  Kelsey.  In 
1893  a  fine  bank  building  was  erected.  At  the  time  of  the  consoli- 
dation with  the  Security  State  Bank,  August  1,  1909,  the  capital 
stock  was  $30,000  and  the  officers  were:  President,  0.  J.  Wing; 
vice  president,  O.  X.  Berg:  cashier,  A.  E.  Mosher;  assistant  cash- 
ier. M.  H.  Powers.  Prominently  identified  with  the  bank  was  E. 
S.  Person,  who  succeeded  P.  A.  Henning  and  served  until  1907. 

The  Security  State  Bank,  of  Zumbrota,  was  organized  June 
19,  1894,  by  the  March  Brothers,  of  Litchfield,  with  a  paid  in  cap- 
ital of  $30,000  and  an  authorized  capital  of  $100,000.  The  bank 
opened  for  business  July  2,  1894.  with  the  following  officers: 
President.  Christian  Peterson  ;  first  vice  president.  Henry  Ahne- 
man;  second  vice  president.  Martin  Halvorson;  cashier,  F.  M. 
March.  The  first  annual  meeting  was  held  Jan.  14,  1895,  at  which 
time  the  bank  deposits  were  $26,593.91.  as  shown  in  the  report 
below:  Assets  4;4.">.395.61  :  banking  house,  fixtures  and  furniture, 
$6.538.41 :  cash  and  due  from  banks.  $5,674.66.  Total.  $57,608.68. 
Liabilities:  Capital.  $30,000;  surplus  and  profit,  $1,014.77;  depo- 
sits, $26,593.91.  Total,  $57,608.68.  The  annual  reports  each  year 
show  an  increase  in  the  business.  On  Jan.  11.  1898.  F.  G.  Marvin 
was  elected  president  of  the  bank,  and  on  Feb.  17,  1900,  H.  E. 
AVeiss  was  elected  assistant  cashier.  On  June  13,  1903,  F.  M. 
March  was  elected  vice  president,  and  H.  E.  AVeiss  elected  cash- 
ier. April  8.  1907,  F.  C.  Marvin  was  elected  assistant  cashier. 
This  bank  was  consolidated  with  the  First  State  Bank,  Aug.  1, 
1909.  Under  the  new  organization  the  name  Security  State  Bank 
is  retained  and  the  name  First  State  Bank  is  discontinued.  Aug. 
15,  the  business  of  the  consolidated  banks,  roughly  estimated, 
was  as  follows  :  Capital,  surplus  and  profit,  $45,000 ;  deposits,  $300,- 
000;  loans  and  discounts.  $276,000:  banking  house  furniture.  $10,- 
000;  cash  and  discounts.  $52,000.     The  present  officers  are:  Presi- 



dent,  F.  G.  Marvin;  vice  president,  A.  J.  Rockne;  cashier,  E.  E. 
Weiss;  assistants,  A.  E.  Mosher  and  C.  Marvin. 

The  Zumbrota  House  was  built  in  October,  1856,  consisting  at 
that  time  of  only  a  small  wing.  It  was  erected  and  kept  by  Ezra 
Wilder.  The  hotel  building  was  then  20x60,  two  stories.  Mr. 
Wilder  sold  the  place  to  G.  R.  Slosson,  who  in  turn  sold  it  to  Fred 
George  in  1872.  In  the  spring  of  1872,  Mr.  George  built,  a  two- 
story  front,  20x70.    The  present  proprietor  is  E.  Molke. 

The  Midland  House  was  built  in  June,  1877,  by  George  W. 
Cunningham.  The  main  building  was  22x40,  two  stories,  with 
wing,  18x60.  Mr.  Cunningham  kept  the  house  until  March  1, 
1878,  when  he  leased  it  to  J.  R.  Clark.  This  hotel  is  now  known 
as  the  New  Hotel  and  is  conducted  by  J.  Schmidt,  having  recent- 
ly been  renovated  and  improved. 

The  Forest  Mills  were  put  up  by  William  S.  Wells  and  H.  H. 
Palmer  in  1867-68.  This  was  the  only  market  which  the  farmers 
in  the  vicinity  had  in  the  early  days  except  Red  Wing,  and  con- 
sequently the  mill  did  a  flourishing  business  for  many  years. 
Activity  at  this  point  consisted  of  a  cooper  shop,  a  flour  mill  and 
stores,  and  the  settlement  at  one  time  bid  fair  to  efface  Zum- 
brota. Old  settlers  tell  of  often  going  there  to  unload  their  grain 
and  being  obliged  to  take  their  turn  in  a  line  of  teams  over  a 
mile  long.  The  railroads  at  Zumbrota  and  Mazeppa,  however, 
brought  the  business  to  those  places  and  the  mill  was  idle  for  a 
number  of  years.  Five  years  ago  it  was  purchased  by  Theo. 
Stecher,  who  has  greatly  improved  the  mill  and  practically  re- 
built a  new  dam.  and  now  operates  it  as  a  grist  mill. 

The  Zumbrota  Creamery  was  erected  by  the  Crescenl  Cream- 
ery Company,  of  St.  Paul,  during  the  fall  of  1884,  who  operated 
it  about  eighteen  years.  The  building  was  erected  by  C.  E.  Mar- 
vin and  E.  A.  Cammack,  W.  H,  Squire  being  superintendent  of 
the  construction.  The  company's  first  manager  was  R.  Londick, 
and  he  was  succeeded  by  F.  W.  Stary.  The  latter  was  head  man 
at  the  place  for  sixteen  years.  About  nine  years  ago  the  Crescent 
people  sold  out  to  R.  O.  Lund,  who  continued  the  business  about 
five  years,  when  he  sold  to  E.  G.  Hammer,  who  took  possession 
October  1,  1906.  E.  A.  Mann  hauled  the  first  can  of  cream  to  the 
creamery  during  the  fall  of  1884.  On  June  13,  1907,  the  old 
creamery  was  destroyed  by  fire  and  before  the  ashes  were  cold 
a  new  modern  building  was  in  course  of  erection  and  was  com- 
pleted and  installed  with  machinery  and  running  in  a  little  over 
a  month.  The  new  building  and  machinery  is  estimated  a1  ^7.000. 
The  yearly  output  of  the  creamery  is  about  100.000  pounds,  and 
it  receives  cream  for  a  radius  of  sixty  miles  around  this  territory. 

The  Van  Duzen  Elevator  was  the  first  elevator  to  be  erected 


in  Zumbrota  and  was  completed  in  1878.  On  November  20  of  the 
same  year  F.  G.  Marvin  took  charge  of  the  company's  interests 
and  continued  as  their  local  manager  for  nearly  thirty  years,  or 
up  to  August  1,  1908.  A.  E.  Collinge  succeeded  Mr.  Marvin  as 
local  manager. 

The  Palmer  Elevator,  as  it  is  now  called,  was  erected  in  1880 
by  Wiljiam  Wells,  and  its  first  manager  was  H.  E.  Talmaclge,  now 
a  resident  of  Red  Wing.  AY  ells  sold  the  elevator  to  H.  H.  Palmer, 
who  continued  to  run  it  with  James  Hall  as  his  manager.  Later 
J.  0.  Jones  leased  it  and  bought  grain  independently.  It  was  closed 
for  some  years  and  in  1908  was  purchased  from  the  Palmer 
estate  by  the  Red  Wing  Malting  Company,  who  installed  Ed. 
Kolbe  as  their  local  buyer.  Mr.  Kolbe  resigned  August  1,  1909, 
and  O.  A.  Stondahl  succeeded  him. 

The  Farmers'  Elevator,  of  Zumbrota  was  organized  by  farm- 
ers in  1898.  The  first  president  was  E.  A.  Bigelow.  and  N.  T. 
Naeseth  was  the  first  manager.  Those  who  have  served  as  presi- 
dents  are:  Lou'*  Starz,  Josiah  Lothrop  and  Oliver  Berg.  The 
secretaries  have  been:  Fred  Elwell.  B.  A.  Colbe,  Bond  Olson.  A. 
( '.  Ylvasaker  and  O.  0.  Nordvold.  Treasurers:  Josiah  Lothrop, 
Louis  Starz.  Henry  Weiss. 

Rialroads.  The  first  railroad  to  reach  Zumbrota  was  started 
at  Wabash  in  1877  by  the  Minnesota  Midland  Company,  whose 
capital  was  exhausted  before  they  had  built  many  miles.  The 
Milwaukee  road  picked  up  the  construction  and  finished  the  road 
to  Zumbrota  in  1878.  That  same  year  the  Rochester  &  North- 
western (now  the  Northwestern)  run  a  branch  from  Rochester 
to  this  A'illage.  Both  lines  came  in  here  at  the  same  time  and 
both  claimed  a*  portion  of  the  right  of  way  at  the  foot  of  Main 
street.  Early  residents  tell  of  a  pitched  battle  between  the  two 
track  laying  crews  to  see  who  would  get  possession  of  the  dis- 
puted ground.  "The  Milwaukee  road  was  operated  as  a  narrow 
gauge  until  June  7.  1903,  during  which  year  it  was  extended 
through  to  Faribault  and  on  November  9,  1903,  the  first  standard 
gauge  train  passed  over  the  roadbed.  The  Rod  Wing  &  Iowa 
road  was  built  in  here  from  Red  Wing  in  1888.  Later  it  became 
the  property  of  the  Duluth,  Red  Wing  &  Southern  and  in  1902 
that  company  sold  it  to  the  Great  AVestern.  who  extended  it 
through  to  Rochester  the  following  year.  Thus  Zumbrota  now 
has  three  roads  running  into  the  village,  affording  excellent  pas- 
senger and  shipping  facilities. 

Telephones.  The  long  distance  telephone  from  Zumbrota  to 
Kenyon  was  the  result  of  the  efforts  of  Dr.  Ch.  Grondvold  and 
Dr.  K.  Gryttenholm.  The  former,  however,  died  in  1895  and  the 
negotiations    were   left    to   Dr.    Gryttenholm.   who   raised    about 

1 1 1  STOliY  OF  GOODHUE  COUNTY  241 

$2,000  among  the  farmers  ami  the  village  residents.  Dr.  Grytten- 
holm  corresponded  with  both  the  Northwestern  Telephone  Com- 
pany and  the  I  nion  Electric  Telephone  Company  of  Iowa,  with 
the  result  that  the  former  built  the  line.  It  was  completed  in 
the  fall  of  1895  from  Zombrota  and  Kenyon  with  a  side  line  to 
Hader  and  Aspelund.  In  1897  the  line  was  sold  to  the  North- 
western Telephone  Company.  The  first  local  telephone  franchise 
in  Zumbrota  was  granted  to  L.  D.  Ward  October  31,  1899,  who 
erected  a  few  poles  and  had  a  small  system  in  operation  for  about 
a  year,  when  he  sold  out  to  Elmer  Peek.  Mr.  Peck  ran  the  sys- 
tem about  two  years,  when  he  sold  to  Matchan,  Vickstrom  & 
Ward,  who  operated  it  for  one  year  and  then  sold  to  J.  I.  Howe. 
In  February,  1905,  Howe  sold  to  Messrs.  F.  G.  and  F.  C.  Marvin, 
who  have  extended  the  system  into  the  country  districts  and  have 
an  up-to-date  service  in  every  respect. 

Electric  Lights.  Elmer  Peck  erected  and  equipped  the  first 
electric  light  plant  in  Zumbrota,  getting  a  franchise  in  October, 
1898.  The  first  plant  was  established  in  a  building  on  what  is 
now  the  Great  Western  right  of  way  and  was  located  between 
the  Northwestern  and  Great  Western  tracks  about  twro  hundred 
yards  west  of  Main  street.  In  the  early  nineties  the  building 
was  moved  to  its  present  location  at  the  foot  of  Main  street  on 
the  bank  of  the  Zumbro  river.  Person  &  Co.  purchased  the  plant 
from  Mr.  Peck  and  after  running  it  four  years  sold  to  C.  D.  Den- 
nison,  the  present  proprietor. 

The  Zumbrota  "News"  was  started  in  1885  by  a  stock  com- 
pany, with  W.  W.  Kinne  as  first  editor  and  manager,  which  posi- 
tion he  held  for  several  years,  after  which  Herman  Anderson  be-, 
came  the  editor.  Later  Mr.  Kinne  resumed  charge  of  the  paper. 
Subsequently  Mr.  Anderson  purchased  the  paper  from  the  stock- 
holders, and  in  1897  sold  to  A.  J.  Rockne.  In  1900  E.  F.  Davis 
became  part  owner  with  Mr.  Rockne,  and  is  now  the  editor.  The 
"News"  is  a  newsy  paper,  has  well  written  editorials,  and 
through  its  local  columns  keeps  the  people  of  southern  Goodhue 
county  well  acquainted  with  the  doings  in  their  part  of  the  world. 
In  addition  to  these  features,  a  generous  supply  of  general  rend- 
ing and  a  resume  of  the  national  and  foreign  news  of  the  week 
makes  the  paper  a  welcome  visitor  in  some  thousand  homes.  A 
large  job  printing  establishment  is  operated  in  conned  ion  with 
the  paper.  The  firm  is  now  conducted  under  the  name  of  Rockne 
&  Davis. 


The  fraternal  spirit  was  early  manifest  in  the  village  of  Zum- 
brota,  and  in  the  early  seventies  the  larger  national  societies  were 
well  represented  by  lodges  in  this  place. 


Herman  Lodge,  No.  41,  A.  F.  and  A.  M.,  received  its  charter 
October  24,  1866,  with  William  Bickford,  W.  M.;  H.  H.  Palmer, 
S.  W,,  and  James  L.  Scofield,  J.  W.  The  first  meeting  was  held 
in  a  building  owned  by  Mr.  Blanchard,  on  Main  street.  After 
being  located  in  different  places,  in  187:1  they  rented  a  hall  of 
S.  B.  Barteau,  where  they  have  held  forth  ever  since.  The  pres- 
ent officers  are  P.  W.  Mook,  W.  M.;  M.  H.  Powers,  S.  WV;  J.  D. 
Grover,  J.  AV. ;  J.  H.  Barnett,  S.  D. ;  L.  M.  Woodbury,  J.  D. ;  C.  L. 
Grover,  S.  S'.;  Robt.  Priebe,  J.  S. ;  T.  D.  Seward,  Tyler;  A.  B. 
Farwell,  secretary.;  H.  E.  Weiss,  treasurer. 

Esther  Chapter,  No.  4,  Order  of  the  Eastern  Star,  was  granted 
a  charter  June  !>.  1874,  with  the  following  officers:  Isaac  AV. 
Blake,  AV.  P.;  Airs.  Climena  Blake,  AV.  AL,  and  Marion  C.  George, 
A.  Al. 

Mount  Carmon  Chapter,  No.  23,  was  granted  a  charter  June 
25,  1874.  with  H.  H.  Palmer,  H.  P.;  S.  S.  Worthing,  K.:  O.  H. 
Hall,  S. 

Zumbrota  Lodge,  No.  154,  I.  0.  G.  T.,  was  organized  January 
24.  1877.  with  twenty-four  charter  members.  The  charter  officers 
were:  D.  B.  Scofield.  AV.  C.  T. :  Amanda  Dam.  W.  V.  T. ;  Ed 
Mitchell,  secretary,  and  Airs.  D.  B.  Scofield,  treasurer. 

Scofield  Post,  No.  121,  G.  A.  R.,  was  organized  September  9, 
1884,  the  post   being   named   for  James  and  Amos  Scofield,  the 
former  of  whom  died  of  sickness  while  in  the  army  and  the  latter 
of  whom  was  killed  in  battle.    The  charter  members  Avere :  Edgar 
Stacey,  deceased;  H.  W.  Cooledge,  Zumbrota;  I.  D.  AVarren,  Zum- 
brota;  L.   T.  Ward,  deceased;  J.  AI.  Beeman,  deceased;  B.  D. 
Woodbury,  St.  Paul;  C.  Daniels.  South  Dakota;  F.  D.  AVebb,  Chi- 
cago; ( '.  Eastman,  Soldier's  Home;  H.J.  Eastman,  Zumbrota;  J. 
Hickock.  unknown  ;  Ole  Strand,  deceased  ;  II.  AI.  Scofield.  Zum- 
brota ;  J.  H.  Reeves,  Glasgow;  D.  L.  Druse.  Washington;  AV.  E. 
Alosher.  Zumbrota;  H.  AV.   Squire,   South  Dakota;   L.  S.  Judd, 
Alora ;  AI.  L.  AVebb.  AVashington ;  G.  G.  McCoy,  Zumbrota;  Louie 
Abend,  deceased;  P.  D.  Willard,  deceased;  0.  H.  Hall,  St.  Paul; 
D.  Bugby.  AViseonsin;  C.  A.  Leach,  Zumbrota;  Clark  Rogers,  de- 
ceased:   AV.   A.   Black,   North   Dakota;   Adolph   Hoff.   deceased. 
Those  who  have  joined  since  are :     G.  AV.  Giles,  Zumbrota ;  S.  C. 
Holland,  deceased;  Sam  Anclrist,  Zumbrota:  William  Fulkerson, 
deceased ;  Bond  Olson,  deceased ;  J.  P.  Rians,  unknown ;  AV.  E. 
Seckerson,  Chatfield ;  J.  L.  Annis,  Zumbrota;  AV.  B.  Dickey,  de- 
ceased: J.  R.  Hemmingway.  Zumbrota:  X.  L.  Diekenson,  Zum- 
brota ;  Charles  Gholtz.  AVashington  ;  P.  L.  Dickenson.  North  Da- 
kota;   Frank    AVyman,    AVest    Concord;    Ared    AVoodworth.    Ala- 
zeppa ;  Josiah  Lothrop,  Zumbrota;  K.  B.  Bennett.  AViseonsin;  R. 
C.  Morgan,  deceased;  M.   C.  Morgan,  Zumbrota;  Aaron  Getty, 


deceased;  J).   15.  Seofield,  deceased;  John  Danielson,  South  Da- 
kota: Joab   Irish,  unknown;  S.   Y.  Cranson,  Goodhue;   William 
Bonham,  deceased;   Win.  Doxy,  deceased;  Philip  Yochem,  Zuni- 
brota;  Robert  Parker,  Goodhue;  D.  AY.  Williams,  unknown;  R. 
II.  F.  Williams.  Colorado;  0.  T.  Berg,  AYanamingo;  F.  W.  Lang- 
worthy.   New   York;    Eleck   Albertson,   Zumbrota;   G.   A.   Seitz, 
Rochester;  X.  ( '.  Adams,  Zumbrota;  John  Egan,  Zumbrota;  John 
Johnson,  AYanamingo;  Leander   Watson,  deceased.     The  twenty- 
fifth  anniversary  of  the  post  occurred  on  September  16,  and  an 
appropriate  celebration   was  held  in  the  hall  on  September  18, 
1909.     In  a  speech  delivered  on  that  occasion  II.  M.  Seofield  de- 
clared  that  there  are  now  forty  members  living,  the  oldest  of 
whom  is  Captain  G.  G.  McCoy,  who  is  85.     Next  conies  H.  M. 
Seofield  and  S.  Y.  Cranston,  each  of  whom  is  78.     The  youngest 
member  is  H.  Eastman,  age  63.     The  officers  at  the  time  of  or- 
ganization were :    Com.,  Ira  D.  Warren ;  Sr.  Y.  C,  G.  G.  McCoy ; 
Jr.  Y.  C,  M.  C.  Morgan;  chaplain,  Ff.  M.  Seofield;  quartermaster, 
AY.  H.  Squire;  adjutant,  II.  W.  Cooledge ;  officer  of  the  day,  AY. 
E.  Mosher;  officer  of  the  guard,  O.  A.  Strand;  surgeon,  0.  H.  Hall. 
The  present  officers  are:  Com.,  Josiah  Lothrop;  Sr.  Y.  C,  0.  N. 
Berg;  Jr.  Y.  C,  A.  Albertson;  chaplain.  H.  M.  Seofield;  quarter- 
master, AY.  E.  Mosher;  adjutant.  X.  C.  Adams;  officer  of  the  day, 
< 'harles  Leach;  officer  of  the  guard.  J.  C.  Annis;  quartermaster 
sergeant,  X.  L.  Dickinson;  Sergeant  major,  John  Egan;  surgeon, 
John  Hemingway. 

Seofield  Post  No.  84,  W.  R.  C,  was  organized  April  8,  1892, 
with  the  following  charter  members :  Mrs.  S.  E.  Lothrop,  Airs. 
A.  J.  Hall,  Airs.  H.  P.  Abend.  Airs.  AI.  A.  Cooper,  Airs.  S.  AI.  Hall, 
Airs.  J.  C.  Seofield,  Airs.  S.  X.  Ward,  Airs.  J.  C.  Black,  Airs.  Julia 
Friedrich,  Airs.  Rosina  Reenes,  Airs.  J.  E.  Alosher,  Mrs.  Rose 
Dickinson,  Airs.  AI.  II.  Linton,  Airs.  AI.  F.  Mann,  Airs.  Climena 
Blake,  Airs.  AI.  L.  Rust,  Airs.  E.  AI.  B.  Seofield,  Airs.  Ellen  E. 
Stacy.  Airs.  Cornelia  Rogers,  Airs.  Alaggie  AYatson,  Airs.  E.  R. 
Canfield,  Airs.  L.  H.  Grover,  Ena  R.  AYoodbury,  Carrie  A.  Alor- 
gan,  D.  A.  AYarren,  A.  J.  Danse,  Sophia  Danielson,  AI.  AI.  AYeather- 
head,  Ermina  B.  Schofield,  Alanda  Eastman,  Rose  Eastman  and 
Lothe  Black.  The  present  membership  is  thirty-four.  The  pres- 
ent officers  are:  Pres.,  Airs.  A.  J.  Hall;  senior  vice  pres..  Airs.  AI. 
J.  AYoodbury;  junior  vice  pres.,  Airs.  J.  Friedrich;  secretary, 
Airs.  E.  R.  Woodbury;  treasurer,  L.  AI.  Judd :  chaplain.  Alary 
Adams;  guard,  Airs.  L.  J.  Grover;  pat.  inst.,  Airs.  S.  E.  Lothrop. 

Zumbro  Tribe,  No.  63,  I.  0.  R.  M.,  was  organized  January  1. 
1901,  with  the  following  charter  members:  John  A.  Johnson. 
Nels  E.  Koppang,  Th.  AYetzel,  Edward  Cain.  Herman  J.  Teich, 
Fred  Lohman,  John  0.  Finney.  John  H.  Stenerscn,  Peter  Opem. 


A.  Olson,  Dr.  G.  H.  Crary,  C.  W.  Rabel,  J.  J.  Olsness,  Charles 
Hem,  J.  H.  Houck,  Jr.,  Aug.  King,  William  J.  McWaters,  Eric 
0.  Swenson,  John  L.  McAVaters,  P.  Zimmerman,  A.  H.  AVestby, 
Martin  Opfer,  W.  C.  Lohman,  I.  T.  Avelsgaard,  Thos.  G.  Nesseth, 
S.  Lexvold,  L.  0.  Sehram,  A.  N.  Anderson,  Iyer  Johnson,  PI.  J. 
Eastman,  John  Houek,  Sr.,  L.  L.  Johnson,  D.  Buntje,  Oliver 
Olson,  Richard  Elstrom  and  William  Yerka.  The  first  officers 
were :  Sachem,  John  Houck,  Jr. ;  senior  sagamore,  Oliver  Olson ; 
junior  sagamore,  II.  J.  Teich;  prophet,  John  McWaters;  keeper 
of  records.  Ed  Cain;  keeper  of  wampum,  .John  A.  Johnson.  The 
present  officer  are:  Sachem,  August  King;  senior  sagamore,  A. 
H.  AVestby;  junior  Sagamore,  Annen  Olson;  prophet.  Louis 
Houek;  keeper  of  records,  II.  J.  Teich;  keeper  of  wampum,  J.  A. 


Zumbrota  Lodge,  No.  72,  I.  0.  0.  F.,  was  organized  September 
13,  1879,  with  the  following  charter  members:  B.  F.  Chamberlain, 
T.  N.  Lee,  G.  B.  Anderson,  C.  E.  Johnson,  D.  B.  Scofield,  I.  W. 
Blake,  AY.  E.  Powers.  I).  P.  Mason,  P.  AY.  Fulkerson,  G.  B.  Wright 
and  E.  T.  Lothrop.  The  present  officers  are :  N.  G.,  James  Hoff- 
man ;  vice  grand,  Theo.  Hartwell ;  secretary,  James  Annis ;  treas- 
urer, AVilliam  Croxford  ;  supporters,  E.  J.  Thomas,  G.  Freeman 
and  John  Langsdorf;  warden,  Robert  Priebe;  inside  guard,  John 
Houck,  Sr. 

Zumbrota  Lodge,  No.  178,  Knights  of  Pythias,  was  organized 
July  1,  1905.    The  first  officers  were  :    C.  ( !.,  AI.  II.  Powers ;  V.  C, 

F.  C.  Marvin;  P.,  G.  C.  Hoff;  M.  of  AY.,  H.  B.  Washburn;  K.  of 
R.  S.,  J.  R.  Johnson;  M.  of  F.,  II.  E.  Weiss;  M.  of  E..  C.  A.  Has- 
kins;  AI.  of  A..  Alax  Braum  ;  I.  G.,  AVilliam  R.  Poison;  0.  G.,  J. 
T.  Hovland.  The  present  officers:  C.  C,  J.  T.  Fuller;  V.  C,  B.  A. 
Kolby;  P..  AVilliam  Reiiner;  M.  of  AV.,  Annen  Olson;  K.  of  R.  S., 
A.  B.  Farwell;  AI.  of  F.,  H.  E.  AVeiss;  AI.  of  E.,  H.  B.  AVashburn; 
AI.  of  A.,  G.  0.  Fortney ;  I.  G.,  AI.  H.  Powers. 

Zumbrota  Rebekah  Lodge,  No.  125,  received  its  charter  April 
2,  1902,  the  members  at  that  time  being  as  follows:  D.  B.  Scofield, 

G.  F.  Freeman,  C.  0.  Bonham,  II.  K.  Kuehner,  J.  L.  Annis,  N.  Boy- 
sen,  A.  E.  Collinge.  Ed.  Cain,  E.  F.  Davis,  James  Hoffman,  H.  J. 
Klein,  J.  H.  Langsdorf,  E.  AI.  Matchan,  J.  H  Houck,  Sr.,  E.  L. 
Peck,  R.  F.  Priebe,  F.  N.  Stary,  E.  At.  B.  Scofield,  I.  B.  Freeman, 
N.  B.  Bonham,  J.  Kuehner,  E.  Annis,  C:  Boysen,  M.  Collinge,  R. 
Casey,  L.  Johnson,  A.  Hoffman,  B.  Lovejoy,  A.  Langsdorf,  B. 
Alonson,  J.  Alatchan,  L.  B.  Houck,  Alary  Nickerson,  Grace  Poole, 
J.  Peck,  A.  S.  Priebe,  C.  W.  Rogers,  G.  Stary  and  L.  AVeaver.  The 
present  officers  are :  District  deputy,  A.  E.  Collinge ;  N.  G.,  Airs. 
C.  Rogers;  V.  G..  Julia  Korstad ;  secretary,  Airs.  A.  Hoffman; 
treasurer,  Mrs.  A.  E.  Collinge;  chaplain.  Airs.  John  Houek:  inside 


guard,  James  Hoffman;  financial  secretary,  Mrs.  W.  Johnson; 
-warden,  Mrs.  R.  Priebe;  supporters  to  N.  G.  and  V.  G.,  A.  E.  Col- 
linge and  E.  J.  Thomas. 

Zumbrota  Lodge,  No.  645,  Modern  Brotherhood  of  America, 
received  its  charter  February  30,  1900,  with  the  following  mem- 
bers :  Herman  W.  Kuehner,  John  A.  Secor,  Henry  J.  Klein,  H. 
F.  Runnels,  Addie  M.  Hoffman,  James  M.  Hoffman,  John  C.  Mil- 
ler, Perry  H.  Rowley,  Josephine  Kuehner,  Robert  Priebe,  Clifton 
0.  Bonham,  F.  Marion  AVatts,  Aug.  C.  Biersdorf,  Edward  W. 
Matehan,  Charles  W.  Rabel,  Robert  E.  Matthews,  Lafayette  H. 
Watts,  Athelia  I.  AVatts,  Alfred  E.  Collinge,  Nina  A.  Runnels, 
Christ  Peterson,  Ole  A.  Ness,  John  H.  Houck,  Jr.,  Nellie  S.  Watts, 
William  Croxford,  Elmer  S.  Peck,  Fred  J.  Weckerliug,  Lewis  C. 
Shedd,  Lyman  D.  Ward,  John  E.  Crewe,  Alice  L.  Casey,  Joseph 
J.  Hanson,  Nels  T.  Nesseth.  President,  F.  M.  Watts;  vice  presi- 
dent, Louis  Houck ;  secretary,  Frank  Fulkerson ;  treasurer,  A.  E. 
Collinge;  Chaplain,  Robert  Matthews;  escort,  F.  Weckerling; 
outside  sentry,  Aug.  Biersdorf;  inside  sentry,  Robert  Priebe. 

Zumbrota  Camp,  No.  252,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America,  was 
organized  November  21,  1887,  and  the  first  officers  were  as  fol- 
lows :  Venerable  counsel,  J.  C.  English ;  worthy  advisor,  J.  H. 
Peabody;  excellent  banker,  II.  Koehler;  clerk,  E.  C.  Bennett; 
escort,  W.  L.  Nye;  watchman,  L.  Hailing;  sentry,  Philip  Yochen ; 
local  physician,  H.  L.  McKinstry;  managers,  J.  H.  Peabody,  C.  R. 
MeKinstry  and  W.  L.  Nye.  The  present  officers  are:  Venerable 
counsel,  William  Croxford;  worthy  advisor,  Fred  Weckerling; 
excellent  banker,  H.  Koehler;  clerk.  A.  E.  Collinge;  escort,  J.  L. 
Williams;  watchman,  Louis  Opfer;  sentry,  Aug.  Miller;  local 
physician,  Dr.  G.  0.  Fortney ;  managers,  Louis  J.  Henning,  A. 
Amli  and  W.  S.  Collinge. 

Zumbrota  Council,  No.  30,  Modern  Samaritans,  received  its 
charter  May  1,  1901,  and  at  that  time  the  members  were  as  fol- 
lows :  Louis  Satren,  Edward  S.  Person,  Stephen  D.  Sour,  Will- 
iam G.  Langworthy,  B.  A.  Kolbe,  Walter  C.  Rowell.  Charles  L. 
Grover,  Henry  W.  Yochem,  Louis  J.  Korstad,  Herman  Koehler, 
E.  A.  Kellett,  Herman  F.  Kalass,  Ole  T.  Thoreson.  Frederick  AV. 
Yochem,  Elmer  L.  Peck,  R.  R.  Sigmond,  Oscar  M.  Nelson.  Mar- 
shall A.  Nelson,  Edward  H.  F.  Weckerling,  Hans  O.  Vollan.  Emil 
V.  Ramharter,  Henry  E.  AVeiss.  John  Stoudt.  Edward  F.  Davis. 
J.  E.  Crewe,  Frank  E.  Marvin,  Charles  Berg.  Igiuar  T.  Avels- 
gaard,  Edward  S.  Nelson,  Henry  J.  Klein,  Ole  N.  Berg.  Edward 
C.  F.  Kalass,  A.  AV.  Swanson,  Andrew  Samuelson,  Eben  Y.  Ban- 
croft, George  G.  Marvin,  Richard  S.  Ellstroin,  Ole  A.  Myron, 
Frank  E.  Judd,  Roy  Peter  Sigmond,  John  A.  Secor.  AV.  Scott 
"Van  de  Bo'gart,  Ernest  E.  Peck,  George  IT.  Wareham  and  Olaf 


E.  Hoff.  The  present  officers  are  as  follows:  G.  S.,  Louis  Houck; 
V.  G.  S.,  William  Langsdorf ;  scribe  and  financier,  A.  E.  Alosher; 
treasurer,  William  Croxford;  high  priest,  G.  Gunderson;  chief 
messenger,  Fred  AYeckerling;  P.  G.  S.,  L.  J.  Henning. 

Trondhjem  Lodge,  No.  51,  Sons  of  Norway,  was  organized 
August  1,  1905,  with  the  following  members:  Carl  G.  Ofstie, 
Arne  H.  Westby,  Severin  J.  Floor,  Iver  Peterson,  S.  A.  Lexvold, 
C.  K.  Kolstad,  P.  A.  Merseth,  Carl  R.  Erslaud,  Thorwald  Lien, 
Peder  Fredrickson.  Theodore  Thompson,  Hofgen  Klaven,  G.  0. 
Reppe.  J.  M.  Holtan,  Friek  0.  Swenson,  Oscar  Reppe,  John  Peter- 
son, Henry  Martin  Medehill,  Iver  E.  Loken,  T.  C.  Siversen,  I.  N. 
Johnson,  K.  E.  Gryttenholm,  Knut  Berg,  Johan  A.  Nerhaugen  and 
Xcls  E.  Koppang.  The  present  officers  are:  President,  A.  H. 
Westby;  vice  president,  Knut  Berg:  secretary,  Nels  Koppang; 
treasurer,  Severt  Lexvold ;  regent.  I*.  Neeseth;  marshall,  II. 
Klaven;  inside  warden.  Iver  Johnson:   chaplain,  J.  Nerhaugen. 

Zumbrota  Lodge,  No.  43,  Ancient  Order  United  Workmen, 
was  organized  March  9,  1878.  with  the  following  officers:  P.  Ai. 
W.,  B.  C.  Grover;  .M.  W.,  I.  Bingham,  Jr.;  G.  F.,  A.  B.  Cogswell; 
0.,  C.  M.  Bingham;  recorder,  D.  B.  Scofield;  financier,  D.  B.  Sen- 
field;  receiver,  George  Person;  G.,  A.  A.  Chase;  I.  W..  0.  I.  Hall: 
O.  W..  J.  •).  Callahan.  During  the  financial  depression,  the  so- 
ciety almost  went  ont  of  existence,  but  is  now  one  of  the  most 
flourishing  lodges  in  the  village.  The  present  officers  are:  AI.  W., 
Louis  Ilonck;  G.  F..  W.  F.  Mosher;  <)..  Aug.  Biersdorf;  recorder, 
E.  A.  Carroll;  receiver.  X.  C.  Adams;  financier.  Aug.  Biersdorf; 
G.,  O.  A.  Xess:  I.  W.,  John  Houck,  Sr.;  0.  AY..  Peter  Henion. 


The  village  of  Zumbrota  was  platted  on  the  northwest  and 
southwest  quarters  of  section  31,  in  September,  1856,  on  land 
that  had  previously  been  entered  by  Aaron  Doty.  Doty  was  a 
bachelor,  and  in  the  employ  of  0.  W.  Smith,  who  was  the  prac- 
tical owner,  but  who  could  not  pre-empt  land  because  he  was  a 
land  speculator.  The  owners  of  the  townsite  were  the  members* 
of  the  Strafford  Emigration  Company.  Bailey  and  Thompson 
made  an  addition  which  is  called  North  Zumbrota,  in  1857.  The 
west  addition  was  made  by  Josiah  Thompson,  on  section  36, 
Minneola  township.  The  first  house  was  built  by  C.  AY.  Smith. 
It  was  a  log  structure,  14x18,  and  was  erected  on  the  south  bank 
of  the  Zumbrota  river.  In  1857,  Smith  moved  away,  and  was  last 
heard  of  in  Bay  City,  Michigan.  The  first  store  building  was 
erected  in  October,  1856,  by  Thomas  P.  Kellett,  in  which  he  kept 
the  first  store.  Lizzie  Shedd  taught  the  first  school  in  the  fall  of 
1857.      A    public    school    building,    erected    in    1866.    30x42.   was 


burned  in  1870.     A   two-story  frame  structure,  partitioned  into 
four  rooms,  was  erected  the  same  year. 

The  ad  incorporating  the  village  of  Zumbrota  passed  the  state 
legislature  February  If),  1877,  the  petitioners  being  J.  A.  Thacher, 
T.  P.  Kellett  and  George  Person.  The  first  meeting  of  the  voters 
in  the  village  was  held  February  27,  1877,  in  Parker's  hall.  The 
judges  of  election  were  I.  C.  Stearns  and  E.  T.  Halbert.  The 
clerk  was  S.  G.  (adv.  The  returns  were  sworn  to  before  D..  B. 
Scofield  as  justice  of  the  peace.  The  first  meeting  of  the  village 
council  was  held  in  April,  1877.  J.  A.  Thacher  was  the  first  presi- 
dent of  the  village;  John  Anderson,  George  Person  and  T.  P. 
Kellett  were  the  first  trustees;  A.  C.  Rostacl  was  recorder,  Will- 
iam Dorman  was  treasurer,  D.  B.  Scofield  was  justice  and  L. 
Summers  was  constable.  In  1886  the  village  was  separated  from 
the  township.  The  presidents  of  the  council  since  1877  have 
been:  1877-78,  J.  A.  Thacher;  1879,  H.  Blanchard;  1880-81-82-83, 
H.  H.  Palmer;  1884,  E.  V.  Canfield;  1885-86-87-88,  S.  B.  Barteau, 
Sr.;  1889,  William  F.  Bevers;  1890-91,  John  Anderson;  1892-93-94, 
S.  B.  Barteau,  Jr.;  189.").  William  F.  Bevers;  1896-97,  Louis  Starz; 
1898-99,  A.  W.  Eddy;  1900,  A.  J.  Rockne ;  1901,  F.  M.  March; 
1902-03,  E.  Woodbury;  1904.  Paul  C.  Kalass;  1905-06-07.  James 
H.  Farwell;  1908-09,  M.  II.  Baskerfield.  The  clerks  have  been: 
1877-78,  A.  C.  Rostad;  1879-80-81,  S.  G.  Cady;  1882-83-84-85-86-87, 

C.  E.  Johnson ;  1888-89,  T.  N.  Lee ;  1890-91-92-93-94-95-96-97-98-99, 
W.  W.  Kinne;  1900-01-02,  H.  T.  Banks;  1903-04,  H.  E.  Weiss; 
1905-06-07,  E.  F.  Davis;  1908-09,  M.  H.  Powers  (removed  from 
village).  The  present  officers  of  the  village  are:  President,  M.  H. 
Baskerfield;  trustees,  Leo  Schafer,  Theodore  Stecher  and  Charles 
Olson ;  recorder.  Albert  Severson ;  treasurer,  A.  E.  Mosher ;  as- 
sessor, R.  J.  Staiger;  marshall,  James  L.  Annis;  justices,  P.  W. 
Mook  and  A.  H.  Kellett. 

A  speech  delivered  many  years  ago  by  T.  P.  Kellett  contains 
much  of  interest  to  the  seeker  after  facts  regarding  the  early 
days  of  Zumbrota.  After  speaking  of  his  arrival  in  1856.  Mr. 
Kellett  said  :  On  the  first  Sabbath  day  three  of  us,  enough  to 
"claim  the  blessing,"  held  a  meeting  in  a  small  log  house  or 
shanty,  eight  by  ten,  standing  not  far  from  where  Mr.  Skillman's 
house  was  later  erected,  and  judging  the  feelings  of  others  by  my 
own,  I  must  say  that  our  worship  was  not  in  vain.  And  from 
that  time  to  this,  with  but  few  if  any  exceptions,  some  sort  of 
religious  meeting  has  been  held  every  Sabbath.  (It  mighl  here 
be  noted  that  the  first  public  religious  observance  in  the  town 
was  the  prayer  made  by  Albert  Barrett  at  the  funeral  of  John 
Cameron,  who  was  buried  not  far  from  where  the  residence  of 

D.  W.  Mclntire  was  later  erected.) 


In  the  spring  of  1857  the  first  bridge  was  built  over  the  north 
branch  of  the  Zumbro  river  and  eovered  with  sided  poplar  poles, 
and  these  poles  did  service  as  a  covering  or,  more  properly,  a 
flooring  for  three  years  and  then  the  bridge  was  floored  with 
plank.  In  the  year  1862.  1  believe,  a  new  bridge  was  built  with 
an  additional  bent  in  the  middle.  In  the  following  winter  that 
middle  bent  was  knocked  oui  by  the  ice  and  senl  down  the  river. 
Tli£  bent  was  replaced  only  to  be  knocked  out  again  by  the  next 
winter's  breakup.  In  the  year  1869  a  more  substantial  structure 
was  erected.  Note:  This  bridge  still  remains  and  is  preeminently 
the  Zumbrota  landmark.)  In  the  spring  of  1857  a  Congrega- 
tional Society  was  organized  and  all  professing  Christians  of  all 
denominations,  with  all  others  favorable  to  religious  services, 
united  cordially  in  supporl  of  such  services  on  the  Sabbath.  In 
tlm  summer  of  1857  the  public  hall  was  buill  and  furnished,  a 
place  for  meetings  and  schools  Tor  a  uumber  of  years.  In  the 
fall  of  L857  came  the  greal  financial  m-isis.  which  made  the  great 
financiers  of  the  country  tremble  in  their  hoots.  We  people  of 
Zumbrota,  however,  did  not  feel  its  effecl  until  the  spring  of 
1858,  and  those  of  lis  who  were  here  during  that  year  have 
doubtless  a  very  vivid  recollection  of  those  hard  times.  If  we 
could  blol  thai  year  from  our  past  record,  the  record  would  be 
more  pleasing  retrospect  than  it  is.  Doubtless  there  are  men 
among  us  now  in  good  circumstances  and  position,  who  can  look 
back  to  tlnil  year  of  rutabagas  and  corn  cake,  and  feel  thankful 
that  their  lines  have  since  fallen  in  mure  pleasanl  places.  The 
crisis  jusl  referred  to  was  the  means  of  retarding  the  settlement 
of  Zumbrota  for  many  years.  .Men  who  had  planned  to  move 
OUl    here   with    their    families    were   unable   to   do  so   because  they 

were  unable  to  sell  their  property  in  the  East.  Bence  our  growlh 
was  very  slow  for  some  years  after  the  first  set  1  lenient.  Then 
came  the  war  of  the  rebellion,  which  seemed  to  upset  all  previous 
calculations.  All  we  could  exped  to  do  during  those  dark  days 
was  to  maintain  a  mere  existence.  At  the  call  for  volunteers 
some  of  oui-  very  worthy  young  men  enlisted  and  went  into  active 
service  in  defense  of  the  government.  Amos  Scofield.  (ieorge 
Scofield.  John  Morrell.  William  Peck.  Edward  Davis,  and  others, 
are  all  sleeping  in  southern  graves  today,  but  the  mere  mention 
of  their  names  touches  a  tender  spot  in  many  of  our  hearts. 

In  the  years  of  1862-63  was  built  our  first  church,  and  in  1866 
was  built  our  first  school  building.  Soon  after  the  building  of  the 
Congregational  church  just  referred  to,  our  Baptist  friends,  who 
for  some  time  had  been  worshiping  as  a  separate  organization, 
built  them  a  nice  little  church,  and  later  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
society  built  themselves  a  comfortable  place  of  worship." 



Company  D,  Zumbrota  By  E.  F.  Davis)— In  the  early  spring 
of  1885  a  handful  of  young  men  met  in  the  old  Parker  hall  to 
take  the  preliminary  steps  for  forming  a  state  militia  company 
in  Zumbrota.  The  company  was  first  known  as  the  ''Zumbrota 
Guards,  reserve  militia,"  and  was  mustered  into  service  March 
6,  1885.  by  ('apt.  A.  P.  Pierce  of  Red  Wing.  John  Stenersen  was 
the  first  captain  and  the  charter  members  were  as  follows:  J.  H. 
Stenersen,  P.  F.  Ryder,  Dan  Dyerson,  F.  G.  Mitchell,  Charles  E. 
Kolbe.  Bert  Pease,  William  Rogers,  Herman  Shirley,  Tim  Ma- 
honey,  Willis  George,  S.  B.  Scott,  Fred  Steelier.  Amos  Scofield, 
II.  B.  Carpenter,  C.  E.  Johnson,  Carl  L.  Strom.  M.  L.  Webb,  A.  W. 
Thomas,  J.  C.  Powers,  Leroy  Carley,  Fred  Caffee,  C.  H.  Stearns,. 
Leo  Schafer.  Albert  Woodbury,  William  Clemens  and  Frank 
Halbert.  Willis  George  and  -I.  C.  Powers  were  elected  first  and 
second  lieutenants,  respectively,  with  C.  H.  Stearns  first  sergeant 
and  ('.  E.  Johnson  se.-ond  sergeant.  M.  L.  Webb  was  first  cor- 
poral and  R.  R.  Sigmond  second  corporal.  During  the  first  few 
years  of  the  existence  of  the  company  the  members  were  com- 
pelled to  furnish  their  own  uniforms,  the  only  thing  the  state 
supplied  being  the  old  50-caliber  rifles,  belts  and  bayonets.  At 
the  end  of  the  first  year  J.  II.  Stenersen  resigned  to  accept  a 
place  on  Gov.  L.  F.  Hubbard's  staff  and  C.  E.  Johnson  was 
elected  to  fill  his  place.  In  October.  1885,  Willis  George  re- 
signed and  C.  H.  Stearns  was  elected  first  lieutenant. 

The  Third  Regiment  was  organized  in  1887.  at  which  time  the 
Zumbrota  Guards  became  Company  D  of  that  organization,  and 
have  held  their  title. ever  since,  being  now  the  oldest  company  in 
the  state  of  Minnesota  and  having  the  distinction  of  furnishing 
more  field  and  staff  officers  than  any  other  company  in  their 
regiment.  At  the  first  encampment  in  1888  there  were  only 
eighteen  men,  who  served  without  pay.  This  little  group  showed 
such  enthusiasm  that  there  was  a  much  larger  number  thereafter, 
although  it  took  a  great  deal  of  hard  work  on  the  part  of  Capt. 
Johnson,  as  the  members  received  absolutely  no  aid  from  the 
state.  In  March,  1887,  Lieut.  Powers  resigned  and  was  succeeded 
by  Sergt.  William  Clemens.  The  latter  resigned  in  August, 
1887.  and  was  succeeded  by  Private  Thomas  Brusegaard.  In 
March,  1888,  Lieut.  Stearns  resigned  and  Sergt.  Leo  Schafer  was 
elected  in  his  place.  Capt.  Johnson  resigned  in  1891  to  take  the 
position  of  major  and  C.  H.  Stearns  became  the  third  captain  of 
the  company.  LTnder  his  command  the  members  went  to  Chicago 
to  take  part  in  the  dedication  of  the  World's  Fair  buildings. 
Shortly  after  this  Capt.  Stearns  and  Lieut.  Schafer  resigned  and 
First  Sergt.  E.  S.  Person  was  elected  captain  and  Sergt.  W.  W. 


Kimie  first  lieutenant.  The  company  again  visited  the  World's 
Fair  and  took  part  in  the  Minnesota  Day  parade,  which  was 
during  the  fall  of  1893.  Capt.  Person  was  untiring  in  his  efforts 
to  bring  the  company  up  to  a  high  standard,  and  during  the  en- 
campments of  1895  and  1896  his  command  won  the  gold  medal 
for  proficiency  in  guard  duty.  In  1897  Capt.  Person  resigned  to 
accept  ;i  position  as  major  of  the  regiment,  and  in  January,  1898, 
W.  W.  Kinne  was  elected  captain  and  II.  W.  Yochem  first  lieu- 
tenant. -1.  A.  Erstad  was  at  thai  time  second  lieutenant,  having 
been  elected  some  years  previous. 

It  was  just  at  this  time  thai  the  call  for  volunteers  for  the 
Spanish-American  war  was  issued  ami  Company  D  was  among 
the  first  io  offer  their  services.  One  evening  when  the  com- 
pany was  lined  up  at  the  armory,  Capt.  Kinne  asked  all  the 
members  who  would  volunteer  to  step  two  paces  to  the  front. 
Every  man  in  Hie  company  stepped  forward,  bu1  as  they  were 
some  short  of  the  105,  to  fill  out  a  lull  company.  Col.  Johnson 
furnished  the  balance  of  the  quota  from  Mankato.  On  Thursday, 
April  28.  1908,  the  company  left  Zumbrota  amid  a  scene  which 
will  he  lonu-  remembered  by  those  who  witnessed  it.  Many  eyes 
were  dimmed  with  tears  and  hearts  throbbed  with  emotion  as 
the  buys  left  home.  At  that  time  Hie  no n- commissioned  officers 
were:  Sergeants,  John  Bouck,  George  W.  Eastman,  C.  O.  Bon- 
ham.  E.  F.  Davis,  II.  -I.  Teich,  -I.  C.  .Miller  and  II.  Eastman; 
corporals,  Sid  Anderson.  \Y.  P.  Armstrong,  M.  II.  Powers,  Harry 
G.  Gudd,  Ludwig  Johnson.  Charles  C,  Dickenson.  Louis  Lohman, 
and  others.  The  company  was  stationed  al  the  slate  fair  grounds 
and  had  a  total  number  of  115  men.  About  thirty  of  these  had 
to  be  rejected,  as  an  order  was  received  for  only  84  men  to  a 
company.  On  May  8  the  company  was  mustered  in  and  was 
known  as  Company  I).  14th  Minnesota  Volunteer  Infantry.  A 
few  days  later  the  regimenl  left  Camp  Ramsey  in  three  sections 
for  Chickamauga  Park,  Ga.  All  along  the  route  citizens  turned 
out  to  welcome  and  cheer  the  troops.  Arriving  at  a  small  station 
called  Lytic,  the  regiment  marched  into  the  park  a  few  miles, 
where  a  cam])  was  assigned  them,  in  company  with  60,000  other 
troops  from  all  parts  of  the  United  States.  This  camp  was  known 
as  the  George  H.  Thomas,  and  the  company  was  brigaded  with 
the  First  Pennsylvania  and  Second  Ohio  Regiments,  and  known 
as  the  third  brigade,  second  division,  first  army  corps,  under 
command  of  Gen.  Rossar,  a  veteran  who  fought  with  the  South 
during  the  civil  war.  The  extreme  heat  and  poor  water  began  to 
tell  on  the  men  from  the  North  and  as  a  result  there  was  a  great 
deal  of  sickness,  but  everyone  was  anxious  to  get  to  the  front, 
and  patiently  endured   the   constant   drilling,   and   it  was  but  a 

HISTORY   OF  GOODHUE  (  01   \  n  251 

short  time  before  the  Third  had  the  reputation  of  being  the  best 
drilled  regiment  in  the  park. 

hi  June  an  order  w;is  issued  to  recruit  the  companies  up  to 
the  full  strength  of  105  men,  and  Lieut.  Erstad  was  detailed  to 
go  back  home  and  perform  that  duty.  Many  of  the  men  who 
were  a1  tirst  rejected  were  then  given  a  chance  and  returned 
with  him  to  join  the  command.  After  his  return  Lieut.  Erstad 
w;is  promoted  to  tirst  lieutenanl  and  assigned  to  Company  I. 
First  Sergt.  John  Houck  was  promoted  to  second  lieutenant  and 
assigned  to  Company  K.  and  Lieut.  Demming  of  Company  E  was 
assigned   tu  <  'ompany  D. 

On  August  28,  1908,  the  regiment  was  transferred  from  Camp 
Thomas  to  Camp  Poland,  at  Knoxville,  Tenn.,  where  they  re- 
mained  until  September  21.  and  then  started  on  the  return  trip 
to  St.  Paul,  arriving  there  Sept.  23,  and  went  into  camp  at  Camp 
Van  Duzee,  between  the  twin  cities.  A  furlough  of  thirty  days 
was  granted  to  all  the  men.  who  returned  to  their  homes  for  a 
short  period.  At  this  time  there  was  an  Indian  uprising  in  the 
northern  pan  of  the  state  and  a  detachment  from  each  com- 
pany was  seut  to  quell  the  Reds,  including  several  of  the  D  boys, 
who  returned  without  incident. 

On  reassembling  at  St.  Paul  the  regiment  was  mustered  out  of 
service  November  18,  1908.  Sergt.  (leorge  Miles  Houck  was  the 
only  member  of  the  company  who  did  not  answer  to  roll  call  on 
the  return  home.  He  was  taken  ill  at  Knoxville  shortly  before 
leaving  and  when  he  arrived  at  Chicago  was  too  sick  to  continue 
the  journey  and  was  taken  to  a  hospital,  where  he  died  October  1. 
The  remains  were  brought  to  Zumbrota  for  burial. 

Twice  during  their  stay  in  the  park  the  regiment  was  ordered 
to  the  front  and  both  times  they  struck  tents,  packed  up  all  their 
belongings  and  had  destroyed  the  few  luxuries  they  had  accumu- 
lated for  comfort's  sake,  such  as  straw  for  bedding,  boxes  for 
tables,  etc.,  and  both  times  were  ordered  to  unpack  and  pitch 
tents  before  they  had  left  the  company  street.  The  second  time 
the  regiment  was  in  line  and  the  column  had  started  to  move 
toward  the  station  when  the  order  was  countermanded,  which 
nearly  resulted  in  a  riot  on  the  part  of  the  men  and  only  the  per- 
sonal persuasion  on  the  part  of  the  officers  prevented  an  open 
rebellion.  "We  do  not  construe  this  as  a  disgraceful  act  on  the 
part  of  the  men,  but  it  well  illustrates  their  willingness  to  get  to 
the  front  and  do  actual  service. 

After  the  muster  out  of  the  Fourteenth.  Company  D  resumed 
its  place  in  the  state  militia  with  Capt.  Kinne  at  the  head  and 
H.  "W.  Yochem  and  E.  F.  Davis  as  lieutenants.  In  May.  1900, 
Kinne  resigned  and  H.  W.  Yochem  was  elected  captain;  Davis 


was  advanced  to  first  lieutenant  and  Sergt.  C.  0.  Bonham  to 
second  lieutenant.  In  the  spring  of  1901  Yoehem  resigned  by 
reason  of  removal  from  company  station  and  Kinne  was  again 
placed  at  the  head.  He  removed  and  Lieut.  E.  E.  Davis  was 
elected  captain.  Bonham  being  advanced  and  Sergt.  J.  R.  Johnson 
elected  second  lieutenant.  Davis  resigned  in  1903  and  II.  W. 
Yoehem  was  again  placed  in  command.  Yoehem  and  Bonham 
resigned  in  the  fall  of  1905  and  F.  \Y.  Wilcox  was  elected  cap- 
tain; Johnson  pushed  up  to  first  lieutenanl  and  31.  H.  Powers 
was  elected  second  lieutenant.  Wilcox  held  office  for  less  than 
a  year  and  then  quit.  First  Lieut.  Johnson  look  the  company  to 
camp  that  year,  after  which  he  resigned  and  II.  T.  Banks  was 
elected  captain  and  E.  F.  Davis  went  into  the  company  again  as- 
first  lieutenant.  In  the  spring  of  ]!><)!)  I'.anks  and  Davis  resigned 
and  Second  Lieut.  M.  II.  Powers  was  elected  captain,  and  Sergts. 
John  Logan  and  Chris.  X.  Nesseth  promoted  to  firsl  and  second 
lieutenants.  Powers  removed  from  company  station  September 
1,  1909,  and  al  the  present  time  the  command  is  in  charge  of 
Lieut.   -John    Logan. 

At  this  writing  there  are  ii7  members  in  the  company,  they 
are   well   equipped   and    well   drilled   and   among  the   number  are 

man.y  good  rifle  shots  who  have  wot dais  of  distinction  on  the 

state  rifle  ranee,  as  well  as  making  good  records  on  their  own 
range.  II.  J.  Teich  is  the  first  sergeant  of  the  company,  having 
served  nearly  fifteen  years  with  the  company  and  is  the  oldest 
first  sergeant   in   the  state. 

The  company  has  participated  in  every  encampment  held 
by  the  national  guard  and  in  1901  was  with  the  regiment  on  an 
80-mile  march  from  Milaca  to  Brainerd.  In  1906  they  marched 
across  the  country  from  Zumbrota  to  Lake  City.  Both  of  these 
trips  proved  instinctive  as  well  as  enjoyable.  There  are  many 
other  interesting  features  connected  with  the  history  of  Company 
D  which  cannot  be  enumerated  here,  as  this  article  was  intended 
to  cite  only  the  more  important  events  which  have  transpired 
during  the  quarter  of  a  century  of  its  existence. 


In  1858  the  first  village  school  was  formed,  taught  by  Lizzie 
Shedd,  daughter  of  Eev.  Charles  Shedd,  pastor  of  the  Congrega- 
tional Church.  In  the  beginning  and  for  several  successive  years, 
the  sessions  of  the  school  were  held  in  the  second  story  room  of 
the  store,  built  just  before  by  T.  P.  Kellett.  on  the  corner  now 
occupied  by  the  Security  State  Bank.  The  building  was  justly 
considered  at  that  and  for  those  times  as  ambitions,  elegant  ami 


.Mrs.  .Mutisoii  came  nexl  as  teacher,  followed  by  Mrs.  C.  C. 
Webster,  wife  of  one  of  the  earliesl  settlers,  and  she  was  followed 
by  Ella  Wilder,  daughter  of  Ezra  Wilder,  another  pioneer.  Later 
she  married  Rev.  Mr.  Sedgwick,  then  pastor  of  the  Baptist 
(  lunch,  who  afterward  became  a  physician.  .Mrs.  Ellery  Person, 
wife  of  Samuel  Person,  a  brother  of  Messrs.  Ralzy  and  George 
Person,  who  were  among  the  early  settlers^  was  the  next  teacher. 
Then  in  succession  came  Sarah  Stowed.  .Mrs.  Preston,  Florence 
Brown,  cousin  to  the  hero  of  Harper's  Perry  and  martyr  of  free- 
dom for  the  slave,  whose  soul  is  still  marching  on.  Then,  still 
in  the  Kellett  hall  came  the  male  teachers,  Mr.  Griffin  and  Mr 

Aldrich,  the  latter  of  wh took  up  his  residence  in  Zumbrota 

E.  \V.  Conat  taughl  in  the  summer  of  1864  at  $22  per  month 
J.  P>.  Griffin  in  the  winter  of  the  same  year  at  .$27.50  per  month: 
Florence  Brown,  winter  of  '65,  at  $22  per  month.  Before  this 
the  general  rate  of  salary  for  the  female  teachers  was  $5  per 
week.  In  the  school  year  of  1862-68  and  for  many  years  there- 
alter  the  board  of  trustees  were:  .).  A.  Thacher,  director;  I.  C. 
Stearns,  clerk,  and  H.  Blanchard.  treasurer. 

There  were  six  months  of  school  in  two  terms  of  twelve  weeks 
each  in  1862-63.  and  seven  months  in  1863-64.  The  appointment 
of  school  money  from  the  county  in  18H2-(i3  was  but  $117.70.  In 
the  spring  of  1863  a  movement  was  started  by  a  petition  signed 
by  T.  F.  Kellett.  George  Samuel  Person  and  E.  L.  Kings- 
bury for  the  building  of  a  school  house.  Favorable  action  was 
taken  and  a  levy  agreed  to  of  5  mills  on  all  taxable  property,  to 
begin  the  necessary  funds.  In  1864-65,  2  mills  more  were  voted 
for  schools  and  7  mills  for  school  house  fund.  In  1865-66,  8  mills 
was  voted  toward  the  fund.  In  March,  1867,  it  was  voted  to 
have  three  terms  of  school  of  twelve  weeks  each.  In  March, 
1866,  definite  steps  were  taken  to  build  a  two-story  school  house, 
24  feet  high,  width  30  feet,  length  50  feet.  Two  lots  were  first 
bought  and  later  two  more  adjoining,  in  block  40,  the  cost  of  the 
building  not  to  exceed  $3,000.  The  district  received  from  the 
county  treasurer  in  1865,  $537.  The  money  to  build  the  school 
house  was  loaned  to  the  district  by  private  individuals,  chief 
among  them  being  I.  C.  Stearns,  H.  H.  Palmer,  J.  A.  Thacher, 
Ezra  Wilder  and  the  Ladies'  Sewing  Society,  with  a  few  gentle- 
men loaning  minor  sums.  E.  L.  Kingsbury  was  the  contractor 
and  builder,  and  received  for  the  job  $2,000. 

In  March,  1868,  the  district  voted  to  have  three  terms  of 
school  per  year  of  thirteen  weeks  each.  This  year  the  county 
treasurer  paid  to  the  district  $717.  In  March.  1870,  on  motion  of 
Ezra  Wilder,  it  was  voted  to  build-  another  school  house  and  the 
board  was  authorized  to  select  a  site  and  proceed  with  the  work. 


They  accordingly  decided  upon  a  site  adjoining  the  public  square 
and  commenced  excavation  for  the  cellar  when,  serious  opposi- 
tion to  that  site  developing,  a  special  meeting  of  the  district  was 
called  in  .July  of  that  year  to  decide  the  matter.  By  a  majority 
of  four  votes  the  site  north  of  the  Baptist  church  was  decided 
upon,  the  land  being  donated  for  that  purpose.  !l  has  been  claimed 
that  the  majority  was  not  one  of  all  the  voters  in  the  district, 
but  only  of  those  present  ami  voting,  a  majority  of  all  preferring 
the  much  more  elevated  site,  though  some  <>f  them  failed  to  be 
on  hand  at  the  pinch.  In  consequence  the  present  tine  building 
is  located  where  it  is  instead  of  on  a  spot  where  its  tine  and  im- 
posing proportions  and  asped  would  be  much  more  effective  than 
is  now  possible.  In  March,  1871,  it  Mas  voted  that  there  should 
he  three  schools  and  three  terms  of  thirteen  weeks  each,  and  that 
there  should  be  two  male  teachers  and  one  female  teacher.     In 

1871   the  amount    received   fr the  county  treasurer  was  $1,850 

and  in  1872,  +2.200.  During  this  school  year  .Mr.  Savage  taught 
the  high  school  for  ten  weeks.  Previously  and  after  the  tirst 
school  house  was  Iniill.  the  li'.idp'i's  were  ().  II.  Parker.  Ilattie 
Ward,  Emma  Barrett,  now  Mrs.  .lames  Farwell;  Lettie  Barrett, 
now  .Mrs.  Harry  Sergeanl  of  California;  A.bby  Moody,  then  of 
York.  Maine,  and  Alice  Kendall.  At  a  district  meeting  held  in 
October.  1872,  on  motion  of  J.  A.  Thacher,  it  was  voted,  with  but 
two  of  three  dissenting,  to  maintain  the  schools  at  the  highest 
point  of  efficiency  then  attainable  and  that  no  backward  steps  be 

Recurring  briefly  to  the  early  beginnings  of  the  work  of  the 
Schools,  of  which,  unfortunately,  lor  the  first  years  no  trace  of 
records  can  be  found,  it  may  be  said  thai  the  persons  to  whom 
were  committed  the  responsibilities  of  inaugurating  and  carrying 
forward  the  educational  interests  of  the  incipient  community 
were  men  not  only  deeply  interested  in  the  work,  but  especially 
qualified  to  conduct  il  in  such  a  way  as  not  only  to  enlist  hearty 
cooperation  but  also  to  fix  and  intensify  the  public  sentiment  in 
favor  of  unremitting  devotion  to  the  cause  of  sound,  practical 
and  thorough  mental  and  moral  training  of  the  young  people. 
Each  member  of  the  school  board  had  learned  the  art  of  teaching 
by  experience  in  New  England.  They  were  J.  A.  Thacher.  1.  0. 
Stearns  and  C.  C.  Webster.  During  all  the  years  that  have  fol- 
lowed, the  hoard  has  never  been  without  members  who  were 
leading  citizens,  interested  in  their  duties  and  competent  to  per- 
form them  so  as  to  carry  forward  the  cause  which,  to  the  honer  of 
our  village  can  be  said,  has  been  always  near  her  heart.  The 
first  school  house  being  on  an  elevated  site  and  in  itself  a  hand- 
some building,  having  a  fine  front  and  crowned  with  a  tasteful 


cupola,  was,  with  the  church,  the  conspicuous  objects,  arresting 
the  eye  as  one  approaching  the  town  reached  the  brow  of  the 
prairie,  where  it  descends  toward  the  valley.  Its  two  school 
rooms,  above  and  below,  were  approached  from  the  south.  In 
L872,  alter  only  six  years  of  use,  11  caught  fire  one  evening,  on 
the  roof,  from  some  unexplained  cause  and  was  burned  to  the 
ground.  The  desks  in  the  Lower  room  were  saved  and  were 
used  in  one  n\'  the  rooms  of  the  upper  floor  of  the  house  built  in 
L870.  At  the  time  of  the  tin-  a  festival  was  being  held  in  the 
second  story  open  room  of  the  building  so  recently  destroyed  by 
the  same  element,  and  the  shock  of  sudden  discovery  of  it  brought 
the  gathering  to  an  abrupt  close. 

The  new  school  building  of  two  stories,  high  posted,  dimen- 
sions 40  by  60   feet,  buill   in   1870,  costing  $4,000  not   including 
furnishings,  had  the  two  Lower  rooms  at  once  finished  and  put  to 
use.      Teachers    employed    during    the    earlier    years    were    Mr. 
Parker,  Emma  Barrett,  Persis  Scofield  and  Jessie  Ball,  who  later 
becoming  the  wife   of  <  harles   A.  Ward,  and   L.  D.  Henry,  the 
principal    for   one   year.      All    these    teachers    gave   satisfaction. 
Later  Mv.  Henry  acted  as  clerk  in  the  store  of  H.  II.  Palmer  and 
subsequently  married  one  of  his  pupils.  Jennie  Weatherhead.    For 
several  years  four  teachers  were  employed,  including  the  head 
master.     The  resources  of  the  district  steadily  increased,  as  well 
as  the  number  of  the  pupils.     The  salaries  of  the  teachers  also 
were   gradually  increased.     With  Mr.   Henry  the  school  rose  to 
the  grade  of  a  high  school,  though  not,  of  course,  of  the  first  class, 
at  that  time.     Benjamin  Darby  was  principal  in  1872,  a  success- 
ful instructor  and  a  man  of  powerful  physique.     It  is  said  that 
when  the  fire  which  consumed  the  earlier  school  house  was  dis- 
covered, Prof.  Darby  and  E.  L.  Melius,  then  in  trade  here  and 
afterwards  a  physician  of  good  standing,  were  among  the  first 
to  enter  the  burning  building,  seeking  to  save  whatever  of  value 
could  be  snatched  from  the  flames.     The  egress  by  the  stairway 
being  cut  off.  they  descended  by  a  ladder.  Mr.  Darby  with  the 
big  heating  stove  in  his  arms,  while  Mr.  Melius  bore  off  something 
less  weighty.    M.  B.  Green,  an  esteemed  teacher,  was  principal  in 
1873-74,  one  year.    Then  Miss  Wood  for  a  short  time  was  princi- 
pal.   In  the  fall  of  1876  A.  B.  Guptill  of  Red  Wing,  a  former  resi- 
dent of  Lubec,  Maine,  became  principal  and  remained  till  the 
spring  following.     In  1876  district  No.  68  became  independent, 
the  school  board  assuming  the   duties   and  responsibilities  that 
ordinarily  rest  upon  a  majority  of  the  legal  voters  of  school  dis- 
tricts.    The  number  of  pupils  in  the  primary  department,  taught 
by  Miss  Scofield,  was   62;  in  the  intermediate,   taught  by  Miss 


Hall,  48;  iu  the  high  school,  taught  by  Mr.  Guptill.,  36;  the  num- 
ber of  Mr.  Parker's  room  is  not  given. 

Mr.  Fletcher  succeeded  Mr.  .Guptill  for  a  short  time  iu  the 
spring  of  1877,  a  worthy  num.  fund  of  music  and  excelling  as  a 
flutist.  In  the  fall  of  1877  .Mr.  Mooney,  also  a  native  of  Lubec, 
recommended  by  Dr.  Tupper,  who  had  known  him  there,  took 
charge  of  the  school  for  our  term.  Later  he  became  a  practicing 
lawyer  in  his  native  town.'  In  the  fall  of  1878  W.  A.  Snook 
succeeded  to  the  principalship.  He  was  a  rigid  disciplinarian. 
possessing  both  moral  and  physical  courage  for  all  emergencies. 
The  modern  history  of  Ziiinhrota  schools  is  found  elsewhere  in 
this  history. 


(By  Mrs.  Gilbert  P.  Murphy. 

The  Zumbrota  Public  Library.  There  are  in  Goodhue  county 
two  free  public  libraries,  one  at  Red  Wing,  the  other  at  Zum- 
brota. While  the  Red  Wing  library  takes  precedence  as  regards 
size,  it  must  yield  the  palm  as  regards  age  to  the  Zumbrota 
library,  which  can  trace  its  beginning  to  a  period  forty  years 
ago.  For  some  years  during  the  early  history  of  Zumbrota  one  of 
the  most  popular  organizations  in  towi.  was  the  Zumbrota 
Literary  Society,  at  whose  weekly  meetings  old  and  young,  both 
men  and  women,  gathered,  finding  therein  much  mental  stimulus 
as  well  as  recreation.  Several  prominent  members  of  this  or- 
ganization, notable  anion-  them  being  .Joseph  A.  Thaeher,  be- 
came,  during  the  winter  of  L868  and  1869,  much  interested  in 
the  matter  of  a  town  Library.  The  few  books  which  the  early 
settlers  had  brought  from  their  eastern  homes  had  been  circu- 
lated through  the  neighborhood  until  everybody  had  read  them. 
Periodicals  were  few  and  expensive.  The  literary  society  was 
cramped  in  preparing  ils  programs  by  dearth  of  material,  and 
individuals  were  hungry  for  good  literature.  After  considerable 
agitation  of  the  question,  a  new  organization  superseded  the 
literary  society,  called  the  Zumbrota  Literary  Society  and  Li- 
brary Association.  By  paying  the  sum  of  fifteen  dollars,  any 
individual  could  become  a  life  member  of  the  association,  he  and 
his  family  being  thereby  entitled  to  the  use  of  the  library  for 
life.  About  twenty  were  found  who  became  life  members  at 
this  time,  the  following  being  a  necessarily  imperfect  list  of  the 
names:  J.  A.  Thaeher.  -J.  ('.  Stearns.  F.  L.  Halbert,  H.  H.  Palmer, 
Henry  Blanchard,  John  Mitchell,  Charles  A.  "Ward.  Sr..  Charles 
Ward,  Jr.,  0.  H.  Parker.  J.  B.  Locke,  Henry  Shedd,  Mathias  P. 
Ringdahl,  "William  Wells,  B.  C.  Grover,  James  Cram.  D.  B. 
Scofield,  T.  D.  Rowell  and  T.  P.  Kellett.     The  first  actual  con- 

lll-loKY   OF  GOODHUE  COUJNTY  257 

tribution  toward  the  library  fund  was  a  cord  of  wood,  con- 
tributed by  Mathias  P.  Ringdahl.  To  the  money  obtained  from 
life  membership  fees  and  voluntary  contributions  was  added  the 
proceeds  of  an  oyster  supper,  given  to  celebrate  the  organization 
of  the  new  association,  and  with  these  funds  about  27.")  books 
were  purchased  and  placed  in  a  room  over  the  store  building 
owned  by  Mr.  Thacher  and  located  where  the  Great  Western 
station  now  stands,  ( >.  II.  Parker  being  appointed  librarian.  .Many 
of  us  who  now  lake  pride  and  pleasure  in  our  beautiful  library 
building  can  distinctly  remember,  as  children,  walking  the  length 
of  the  store,  climbing  the  narrow,  dusty  stairway  at  the  back. 
traversing  a  dark  lane  formed  by  piles  of  packing  boxes,  to  the 
front  of  the  store  again,  where  we  selected  a  library  book  from 
one  of  the  two  cases  stationed  by  the  window,  then  through  the 
lane  and  down  again  to  have  the  book  charged  to  our  name  at 
the  desk  in  the  rear  of  the  store.  Sometimes  we  made  the  charge 
ourselves,  for.  since  the  librarian's  labors  were  gratuitous,  they 
must    be    as    lighl    as    possible. 

In  February.  1 S 7 7 .  Zumbrota  became  an  incorporated  village 
and  not  long  after  the  library  became  the  Free  Public  Library 
of  Zumbrota,  to  be  supported  by  a  one-mill  tax.  Henceforth  we 
find  it  in  charge  of  a  board  appointed  by  the  village  council, 
and  almost  immediately  the  books  were  removed  to  Good 
Templars'  hall,  in  the  building  owned  by  Charles  Anderson. 
Mrs.  .lames  ('ram  was  elected  librarian,  with  Ida  Weatherhead, 
Mrs.  Cooper  and  Amanda  Dam  as  assistants,  and  these  ladies 
kept  the  reading-  room  open  two  afternoons  and  one  evening  of 
each  week,  giving  their  own  time  to  this  for  the  good  of  the 
cause.  After  a  year  or  two  came  another  change.  The  library 
was  moved  into  the  building  occupied  by  the  Misses  Walker's 
millinery  establishment  and  Miss  AValker  became  and  was  for 
many  years  librarian.  Dr.  O.  H.  Hall,  for  twenty  years  chairman 
of  the  committee  for  selecting  new  books,  in  writing  of  this 
period  said  that  much  of  the  prosperity  of  the  library  during 
these  years  was  due  to  Miss  Walker's  faithful  and  painstaking 
work  in  its  behalf,  for  which  the  small  sum  paid  her  for  rent  and 
care  was  no  adequate  compensation. 

When  a  change  became  necessary  by  reason  of  Miss  Walker's 
retiring  from  the  millinery  business,  the  library  was  moved  into 
the  Security  State  Bank  building,  and  for  some  time  a  great  deal 
of  the  work  of  conducting  and  caring  for  it  was  done  by  George 
A.  Thacher,  who  selected  new  books,  catalogued  those  on  hand, 
and  was  first  to  agitate  the  question  of  a  Carnegie  library,  al- 
though it  was  some  years  before  the  building  became  a  fact. 

James  Farwell.  while  mayor  of  Zumbrota.  which   position   he 


held  for  three  years,  was  deeply  interested  in  the  prosperity  of 
the  library,  and  it  was  largely  through  his  efforts  that  the  plans 
for  a  library  building  were  successful,  Andrew  Carnegie  fur- 
nishing the  $6,500  which  our  building  cost  on  the  usual  condition 
that  a  sum  equal  to  10  per  cent  of  that  amount  be  annually  de- 
voted by  the  village  to  the  library.  At  the  time  of  its  completion 
in  May,  1908,  the  structure  was  the  smallest  library  building 
in  the  state.  It  provides  a  well  arranged  one-room  library  on 
the  ground  floor,  with  wall  shelves,  reading  tables  and  librarian's 
desk.  It  is  lighted  by  electricity  and  doubtless  in  the  near  future 
will  be  furnished  with  an  adequate  heating  plant.  There  is  a 
rest  room  furnished  by  Zumbrota  business  men  in  the  basement. 
The  rest  room  is  open  all  day.  The  library  is  open  every  evening 
except  Sunday,  and  on  Saturday  and  Sunday  afternoons.  Hattie 
Marvin,  who  is  a  graduate  of  the  state  university  and  has  also 
completed  the  library  course  at  the  University  summer  school, 
is  librarian  and.  like  many  of  her  predecessors  in  that  position, 
is  profoundly  interested  in  the  advancements  of  the  library,  and 
gives  much  gratuitous  time  to  the  work.  There  is  no  institution 
which  so  thoroughly  gives  evidence  of  the  real  spirit  of  Zum- 
brota as  does  our  library,  established  in  the  pioneer  days  of 
hardship,  persistently  supported  and  increased  through  the 
changing  fortunes  of  forty  years,  its  work  done  largely  by  volun- 
teers, with  unwavering  determination  and  unfailing  enthusiasm, 
Zumbrota 's  citizens  have  loved  and  labored  for  their  library  and 
now,  in  its  new  home,  with  two  thousand  books  upon  its  shelves 
and  thirteen  periodicals  upon  its  reading  tables,  and  wTith  an 
able  and  enthusiastic  librarian,  there  seems  no  reason  why  its 
future  may  not  be  of  the  brightest. 


Zumbrota  comprises  township  110.  range  15,  and  originally 
included  Minneola,  which  was  set  off  in  June,  1860.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Goodhue,  east  by  "Wabasha  county, 
south  by  Pine  Island  and  west  by  Minneola.  Through  a  larger 
part  of  the  southern  tier  of  sections  runs  one  of  the  branches  of 
the  Zumbro,  and  from  this  river  the  name  of  the  township  is 
derived.  The  surface  is  largely  rolling  prairie,  with  higher,  un- 
dulating land  .in  the  northwestern  portions. 

The  first  settler  was  "William  Fiske,  who  came  in  1854  and 
took  a  claim  on  Dry  Run,  in  the  southeastern  part.  Fiske  was  a 
man  of  strong  personality.  He  was  born  in  Maine  and  for  some 
years  was  a  sailor.  Of  hermit  tendencies,  he  tried  to  get  as  far 
from  civilization  as  possible.  He  died  in  1878  and  is  buried  in 
the   cemetery   at   Mazeppa,  Wabasha    county.     Aaron  Doty  and 


C.  W.  Smith  were  also  early  settlers,  as  was  C.  P.  Bonney,  who 
arrived  .May  26,  1856,  and  built  a  cabin.  It  is  related  that  for 
the  first  six  weeks  Mrs.  Bonney  saw  the  face  of  no  white  man 
but  her  husband. 

In  the  fall  of  1S55  Rev.  II.  X.  Gates,  a  missionary  who  had 
been  laboring  in  Iowa,  returned  to  Stafford,  Connecticut,  where 
he  had  formerly  lived,  and  proposed  organizing  an  emigration 
company  to  establish  a  colony  in  the  AY  est.  The  first  meeting 
was  held  in  Stafford,  at  which  time  the  company  was  organized, 
under  the  name  of  Stafford  Western  Emigration  Company,  with 
Albert  Barrett,  of  Stafford,  as  president  and  Charles  Ward,  of 
Lowell,  Mass.,  as  secretary.  The  following  members  constituted 
the  board:  T.  P.  Kellett,  Josiah  Thompson,  Joseph  Bailey,  D.  B. 
Goddard,  Dr.  Ira  Perry,  James  Elwell,  Milton  Bonner,  Samuel 
Chaffee,  Ruben  A.  Smith  and  C.  ('.  Webster.  At  a  meeting  held 
in  Palmer,  Mass..  January,  1856,  they  adjourned  to  meet  at 
Lowell  in  February,  1856.  One  hundred  and  sixty  persons 
joined  the  association  at  the  time  of  the  adjourned  meeting  in 
Lowell  and  the  capital  stock  paid  in  at  that  time  was  $30,000. 
At  this  meeting  Rev.  H.  N.  Gates,  Albert  Barrett  and  Mr.  Sher- 
wood were  appointed  a  committee  to  go  to  Iowa  or  Minnesota  and 
purchase  a  township  of  land.  The  funds  of  the  association  were 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  Rev.  H.  N.  Gates,  chairman  of  the  com- 
mittee. Nothing  was  heard  from  the  committee  after  their  de- 
parture until  the  latter  part  of  May.  1856,  when  a  call  for  a 
meeting  was  issued  by  the  secretary,  Charles  Ward,  stating  that 
the  committee  had  returned  and  would  report..  Gates  and  Sher- 
wood both  made  reports  but  disagreed,  and  the  company  dis- 
banded. A  smaller  company  was  formed  soon  after.  There  were 
certain  transportation  concessions  that  had  been  made  to  the 
old  company  and  the  company  wished  to  secure  these  and  at  the 
same  time  not  have  the  name  of  the  old  company,  a  thing  which 
was  accomplished  by  the  insertion  of  the  letter  "r"  in  the  oh! 
name,  the  new  designation  being  the  Strafford  Western  Emigra- 
tion Company.  The  members  were  Josiah  Thompson,  Ira  Perry, 
Joseph  Bailey,  D.  B.  Goddard,  T.  P.  Kellett  and  Samuel  Chaffee. 

In  the  latter  part  of  July  oi*  early  part  of  August.  1856,  some 
of  the  members  of  the  company  came  to  this  pari  of  Minnesota 
and,  after  looking  over  the  country  in  different  local  it  it's.  Samuel 
Chaffee,  D.  B.  Goddard  and  Joseph  Bailey  came  across  the  Zum- 
bro  river  valley  with  the  intention  of  returning  to  \e\v  England 
via  Red  Wing.  As  they  ascended  the  hill  north  of  where  the 
village  of  Zumbrota  now  stands,  Samuel  Chaffee  discovered  the 
beauties  of  the  valley,  and  probably  to  him  belongs  the  en', lit  for 
the  subsequent  settlement  of  the  colony  at   that   point.     The  fol- 


lowing  day  the  party  arrived  in  Red  Wing,  where  Mr.  Chaffee, 
who  had  heen  taken  ill  on  the  journey,  died,  August  9,  1856. 
His  remains  still  repose  in  the  cemetery  at  Red  Wing. 

There  was  quite  a  tide  of  immigration  to  Zumbrota,  ehieliy 
among  those  who  belonged  to  the  company,  in  the  fall  of  1856 
and  spring  of  1857.  Prink  and  Walker's  stage  route  from  Du- 
buque  to  St.  Paul  had  previously  been  established  through  the 
township,  but  in  March,  1857.  the  route  was  changed  so  as  to 
lead  through  the  village.  T.  P.  Kellett  was  the  first  postmaster. 
The  first  death  was  that  of  John  Cameron,  December,  1856. 
AVilliam  E.  Winter  was  married  in  .May.  1857.  his  being  the  first 
marriage  in  the  township. 

An  active  participant  in  the  settlement  of  Zumbrota  is 
authority  for  the  following  items  regarding  the  early  days  of  the 
township:  "Zumbrota  was  settled  by  a  small  fragment  of  a  large 
company  called  the  Stafford  Western  Emigration  Company.  The 
original  company  was  organized  in  the  winter  of  1855-56.  This 
company  contained  over  150  members,  most  of  them  heads  of 
families.  Its  members  were  mainly  from  Massachusetts  and 
Connecticut,  h  had  a  paid  up  capital  of  $30,000.  The  plan  con- 
templated the  purchase  of  at  least  a  township  of  land  in  one 
body,  and  laying  ou1  a  village  in  the  eenter  of  the  tract.  The 
aim  of  the  projectors  was  to  plant  a  distinctively  New  England 
colony  in  the  West.  At  a  meeting  of  the  company  at  Lowell, 
Mass.,  in  February.  1856,  the  organization  was  perfected  and 
plans  matured  to  transplant  the  colony  in  the  early  spring  as 
soon  as  a  suitable  site  could  be  selected  by  the  committee  of 
three  chosen  for  the  purpose.  This  committee  started  for  the 
West  soon  after  the  meeting  at  Lowell  and  took  with  them 
about  $30,000,  with  which  to  purchase  land  and  make  the  needed 
improvements  ready  for  the  colonists,  when  they  should  arrive. 
It  would  be  tedious  to  relate  the  details  which  followed  the  de- 
parture of  the  committee  for  the  West.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  not 
one  of  the  committee  was  a  practical  man.  They  had  no  ac- 
quaintance with  western  affairs.  And  at  least  two  out  of  the 
three  seem  to  have  had  separate  schemes  of  their  own  by  which 
each  hoped  to  subserve  his  own  interest,  or  that  of  his  friends 
and  backers.  The  result  was  such  as  might  have  been  expected. 
There  soon  developed  dissensions  and  divisions  in  the  committee. 
After  wasting  some  three  months  of  time  and  $3,000  of  the  com- 
pany's funds,  the  company  was  called  together  again  in  May, 
at  Lowell,  to  hear  the  report  of  the  chairman  of  the  committee. 
The  outcome  of  this  meeting  was  a  dissolution  of  the  original 
company  and  a  repayment  of  the  funds  to  the  members,  less  the 
amount    expended    or   squandered    by   the    committee.     This  re- 


paymenl  of  the  funds  was  obtained  through  the  unflinching  in- 
tegrity of*  Charles  Ward. 

"Immediately  upon  the  breaking  up  of  the  original  com- 
pany, a  few  of  its  members  proceeded  to  reorganize  a  new  com- 
pany upon  a  much  smaller  scale.  Several  members  of  this  com- 
pany immediately  started  for  Minnesota  in  order  to  find  a 
location  for  their  little  colony.  Instead  of  a  special  committee, 
the  members  constituted  themselves  a  committee  of  the  whole, 
and  upon  their  arrival  in  Minnesota  started  out  in  search  of 
land.  They  had  agreed  upon  Red  Wing  as  a  place  of  rendezvous, 
where  they  should  meet  and  compare  notes.  A  company  of  three 
of  these  explorers,  who  seem  to  have  been  a  leading  sub-com- 
mittee of  the  company,  in  the  latter  part  of  July,  1856,  proceeded 
to  the  southwest  of  that  point  to  a  southerly  portion  of  the  then 
territory  of  Minnesota.  This  committee  consisted  of  Joseph 
Bailey,  Daniel  B.  Goddard  and  Samuel  ( 'haffee.  After  several 
days  of  weary  search  for  government  land  that  could  be  had  for 
their  purpose,  and  finding  nothing  to  their  liking,  they  started 
on  their  return  to  Red  Wing,  weary,  footsore  and  discouraged, 
fully  resolved  to  return  to  New  England. 

"Let  us  now  for  a  brief  period  leave  our  travelers  making 
their  melancholy  journey  to  the  Mississippi  river,  and  give  a  few 
moments'  attention  to  what  has  transpired  in  the  valley  of  the 
north  branch  of  the  Zumbro.  There  was  a  beautiful  valley,  three 
miles  in  width,  and  perhaps  four  miles  in  length,  through  the 
center  of  which  the  Zumbro  coursed  like  a  serpentine  band  of 
silver.  On  account  of  this  tract  not  being  represented  on  the 
maps  of  the  time  as  surveyed  lands  it  was  supposed  by  many  to 
be  on  the  'Half  Breed'  tract,  so  called,  consequently  up  to  the 
midsummer  of  1856  scarcely  a  settler  had  ventured  into  this 
beautiful  valley.  No  road  traversed  it.'  The  trail  of  the  red  men 
and  the  old  paths  left  by  the  buffalo  were  the  only  evidence  re- 
maining that  any  living  creature  had  ever  traversed  the  valley. 
The  old  territorial  road  from  St.  Paul  to  Dubuque  crossed  the 
Zumbro  about  one  and  one-half  miles  below  the  lower  end  of 
this  valley.  In  the  spring  of  1856  a  backwoodsman  by  the  name 
of  Smith,  who  was  a  born  pioneer  and  could  no  more  endure 
civilization  than  a  Sioux  Indian,  who,  nevertheless,  was  shrewd 
and  scheming,  in  one  of  his  hunting  trips  for  (U-i'v.  ducks  and 
prairie  chickens,  strolled  over  the  divide  from  the  big  woods  on 
the  middle  branches  of  the  Zumbro.  where  he  had  settled  the 
year  before,  into  the  above  described  valley.  He  round  to  his 
surprise  that  no  settler  had  invaded  its  precin'cts.  His  interesl 
was  aroused.  He  traveled  over  its  length  and  breadth,  appre- 
ciated both  its  beauty  and   its  advantages,  though  one  may  sup- 


pose  that  its  beauties  in  his  mind  had  more  of  a  practical  than 
an  aesthetic  value.    Visiting  the  valley  several  times  he  discovered 
that  near  the  center  was  an  ideal  site  for  a  town:  that  the  road 
from  Red  Wing  to  the  southwest,  if  straightened,   would  cross 
the  Zumbro  in  the  center  of  his  proposed  townsite,  and  that  there 
was  a  natural  crossing  at  that  point.    He  also  discovered  that  by 
straightening  the  St.  Paul  and  Dubuque  road  it  would  also  cross 
the  center  of  this  valley.     Keeping  all  this  to  himself,  lie  found 
a  man  by  the  name  of  Aaron  Doty,  who  would  preempt  a  quarter- 
section  in  tin'  valley  ami  share  the  land  with  him  after  the  title 
was  obtained  from  tie-  government.    Meantime  he  had  traced  out 
the  rout''  for  the  change  of  the  Red  Wing  and  Mantorville  road, 
and  stationed  himself  somewhere  near  the  center  of  the  presenl 
town   of  Roscoe.  in  order  to  intercepl   some  of  the  many  teams 
which   were   passing    from   towns  and   points  south   toward   Red 
Wine-,     lie  was  able,  now  and  then,  to  persuade  one  to  try  the 
new  route  over  the  trackless  prairie.     In  this  way.  after  a  while, 
there  was  a  wagon  track  that  could  be  followed  in  the  direction 
he  desired,  straightening  the  former  road.     Ii   was  late  in  July 
or  early  in  August  of  1856,  Smith  and  Doty  had  the  walls  of  their 
shanty  luiilt  to  the  heighl  of  some  ten  feet.     It  had  ;is  yet  no  roof. 
A    few  boards  leaned   againsl   the  inside  wall   furnished   them  a 
rude  shelter  during  the  rain  and  at  night.     Occasionally  a  way- 
farer would  stop  and  share  the  hospitality  t>\'  Smith,  whose  wife 
had  come  over  from  the  woods  to  keep  house  for  her  husband. 
Doty,  who  was  unmarried,  boarded   with  Smith.     The  sun  A\as 
approaching  the  horizon  one  afternoon  when  three  weary  travel- 
ers called  at  Smith  "s  shanty  and  asked  for  a  drink  of  water  and 
some  food.     They  were  informed  by  Smith,  who  was  delighted 
that  his  new  road  was  beginning  to  be  traveled,  that   he  could 
accommodate   them.      Smith's   wife   soon   spread   before  them  on 
a  rough  board  table  such  viands  as  Inn-  larder  afforded,  consist- 
ing of  wheal  bread,  molasses  and  cold  boiled  venison,  some  coffee, 
black  as  ink,  without  milk  or  sugar,  and  a  refreshing  drink  of 
cold  water  from  a   spring  near  by.     These  three  travelers  were 
the  sub-committee  whom  we  left  journeying  toward  Red  Wing. 
They  anxiously  inquired  the  distance  to  Red  AVing.  and  also  the 
distance  to  the  nearest  stopping  place  071  the  road.  Smith  having 
no  accommodation  for  them  over  night.     They  concluded  to  go 
on  as  far  as  Moer's.  who  had  a  log  house  where  Luther  Chap- 
man's   house    was    later    erected.      Smith,    with    his    shreAvd    in- 
quisitiveness.   had  drawn   out   of  these  men  the  object   of  their 
journey   and  the  fact   of  their  failure  to  find   what   they   were 
seeking  for.     Learning  that  they  were  the  representatives  of  a 
colony  and  had  been  upon  an  unsuccessful  search  for  a  suitable, 

HISTORY   01  G00DH1  !•:  C01   \TY  263 

Location,  Smith,  with  his  rude-  enthusiasm,  told  them  thai  he  had 
jusl  the  spot  for,  them;  that  the  place  where  they  now  were  was 
the  promised  land.  He  expatiated  upon  the  fad  that  the  center 
of  the  valley  was  just  the  place  for  a  town;  thai  there  was  an 
abundance  of  vacanl  land  all  around;  pointed  out  the  further 
fact  that  thai  particular  point  was  the  natural  center  of  travel 
from  St.  Paul  to  Dubuque,  Wabasha  to  Faribault,  and  Red  Wing 
to  Mantorville,  and  other  points  to  the  southwest  which  made 
Red  Wine-  their  shipping  point.  But  our  travelers  were  too 
weary  and  discouraged  to  listen  to  Smith's  suggestions  and  propo- 
sitions. Samuel  Chaffee,  one  of  the  three,  an  elderly  man,  was 
not  only  weary  hut  sick.  It  was  with  difficulty  that  he  could 
travel  at  all.  lie  reached  Red  Wine  the  next  day  and  died  a  few- 
days  after.  As  the  trio  ascended  the  northern  slope  of  the  val- 
ley Mr.  Chaffee,  in  his  weak  condition,  sat  down  to  rest.  Turn- 
ing his  eyes  toward  the  river,  as  the  sun  was  casting  its  last  rays 
upon  the  landscape,  the  view  thai  met  his  uaze  was  one  of  un- 
equalled beauty.  So  impressed  was  he  that  he  called  out  to  his 
associates  to  stop  and  look  at  the  landscape  as  he  was  doing. 
At  firsl  they  chided  him  for  delaying  their  progress,  but  at  his 
solicitation  they  returned  to  his  side.  He  exclaimed  to  them, 
'How  beautiful'  Why  is  not  that  the  spot  we  have  been  looking 
for?'  His  companions  became  interested  also.  As  the  shadows 
of  evening  began  to  fall  the  three  men  arose  with  a  profound 
conviction  that  the  beautiful  valley  before  them  was  their 
Canaan.  It  continued  to  be  the  theme  of  their  conversation 
while  picking  their  way  along  the  faint  wagon  tracks  on  the 
prairie,  and  at  their  lodging  place.  During  the  next  day.  with 
more  hope  than  they  had  felt  before,  they  made  their  way  to  Red 
Wing — Goddard  and  Bailey  w^eak  and  footsore,  Chaffee  sick  unto 
death.  At  Red  Wing  they  found  several  of  their  associates 
awaiting  them.  They  reported  what  they  had  found  in  the  val- 
ley of  the  Zumbro.  It  was  resolved  by  all  of  them  that  the  place 
should  be  visited  the  next  day.  The  other  members  of  the  party 
were  Josiah  Thompson.  T.  P.  Kellett,  Albert  Barrett  and  Dr.  Ira 
Perry.  On  the  following  morning,  leaving  Goddard  to  take  care 
of  his  sick  companion,  Chaffee,  the  others  chartered  a  conveyance 
and  repaired  to  the  valley  of  promise.  It  Avas  afternoon  when 
they  came  in  sight  of  it.  The  whole  party  were  in  ecstasies  over 
the  view  that  met  their  eyes,  and  all  with  one  accord  exclaimed 
that  it  wTas  the  place  for  which  they  had  been  seeking  for  so 

"They  were  soon  in  conference  with  Smith  and  Doty.  The 
100  acres  preempted  by  Doty  was  negotiated  for  at  a  low  price, 
each  retaining  an  interest  with  the  company,  which  was  denomi- 


nated  the  Strafford  Western  Emigration  Company.  Smith,  who 
knew  every  acre  of  land  in  the  valley,  pointed  out  to  them  the 
claims,  very  few  of  which  had  as  yet  been  taken.  Three  or  four 
pioneers  had  settled  in  the  valley  besides  Smith  and  Doty,  but 
they  were  soon  bought  out.  Each  of  those  present  selected  a 
claim  for  himself  and  one  or  two  of  his  friends,  who  in  some 
cases  were  real  and  in  others  imaginary.  The  land  office  was  at 
Winona,  where  all  those  who  had  selected  claims  repaired  and 
made  the  necessary  tiling.  On  their  return  the  party  fell  in  with 
several  persons  who  were  seeking  places  in  the  West  where  they 
could  settle,  among  them  J.  A.  Thacher,  a  civil  engineer  and 
surveyor.  He  was  induced  to  go  along  with  the  company.  Mean- 
time they  had  round  a  surveyor  by  the  name  of  Beckwith,  whom 
they  had  engaged  to  survey  their  lownsile.  I'pon  the  return  of 
the  party  from  Winona,  the  townsite  was  surveyed  and  platted 
under  t  lie  auspices  of  Messrs.  Beckwith  and  Thacher.  The  shape 
of  the  original  townsite  was  unique.  It  extended  from  the  Znm- 
bro  river,  one  mile  in  Length  and  about  seventy  rods  in  width.  It 
is  ;i  matter  of  tradition  that  the  reason  for  Laying  out  the  town 
•in  this  shape  was  thai  the  town  would  eventually  grow  to  large 
dimensions  and  would  extend  across  the  river.  The  townsite 
was  hounded  on  its  west  Por  its  whole  length  by  a  school  section 
which  was  not  then  available.  The  ICO  acres  east  of  the  surveyed 
townsite  was  claimed  by  S.  I\  Gambia,  of  Red  Wing,  who  had  he- 
come  a  member  of  the  company  and  who  had  promised,  so  far  as 
he  dared  to  do  before  getting  the  title  to  his  land,  that  he  would 
turn  it  in  to  the  company  and  have  it  laid  out  in  hits.  One  of  the 
members  had  purchased  of  a  settler  a  quarter-section,  north  of 
the  school  section,  which  some  of  the  party  alleged  was  to  be 
turned  in  to  the  company  and  become  a  part  of  the  extensive 
townsite.  while  -loseph  Bailey  and  Ira  Perry,  getting  possession 
of  the  adjacent  land  across  the  river,  were  to  turn  in  that,  in  due 
course  of  time,  to  the  company  for  a  further  addition  to  the 
townsite.  Alas,  for  human  expectations!  The  north  quarter  of 
the  original  strip  of  land  laid  out  for  a  townsite  was  all  and 
more  than  was  needed  for  town  purposes  for  many  years  after 
the  events  here  narrated. 

"Smith  and  Doty's  shanty  soon  became  a  hotel.  Travel  had 
set  in  over  the  new  road  and  many  wayfarers  were  glad  to  avail 
themselves  of  the  hospitality  of  the  hostelry.  Most  of  the  mem- 
bers of  the  company  lodged  in  the  board  shanty  across  the  river, 
but  took  their  meals  at  Smith's.  Smith's  hotel  for  several  months 
was  the  center  of  interest  and  influence  in  the  embryo  city.  A 
description  of  it  may  not  be  uninteresting:  In  dimensions  it  was 
12  by  18  feet   on   the   ground,  and   12  feet  to  the  eaves.     It   was 


built  of  poplar  Logs  aboul  8  and  1<>  inches  in  diameter,  roughly 
hewn  on  the  inside  and  outside.  The  interstices  between  the 
logs  were  filled  with  clay,  according  to  the  mo'sl  primitive  archi- 
tecture. The  floor  for  the  upper  story  was  about  eight  feet  from 
the  lower  floor,  and  both  doors  were  rough  boards.  The  upper 
story  was  u^<<|  exclusively  as  a  sleeping  room.  There  was  a 
small  window  in  the  east  gable.  In  this  attic  there  were  as  many 
beds  as  could  be  placed,  some  on  rude  bedsteads  and  some  on 
the  floor.  These  beds  were  made  of  prairie  hay,  and  the  bed 
clothes  were  mainly  cheap  blankets.  There  wen1  also  two  beds 
in  the  lower  room,  standing  end  to  end.  During  the  autumn  the 
cooking  and  much  of  the  housework  was  done  in  a  lean-to  shed 
at  one  end  of  the  cabin.  Soon  after  the  location  of  the  company, 
new  arrivals  were  frequent,  until  Smith's  hotel  was  filled  to 
overflowing.  The  table  fare  was  abundant,  if  not  always  palat- 
able. But  in  those  days  appetites  were  good  and  the  food  was 
eagerly  disposed  of.  The  fare  consisted  mainly  of  bread  made 
from  wheat  flour,  mixed  with  the  "fry  of  pork  and  baked  in  large 
iron  pans;  salt  pork,  occasionally  boiled;  fresh  beef  or  venison, 
which  sometimes  was  allowed  to  remain  out  in  the  sun  until  it 
became  slippery  before  it  was  cooked.  Vegetables  were  rare; 
butter  likewise,  and  when  furnished  was.  in  strength,  about  five 
horse  power.  Molasses  was  a  staple  article.  Coffee,  or  a  decoc- 
tion which  went  by  that  name,  was  an  ever-present  beverage. 
Those  who  lodged  at  Dr.  Perry's  shanty  over  the  river  had  com- 
fortable beds  and  pure  air.  at  least.  All  was  activity  and  stir. 
Everyone  was  eager  to  secure  a  claim  and  get  his  shanty  up 
before  winter.  Soon  all  the  travel  from  Red  AYiug  to  the  south- 
ward passed  through  the  new  settlement.  The  amount  of  team- 
ing increased  daily,  and  in  a  few  weeks  the  new  road  became  a 
busy  thoroughfare.  Trouble  about  this  time  arose  over  the 
claims  which  settlers  had  selected  for  friends,  as  they  pretended. 
One  of  the  settlers  saved  a  claim  near  his  own  ostensibly  for  a 
friend,  and  then  sold  it  for  $350.  This  caused  all  kinds  of  trouble. 
Smith  was  indignant,  as,  in  his  interest  for  the  settlers,  he  had 
given  up  the  chance  of  making  many  a  fat  fee  for  locating  casual 
settlers.  The  matter  was  finally  adjusted  to  the  satisfaction  of 
Smith  and  of  the  company;  but  soon  outside  parties  learned  of 
these  claims,  held  for  so-called  but  largely  imaginary  friends, 
and  began  to  settle  on  them,  as  was  their  legal  right  to  do,  and 
soon  no  claims  were  held  except  such  as  had  been  filed  on  ac- 
cording to  law. 

"The  question  of  naming  the  new  town  was  the  cause  of  no 
little  discussion.  Zumbrota  was  finally  decided  upon.  The  orig- 
inal  members   of  the    company   were   not   men    of  practical    ex- 


perience  and  broad  views  in  the  matter  of  town  building.  The 
trustees,  especially,  were  very  narrow  and  short-sighted.  They 
placed  an  extravagant  price  upon  their  town  lots  and  were  not 
liberal  enough  to  devote  any  for  much  desired  and  needed  im- 
provements. One  of  the  most  important  needs  of  the  new  town 
was  a  hotel.  Ezra  Wilder  came  over  from  Oronoco  to  build  one. 
The  trustees  gave  him  no  attention  and  were  unwilling  to  make- 
any  concessions  to  him.  Doty  finally  sold  him  two  lots  at  a 
reasonable  price  in  an  undesirable  location.  He  proceeded  to 
erect  a  building  for  a  hotel  late  in  the  fall,  which  he  was  not  able 
to  make  comfortable  till  midwinter,  although  it  was  actually 
occupied  at  the  beginning  of  the  winter.  The  frame  of  the  build- 
ing was  put  up  and  it  was  sided  and  the  roof  shingled  by  De- 
cember  1.  The  weather  was  extremely  cold  and  a  considerable 
depth  of  snow  was  on  the  ground.  Ento  this  he  moved  his  wife 
and  several  children.  Smith's  cabin  was  full  to  overflowing. 
Another  family  besides  Smith's  occupied  the  lower  floor,  while 
the  attic  was  filled  with  Lodgers.  Wilder  laid  a  loose  floor  in  the 
second  story  of  his  building  over  the  cook  stove,  and  hung  up 
sheets  tn  keep  the  snow  out.  Qpou  this  Moor  a  bed,  filled  with 
prairie  hay,  was  laid  and  two  men  lodged  there  for  some  weeks. 
with  the  mercury  outside  a1  o<»  below  zero,  and  bu1  a  trifle  above 
that  indoors  where  they  slept.  W'ildcr's  family  consisted  of  his 
wife  and  two  daughters.  Now  these  women  endured  the  rigors 
of  that  terrible  winter  in  the  half  finished  building  has  ever  been 
a  mystery.  So  cold  was  it  that,  within  four  feet  of  the  cook  stove 
where  these  women  cooked,  water  would  \'ri'<'/JL  in  the  men's 
beards  while  washing.  A  few  families  came  on  in  the  fall,  bu1 
they  suffered  many  hardships  and  deprivations,  which  can 
scarcely  be  realized  a1  this  day.  There  were  many  cases  of  sick- 
ness and  much  discouragement.  Dr.  Perry's  wife  was  sick  all 
winter  and  nearly  insane.  Others  were  similarly  affected.  One 
poor  fellow  was  taken  down  with  typhoid  fever  at  Smith's;  the 
house  was  full  of  boarders;  he  soon  died  from  want  of  care1 — it 
could  not  be  given  him.  All  travel  soon  ceased.  Occasionally 
someone  would  go  to  Red  Wing  for  the  mail  and  needed  supplies. 
T.  P.  Kellet  had  opened  a  store  with  a  small  stock  of  goods.  No 
postoffiee  was  established  until  the  following  spring.  Locomo- 
tion on  the  prairies  was  made  on  snow  shoes.  Those  remote 
from  timber  found  it  difficult  to  keep  warm  during  the  winter. 
Snow  fell  about  November  20  and  remained  on  the  ground  until 
May  of  the  following  spring.  Notwithstanding  the  setting  in  of 
winter,  all  parties  were  eagerly  planning  to  advance  the  interests 
of  the  new  town.     It  was  determined  to  change  the  route  of  the 



St.  Paul  and  Dubuque  stage  through  Zumbrota,  and  to  open  a 
road  from  Wabasha,  on  the  Mississippi  river,  to  Faribault. 

"The  few  members  of  the  company  remaining  all  the  winter 
in  Zumbrota  were  busy  planning  for  the  opening  of  spring,  when 
large  accessions  of  settlers  were  expected,  and  the  parties  who 
had  gone  east  were  expected  to  return  with  their  families.  The 
first  important  end  to  gain  was  to  open  the  St.  Paul  and  Dubuque 
stage  road  through  Zumbrota.  The  stage  company  had  promised 
to  make  the  change  if  a  passable  road  could  be  made.  To  open 
this  road  it  became  necessary  to  break  a  new  track  from  Lee's, 
four  miles  southeast  of  Zumbrota,  to  Ilader,  eight  miles  to  the 
northwest.  All  the  inhabitants  in  the  settlement  and  along  the 
proposed  new  route  turned  out  on  an  appointed  day,  with  shovels 
and  axes,  to  cut  down  the  brush  and  break  through  the  snow 
crust,  and  a  few  yoke  of  oxen  to  tread  the  snow  crust  into  some 
semblance  of  a  road.  After  several  days  of  hard  work  the  road 
was  declared  passable  and,  to  the  unspeakable  delight  of  all,  the 
stage  for  the  first  time  made  the  trip  through  the  incipient  town. 
This  was  a  great  event.  The  next  move  was  to  secure  a  post 
office.  This  was  eventually  done  and  T.  P.  Kellett  appointed  post- 
master. The  next  important  enterprise  inaugurated  was  a  bridge 
over  the  Zumbro  at  the  foot  of  Main  street.  This  bridge  con- 
sisted of  stringers  of  oak  laid  from  bank  to  bank,  upon  which 
were  laid  for  a  floor  poplar  poles,  hewed  fiat  on  the  upper  and 
lower  sides.  This  primitive  bridge  was  the  only  one  for  several 
years.  After  the  middle  of  March  old  settlers  began  to  return 
and  new  ones  started  to  come  in.  The  ice  did  not  break  up  on 
Lake  Pepin  until  May  1.  so  that  many  of  the  families  of  the 
settlers  were  obliged  to  remain  at  the  foot  of  the  lake  for  days 
and  weeks.  There  was  a  rush  of  people  to  Zumbrota  in  the 
spring.  Many  found  claims  on  the  prairie,  a  few  settled  in  town. 
A  large  number,  finding  no  chance  of  employment  and  no  build- 
ing material  at  hand,  left  for  other  parts.  Those  who  remained 
exerted  themselves  to  the  utmost  to  boom  the  new  town.  A  flour- 
ing mill  was  built,  other  enterprises  inaugurated,  high  hopes  were 
entertained  and  the  prospects  bore  a  roseate  hue.  The  financial 
panic  of  1857  blasted  the  hopes  of  the  settlers,  and  it  was  many 
years  before  the  town  regained  its  prosperity  and  courage." 

The  first  town  meeting  in  Zumbrota,  including  what  is  now 
the  township  of  Minneola.  was  held  July  5,  1858.  in  the  public 
hall  over  T.  P.  Kellett  \s  store,  in  the  village  of  Zumbrota.  The 
officers  elected  at  this  meeting  were:  Supervisors,  I.  C.  Stearns 
(chairman),  T.  D.  Kowell  and  George  Sanderson;  clerk.  Charles 
Jewett;  assessor,  James  Cram;  collector,  C.  S.  Spendly;  over- 
seer of  the  poor,  Albert  Barrett ;  justices,  Albert  G.  Hawkes  and 


Charles  Ward;  constables,  C.  S.  Spendly  and  Henry  Shedd.  The 
supervisors  since  the  organization  of  the  township  have  been: 
1858,  I.  C.  Stearns;  1859-60-61,  J.  A.  Timelier;  1862,  T.  P.  Kellett ; 
1863.  J.  A.  Thacher;  1864-65-66.  II.  Blanchard;  1867-68-69-70-71, 
J.  A.  Thacher;  1872-73-74-75-76,  S.  B.  Barteau;  1877-78,  S.  C. 
Holland;  1879-80-81.  W.  B.  Dickey;  1882-83.  S.  S.  Dam;  1884,  S. 
B.  Barteau;  1885-86-87,  Ed  Woodbury;  1888.  Freeman  Pearson 
(died  in  office)  ;  1889,  AY.  B.  Dickey:  1890-91,  Bond  Olson;  1892- 
93-94,  E.  A.  Bigelow;  1895-96,  Bond  Olson:  1897-98-99,  T.  J.  Mar- 
tin; 1900.  L.  E.  Cook  (removed  during  office)  ;  1901-02-03-04-05-06. 
Charles  A.  Nelson;  1907-08-09.  M.  G.  Morgan.  The  clerks  have 
been:  1858-59.  Charles  Jewett :  1859-60.  I.  C.  Stearns  (appointed 
July  1,  1859»  :  1861,  A.  W.  Williamson;  1862.  I.  C.  Stearns;  1863 
to  1870,  Charles  Ward;  1871-72,  AI.  H.  Thorson;  1873,  O.  H.  Par- 
ker; 1874-75-76-77.  Charles  Ward:  1878  to  1883,  D.  B.  Scofield; 
1884.  John  English  ;  1885  to  1891,  Charles  Ward.  Since  that  date 
Gharles  A  Ward  has  served  continuously  as  clerk,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  a  small  pari  of  the  year  18!).").  when  H.  Runnells  served. 

Those  who  enlisted  from  here,  who  are  still  remembered  by 
the  old  settlers,  were:  -lames  L.  Batty,  William  A.  Bickford. 
Nathan  Buckingham,  William  K.  Barnes.  Joseph  Bonney.  Ed- 
ward  E.  Davis,  William  Dowling,  II.  K.  Eggleston,  Sanford  ('. 
Holland.  P.  ( '.  Hill.  Orrin  C.  Leonard,  J.  II.  Miner,  Leonard  B. 
Morris,  John  A.  Merrill,  William  McDonough,  Lieut.  Bond  Ol- 
son, Hiraman  B.  Patterson.  George  Reeves,  dames  Reeves,  Will- 
iam Reeves.  Benjamin  J.  Smith.  Thomas  Edwards,  Francis 
Wyman  and  Daniel  I).  Alichaels.  Others  who  were  credited  to 
this  village  hut  who  are  not  now  remembered  are :  Goswin 
Dumers.  Christian  Ewen,  Oswald  Ewen,  Michael  Honan,  John 
Howes,  George  W.  Knowlton,  David  C.  Grow,  Thomas  Foster, 
James  H.  Giles.  Cabel  Plant,  George  K.  Clark,  Patrick  McCarty. 
AVilliam  J.  Weston,  Josiah  Whitford,  Amund  Amundson,  Chaun- 
cey  Pugher,  Peter  J.  Hilden.  Edward  Lauderdale  and  Charles 
Root.  In  explanation  of  these  latter  names,  practically  none  of 
whom  are  connected  with  this  village,  it  is  said  that  Joseph 
Thacher.  then  state  senator  and  deputy  provost  marshal  at  the 
recruiting  station  in  St.  Paul,  persuaded  a  number  of  recruits  to 
give  Znmbrota  as  their  residence,  thus  filling  the  township  quota, 
even  though  the  recruits  had  never  resided  in  this  locality. 

William  F.  Bevers  is  one  of  the  well  known  men  of  the  comity, 
having  in  succession  been  a  prominent  citizen  of  AVelch,  Red 
Wing  and  Znmbrota.  He  was  born  in  Jacksonville,  111.,  March 
31,  1845.  son  of  Benjamin  and  Jane  (Hall)  Bevers,  natives  of  old 
Yorkshire,  England.  After  leaving  their  home  land,  their  first 
location  was  in  Illinois,  where  they  farmed  on  the  fertile  prairie 


hinds  of  thai  state  from  sometime  in  the  early  forties  until  the 
spring  of  1855.  They  then  eame  up  the  river  to  Red  Wing. 
bringing  with  them  their  son,  William  F.  The  father,  after 
landing  here,  .May  10,  1855,  secured  employment  in  the  stone 
quarries,  in  the  meantime  looking  about  for  a  suitable  farm  loca- 
tion. The  valleys  of  Welch,  which  were  not  settled  as  soon  as 
the  other  townships,  attracted  his  attention,  and  in  1857  he  took 
his  family  there  and  staked  out  a  claim  on  section  10,  where 
he  broke  280  acres,  built  a  home  and  carried  on  general  farming 
on  a  large  scale.  Later  he  rented  his  farm,  and  purchasing 
ten  acres  of  land  near  Red  Wing,  lived  a  life  of  comparative 
retirement  until  his  death  in  1877.  The  mother  died  in  Novem- 
ber, 1855.  William  F.,  brought  up  on  a.  farm,  received  his  educa- 
tion in  the  public  schools  and  at  Hamline  University,  at  that 
time  located  in  Red  Wing.  He  then  continued  fanning  with  his 
parents  until  reaching  his  majority,  at  which  time  he  purchased 
120  acres  on  section  10,  Welch  township.  Of  this  tract  Mr. 
Be  vers  broke  every  foot,  and  carried  on  general  farming  with 
much  success  until  1881,  when  he  moved  to  Red  Wing  and  asso- 
ciated himself  with  the  II.  S.  Rich  &  Co.  hardware  concern, 
for  whom  he  handled  farm  implements  and  machinery.  After 
five  years  of  residence  in  Red  Wing,  he  came  to  Zumbrota  and 
acted  as  general  manager  of  the  branch  store  which  the  Rich 
company  established  here.  So  greatly  did  his  accommodating 
spirit  and  honest  dealings  commend  themselves  to  the  people  of 
the  village  and  township,  that  after  nine  years  with  the  Zumbrota 
branch  of  the  Rich  company,  his  friends  persuaded  him  to  make  a 
venture  on  his  own  account.  This  he  did,  succeeding  the  company 
of  which  he  had  for  so  many  years  been  the  general  manager. 
The  firm  was  continued  until  1908  under  the  firm  name  of  W.  F. 
Bevers  &  Son.  A  branch  under  the  same  title  has  been  established 
at  Lethbridge,  Alberta,  Canada,  with  the  son,  William  A.,  as 
genera]  manager.  Mr.  Bevers  has  now  practically  retired  from 
active  business  life,  still  retaining  his  extensive  interests  in  the 
Red  AVing  Manufacturing  Company,  the  Red  Wing  Union  Stone- 
ware Company,  the  First  State  Bank  of  Zumbrota  and  the  Secur- 
ity Bank  of  Zumbrota.  His  political  career,  which  has  been  both 
distinguished  and  honorable,  includes  two  years  as  president  of 
the  village  council  of  Zumbrota,  three  years  as  an  alderman  in 
Red  Wing,  and  four  years  as  president  of  the  Zumbrota  hoard 
of  education.  For  two  years  he  was  second  lieutenant  I'M  h  Regi- 
ment, State  Militia.  AVilliam  F.  Bevers  was  married  February 
28,  1872.  at  Lake  City.  Minn.,  to  Sarah  Linn,  daughter  of  John 
and  Catherine  Linn,  natives  of  Ohio  and  early  settlers  of  Welch. 
They  afterward   removed   to   Marshall,   Minn.,  and   finally  went 


east  to  Maryland,  where  they  both  died.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Bevers 
were  born  two  children.  William  A.,  born  December  4,  1874, 
married  Lnella  Grover.  Mary  E.,  born  October  9,  1879,  is  the 
wife  of  Roy  Sigmond,  of  Zumbrota.  Mr.  Bevers  is  a  Republican 
in  politics  and  a  communicant  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  Mrs.  Bevers  died  in  the  summer  of  1909,  and  her  death 
was  a  severe  blow  to  her  family  and  friends. 



First  School  Taught — First  District  Organized — Anecdotes  of 
the  Early  Days — Statistics — Summer  Schools — Library  Asso- 
ciation— High  Schools — Church  Schools — City  Superinten- 
dents— County  Superintendents — Sunday  School  Work — 
Hamline  University — Red  Wing  Seminary — Villa  Marie — 
Lutheran  Ladies'  Seminary — Orphans'  Home — State  Train- 
ing School — Business  Colleges — By  Prof.  Julius  Boraas. 

The  first  settlers  of  Goodhue  county  had  a  strong  faith  in  the 
value  of  an  education.  Those  who  came  from  the  New  England 
states  brought  with  them  the  noble  ideals  of  early  New  England 
traditions,  according  to  which  the  first  things  a  community 
thought  of  as  a  community  was  its  school  and  its  church.  The 
immigrants  who  came  directly  from  Europe  came  from  countries 
in  which  education  was  valued  highly  and  schools  well  developed. 
It  was  natural,  therefore,  that  as  soon  as  a  settlement  was  made 
anywhere  in  the  county  some  provision  would  be  made  for  a 
school.  Even  before  any  public  schools  could  be  organized 
private  schools  were  taught,  the  first  one  of  which  any  record 
is  known  being  held  in  one  of  the  old  Indian  mission  houses  in 
Red  Wing  during  the  year  of  1853  and  taught  by  Mrs.  H.  L. 

The  first  school  district  organized  was  District  No.  1  at  Red 
"Wing,  in  1854.  Then  followed  in  the  order  of  townships  the 
organization  of  districts  in  Wacouta,  Burnside,  Welch,  Stanton, 
Cannon  Falls,  Vasa,  Featherstone,  Hay  Creek,  Florence,  Central 
Point,  Belvidere,  Goodhue,  Belle  Creek,  Leon,  AArarsaw,  Holden, 
Wanamingo,  Minneola,  Zumbrota,  Cherry  Grove,  Pine  Island, 
Roscoe,  and  Kenyon. 

It  was  natural  that  the  conditions  of  the  schools  during  the 
first  years  of  pioneer  life  should  be  rather  primitive.  Schools 
were  sometimes  kept  in  private  buildings.  One  is  mentioned  as 
being  kept  in  a  "lean  to,"  a  sort  of  summer  kitchen;  another 
was  kept  in  the  attic  of  a  small  log  cabin  where  the  rafters  were 
so  low  that  the  superintendent  had  to  beware  of  bumping  his 
head  when  visiting  the  school.     One  school  was  kept  in  a  large 



barn  in  the  basement  of  which  were  the  stables  for  horses  and 
cattle.  Benches  without  backs  were  the  only  seats,  and  the  door 
had  to  be  kept  open  to  afford  light.  Shooing  chickens  and  clucks 
and  pigs  was  part  of  the  program.  Quite  commonly  the  schools 
were  kept  in  log  cabins  which  had  been  used  while  pre-empting 
some  claim.  One  of  these  cabins  is  described  as  follows:  "The 
house  stood  alone  on  the  prairie,  which  was  somewhat  rolling, 
and  entirely  out  of  sight  of  any  neighboring  house.  There  was 
a  large  square  opening,  left  for  a  window,  on  one  side.  About 
the  middle  of  the  roof  there  was  a  smaller  opening,  which  had 
been  used  to  accommodate  a  stove  pipe.  These  were  used  to  let 
in  the  light.  There  was  also  a  door  at  one  corner  of  the  building, 
where  light  would  come  in  when  the  weather  was  pleasant.  The 
door  itself  had  neither  hinges  nor  fastenings.  The  young  lady 
teacher  had  plenty  of  exercise  in  removing  and  replacing  the 
door  in  windy  weather.  She  said  in  answer  to  some  inquiries  of 
the  superintended  that  she  was  obliged  to  place  a  large  prop 
against  the  door  oftentimes  to  keep  out  the  wind,  and  in  case  of 
a   hard  shower,  "we  huddle  together  in  the  dryest  corner! " 

\n  1864  there  were  nominally  one  hundred  districts  in  the 
county,  but  only  eighty-seven  of  these  were  organized.  There 
were  fifty-six  school  houses  owned  by  districts;  thirty-four  frame 
and  twenty-two  log  buildings.  According  to  the  superintendent's 
report  only  six  were  really  good  buildings.  Home-made  seats 
and  desks  were  the  order,  and  many  schools  were  without  black- 
boards, maps,  or  globes.  There  were  a1  this  time  only  two  dis- 
tricts which  employed  more  than  one  teacher.  They  were  Red 
"Wing,  employing  five,  and  Cannon  Falls,  two.  The  total 
enrollment  was  2.450. 

During  the  year  of  1864-65  there  were  in  the  county  101 
teachers,  of  whom  twenty-five  were  men  and  seventy-six  women. 
Three  held  first  grade  certificates;  fifty-seven,  second  grade;  and 
forty-one.  third  grade.  M.  P.  Ilubbel  was  the  first  man  and  Mrs. 
Julia  B.  Nelson,  then  Julia  Bullard,  the  first  woman  to  receive 
a  first  grade  certificate. 

The  earliest  statistical  report  of  the  county  superintendent 
kept  on  file  is  from  the  year  1883.  At  that  time  there  were  four 
special  or  independent  districts  and  143  rural  schools,  of  which 
five  were  joint  districts  with  their  school  houses  in  the  adjoining 
counties.  The  total  enrollment  was  7.404.  During  the  year  seven 
districts  had  three  months  of  school ;  fifteen  had  four  months ; 
twenty-four,  five  months ;  thirty-two.  six  months ;  forty-five,  seven 
months;  eleven,  eight  months;  two,  nine  months;  and  one,  ten 
months.  Many  of  the  schools  were  very  large.  Thus  District 
No.  24  shows  an  enrollment  of  ninety-one;  District   54.  seventy- 


nine;    District    56,    seventy-nine;    District    63,    seventy-five;    and 
District  121,  128. 

The  greatesl  Dumber  of  pupils  enrolled  in  the  schools  of  the 
county  during'  one  year  was  in  1886,  when  the  total  number  was 
8,127.  Since  thai  time  it  has  decreased  until  in  1908  it  was  6.620. 
The  greatest  number  enrolled  in  the  rural  schools  seems  to  have 
been  in  1884,  when  there  was  an  enrollment  of  5,559.  The  great- 
est number  enrolled  in  the  city  schools  was  in  1903,  when  it  was 
3,131.  During  the  earlier  period  of  the  history  of  the  county  it 
was  a  common  thing  to  find  a  large  number  of  pupils  in  the 
common  schools  from  eighteen  to  twenty-live  years  of  age  and 
over.  As  educational  facilities  multiplied  and  the  schools 
improved  things  changed  so  that  in  1908  there  were  only  thirty- 
eight  pupils  in  the  rural  schools  that  were  over  eighteen  years 
of  age.  AVhile  in  the  early  days  few,  if  any,  completed  the  eighth 
grade  at  any  age,,  the  average  age  at  which  a  common  school 
pupil  now  finishes  this  grade  is  fourteen  or  fifteen  years,  and 
the  high  school  course  is  completed  before  the  age  of  twenty. 
This  fact,  and  the  fact  that  the  schools  are  at  present  between 
two  generations,  the  first  being  almost  gone  and  the  second 
beginning  to  arrive,  will  explain  the  decrease  in  the  school  popu- 
lation. All  parts  of  the  county  were  settled  about  the  same  time 
by  comparatively  young  families,  and  for  years  almost  every 
family  had  children  to  send  to  school.  Now  there  are  five 
districts  with  less  than  ten  pupils  in  each. 

During  the  eighties  and  nineties  the  schools  of  the  county 
developed  splendidly  along  lines  of  better  equipment  and  organ- 
ization of  work.  It  was  at  this  time  that  free  text  books  were 
introduced  and  school  libraries  bought  in  almost  every  school  of 
the  county.  A  system  of  examinations  was  also  introduced,  so 
that  it  became  possible  to  have  common  school  graduations.  Dur- 
ing this  time.  too.  the  method  of  conducting  teachers'  examina- 
tions was  made  more  uniform.  All  this  was  accomplished  largely 
through  the  efforts  of  Superintendent  A.  E.  Engstrom,  who  ren- 
dered the  county  most  efficient  service  for  a  period  of  eighteen 
years,  from  1881  to  1899. 

The  condition  of  the  schools  at  the  present  time  may  perhaps 
best  be  indicated  by  quoting  the  county  superintendent's  annual 
report  for  1 908  : 

Graded         Common 

Schools  Schools 

Number  of  pupils  entitled  to  apportionment 2,603  :;..">  17 

Number  of  pupils  not  entitled  to  apportionment 219  t~>l 

Total   enrollment    2,822                3,798 

A.verage  number  of  days  each  pupil  lias  attended 147.5                  87.9 

Pupils  from  5  to  8  years  of  age '">' (; 

Pupils  from  8  to  15  years  of  age 2,228   _            2,973 

Pupils  from   18  to  21   years  of  aye 


Number  of  male  teachers 9  15 

Number  of  female  teachers 84  139 

Average  monthly  salary  of  male  teachers $        120.55  $          40.80 

Average  monthly  salary  of  female  teachers $          55.50  $          40.13 

Teachers  who  are  graduates  of  a  high  school 77  92 

Teachers  who  are  graduates  of  a  normal  school 52  16 

Teachers  who  are  graduates  of  a  college 23  3 

Teachers  who  have  taught  three  years  or  more  in  the 

same  school 28  7 

Teachers   who  have   taught   two  years   or   more  in   the 

same  school  21  29 

Teachers    who    have    taught    one   year    or    more   in    the 

same  school   43  104 

Districts   loaning  text-books   free 5  149 

New   schoolhouses    1 

Total  number  of  schoolhouses  in  the  county 10  154 

Estimated  value  of  schoolhouses  and  sites' $176,000.00  $149,875.00 

Estimated  value   of   seats  and   desks $     7,175.00  $  11,037.00 

Estimated  value  of  apparatus $     4,843.00  $     6,656.00 

Number  of  volumes  bought  for  school  libraries 60  997 

Number  of  libraries 10  143 

Total  number  of  books  in  all  libraries 6,710  14,723 

Number  of  trees  planted 186 

Total  indebtedness  of  all   districts $  27.500.00  $  19,856.00 

Number  of  districts  included 2  18 

Average  length  of  school  for  next  year,  in  months.  ...                    9  6.94 

Average  number  of  voters  at  the  annual  meetings.  ...                  34  9 

Number  of  visits  by  the  county  superintendent 13  259 

Cash  on  hand  at  the  beginning  of  the  year $  15,138.01  $  19,411.76 

Apportionment 11,960.77  15,039.61 

Special  tax   49,785.02  34,791.00 

Local  one  mill  tax 4,093.00  8,319.46 

Special  state  aid 11,200.00  6,388.00 

All  other  sources 2,320.52  11,882.80 

Total    $  94,497.92  $  95,832.63 

Teachers '   wages    49,228.58  42,866.2 1 

Fuel  and  school  supplies 4,916.96  4,981.85 

Repairs  and  improvements 7,993.16  2,833.65 

New  schoolhouses  and  sites 2,961.26 

Bonds  and  interest 2,  3,705.35 

Library    books 84.32  399.79 

Text-books     1.1 3 1.77  923.14 

Apparatus    122.48  276.57 

Transportation  of  pupils 30.00 

All  other  purposes 7,964.57  4,017.49 

Cash  on  hand  at  the  end  of  the  year 20,183.28  32,837.32 

Total    $  94,497.92  $  95,832.63 

Average  rate  of  special  tax  in  mills 12.1  4.2 

Average  cost  for  each  pupil 26.33  16.58 

Average  cost  for  each  day  attended .18  .19 

There  are  now  165  organized  districts  in  the  county.  Of  these 
five  are  city  schools  with  first-class  high  schools,  one  is  a  village 
school  employing  three  teachers,  one  employing  two  teachers, 
and  one  a  rural  school  with  two  teachers.  The  others  are  one- 
room  schools.  There  are  seven  districts  which  are  joint  with 
other  counties  and  have  their  school  houses  outside  of  Goodhue 
county.  Five  schools  have  an  enrollment  of  less  than  ten  pupils, 
and  fifty  have  an  enrollment  of  from  ten  to  twenty. 

During  the  year  of  1908-09  six  districts  had  nine  months  of 


school;  fifty  schools,  eight  months;  thirty-seven  schools,  seven 
months;  forty  schools,  six  months;  and  sixteen  schools,  five 
months.  Compared  with  the  report  of  twenty- five  years  ago  it 
will  be  seen  that  short  term  schools  are  gradually  becoming  a 
thing  of  the  past. 

We  again  quote  from  the  annual  report  of  1908: 

"It  may  be  of  interest  to  know  what  a  school  would  be  like 
that  should  represent  the  average  of  all  the  rural  schools  of  the 
county.  Such  a  school  would  be  found  in  a  schoolhouse  worth 
about  $1,000,  with  seats  worth  about  $75  and  apparatus  worth 
$45.  There  would  be  about  one  hundred  volumes  in  the  library. 
There  would  be  twenty-five  pupils,  of  whom  three  would  fail  to 
attend  forty  days.  Five  of  the  pupils  would  be  from  five  to  eight 
years  of  age  and  the  others  would  be  from  eight  to  eighteen.  The 
school  would  be  in  session  seven  months  and  the  pupils  would 
attend  an  average  of  eighty-eight  days.  The  teacher  would 
receive  about  $40  a  month.  The  district  would  have  a  cash  on 
hand  of  about  $130,  receive  from  apportionment  $100,  from  spe- 
cial tax  $220,  from  one  mill  tax  $55  (showing  that  the  district 
would  have  an  assessed  valuation  of  about  $55,000).  It  would 
pay  for  teacher's  wages  $280,  for  fuel  $33,  repairs  $18,  library 
books  $2.50,  text-books  $6,  apparatus  $2,  other  purposes  $25. 

"Years  ago  it  used  to  be  a  common  thing  for  schools  to  employ 
two  or  three  different  teachers  during  the  same  year,  one  for 
each  term.  This  has  changed  so  that  now  practically  every  dis- 
triet  employs  the  same  teacher  throughout  the  year.  Out  of  a 
total  of  151  teachers  who  taught  in  the  rural  schools  during  the 
year,  140  stayed  the  whole  time  in  the  same  school. 

"During  the  past  year  the  state  high  school  examination  was 
taken  in  twenty-eight  schools  and  about  two  hundred  credits 
were  obtained.  The  final  county  examination  was  taken  in  103 
schools  and  1,764  papers  were  sent  to  the  county  superintendent. 
Fifty-eight  pupils  received  common  school  diplomas  as  a  testi- 
monial that  they  have  completed  the  common  school  branches 
and  are  entitled  to  enter  the  high  school." 

During  the  school  year  of  1908-09  the  final  county  examina- 
tion has  been  taken  by  about  one  hundred  and  twenty  schools 
and  the  number  of  graduates  will  be  about  eighty. 

Most  of  the  schools  are  well  equipped  with  those  things  which 
are  required  for  efficient  work.  During  the  last  few  years  special 
attention  has  been  given  to  heating  and  ventilation,  and  a  large 
number  of  districts  have  installed  heating  and  ventilating  plants 
in  accordance  with  the  suggestions  of  the  state  superintendent 
of  public  instruction. 

During    the    present    year    forty-six    schools    will    meet    the 


requirements  of  the  state  department  for  obtaining  special  state 
aid,  and  the  list  of  such  schools  is  growing  rapidly. 

The  educational  qualifications  of  the  teachers  in  the  county 
are  unusually  good,  there  being  but  two  or  three  counties  in  the 
state  in  which  there  is  a  larger  percentage  of  the  total  number 
of  teachers  who  have  a  high  school  or  normal  school  education, 
and  they  are  counties  with  exceptional  facilities  in  the  matter 
of  high  schools. 

The  teachers'  training  schools,  which  are  conducted  in  the 
county  every  other  summer,  do  much  to  increase  the  efficiency  of 
trie  teachers.  These  schools  are  paid  for  by  the  state  and  con- 
ducted under  the  direction  of  the  county  superintendent  and  the 
conductor  appointed  by  the  state  department  of  public  instruc- 
tion. Instruction  is  given  in  all  branches  required  for  a  teacher's 
certificate.  In  addition,  there  are  classes  in  pedagogics,  school 
management,  and  so  forth.  These  schools  arc  free  and  a  large 
number  of  teachers  make  use  of  them. 

A  Teachers'  Library  Association  was  organized  in  1902.  It 
now  owns  a  circulating  library  of  about  three  hundred  books  on 
school  management  and  methods  of  teaching,  and  has  proven  of 
great  benefit  to  the  teachers  generally. 

There  are  five  state  high  schools  in  the  country,  all  in  a  very 
prosperous  condition.  \Un\  Wing  has  five  buildings,  employs 
forty-six  teachers  and  has  an  enrollment  of  1,41(1  pupils.  Its 
high  school  yives  in  addition  to  the  customary  courses  a  com- 
mercial course  ami  a  normal  course.  A  manual  training  depart- 
ment is  maintained  and  during  the  presenl  year  the  city  voted 
$50,000  for  a  new  building  to  be  used  largely  for  this  purpose 
and  for  domestic  economy.  Through  a  special  grant  from  the 
state  a  course  in  elementary  agriculture  has  been  added,  with 
experimental  work  on  a  plot  of  land  secured  for  the  purpose. 

Cannon  Falls  has  one  building  and  employs  twelve  teachers. 
The  total  number  of  pupils  is  347.  It  has  lately  introduced  a 
department  in  manual  training.  During  the  past  year  regular 
courses  of  lectures  on  farming  and  domestic  economy  were  given 
every  week  during  the  winter  by  instructors  from  the  state  agri- 
cultural school.  These  lectures  were  largely  attended  by  the 
neighboring  farmers,  as  well  as  by  the  citizens  of  the  town. 

Zumbrota  has  one  building,  probably  the  most  modern  in 
construction  of  any  in  the  county,  employs  thirteen  teachers  and 
has  367  pupils  enrolled. 

Pine  Island  has  two  buildings  and  employs  nine  teachers. 
The  enrollment  is  236. 

Kenyon  has  one  building  and  employs  thirteen  teachers,  with 
an  enrollment  of  420.  Here.  too.  a  manual  training  course  has 
been  introduced. 


These  schools  are  all  well  equipped  and  arc  doing  splendid 
work.  They  have  kepi  abreast  with  the  .forward  movements  in 
the  educational  world  and  their  courses  are  gradually  being 
enlarged  and  adapted  so  as  to  make  them  truly  the  schools  of 
the  people  and  for  the  people.  A  large  number  of  the  pupils 
enrolled  in  these  high  schools  are  country  pupils  who  have 
completed  the  work  of  the  rural  schools. 

The  men  who  have  served  as  county  superintendents  of 
schools  are  J.  W.  Hancock.  II.  B.  Wilson,  .1.  K.  Pingrey,  A.  E. 
Engstrom  and  Julius  Boraas. 

Those  who  have  been  superintendents  in  the  city  schools 
during  the  last  twenty-five  years  are: 

Red  Wing — 0.  W.  Whitman  (who  served  nineteen  years, 
from  1870  to  1889),  A.  W.  Rankin.  G.  0.  Brohaugh,  F.  V.  Hub- 
bard.  W.  F.  Kunze,  -I.  I,.  Silvernale. 

Cannon  Falls— ('.  W.  Blake.  E.  K.  Cheadle,  0.  C.  Gross.  A.  M. 
Locker,  A.  ('.  (  arlson.  II.  I.  Harter  and  A.  W.  Newman. 

Zumbrota— C.  I).  Welch,  F.  A.  AVeld.  (i.  E.  St.  John,  J.  W. 
Steffens.  F.  J.  Bomberger,  ('.  A.  Patchin.  L.  J.  Montgomery, 
J.  T.  Fuller. 

Pine  Island— Otis  Gross,  E.  S.  Stevens,  A.  M.  Dresbach,  "Wil- 
liam A.  Westerson,  J.  S.  Festerson,  L.  J.  Montgomery,  H.  C. 
Bell,  B.  Frank  McComb  and  II.  0.  Cady. 

Kenyon — P.  H.  Bradley,  A.  ('.  Kingsford,  W.  II.  Hollands, 
H.  G.  Blanch  and  G.  V.  Kinney. 

Parochial  schools  have  been  conducted  in  the  various  com- 
munities ever  since  the  county  was  first  settled,  and  have  added 
much  to  the  upbuilding  of  its  citizenship.  There  have  been  and 
are  several  types  of  these  schools.  Three  denominations  in  Red 
Wing  have  maintained  schools  in  which  the  pupils  attend  the 
wmole  year  in  place  of  attending  the  public  schools.  A  similar 
school  has  been  conducted  at  Hay  Qreek.  In  these  schools 
instruction  is  given  in  the  teachings  of  the  church  by  which  the 
school  is  maintained  and  in  some  or  all  of  the  common  branches 
of  the  public  schools.  In  some,  instruction  is  also  given  in  a 
foreign  language. 

In  one  community  two  congregations  unite  and  employ  a 
parochial  teacher  who  teaches  five  months  in  each  congregation, 
the  schoolhouses  being  owned  by  the  congregations  and  located 
near  their  respective  churches.  In  these  schools  instruction  is 
given  in  some  of  the  common  branches.  Outside  of  the  five 
months  of  parochial  school  the  pupils  attend   the  public  school. 

In  some  communities  congregations  have  followed  the  plan 
of  employing  a  parochial  teacher  for  the  entire  year  and  dividing 
the  congregations  into  four  or  five  districts  with  one  or  two 
months  of  parochial  school  in  each.     Generally  the  terms  of  the 


public  school  are  so  arranged  as  to  allow  the  pupils  of  each 
community  to  attend  both  schools.  No  instruction  in  the  com- 
mon branches  is  attempted  in  these  parochial  schools,  the  work 
being  confined  to  instruction  in  the  teachings  and  language  of 
the  church  by  which  they  are  maintained.  The  buildings  of  the 
various  school  districts  are  generally  used  also  for  the  denomi- 
national schools,  though  in  some  cases  there  are  buildings  erected 
for  that  special  purpose. 

In  many  places  no  teacher  is  employed  by  the  congregations, 
but  each  community  is  allowed  to  provide  the  religious  instruc- 
tion of  its  children  in  the  way  it  thinks  best.  In  such  com- 
munities the  public  school  is  usually  maintained  during  the  fall 
and  winter  and  a  private  school  conducted  during  one  or  two 
months  of  the  summer.  Sometimes  the  same  teacher  will  teach 
both  schools. 

In  practically  all  of  the  churches  located  in  the  cities  and 
villages  the  religious  instruction  is  given  through  the  agency  of 
Sunday  schools.  The  work  of  these  schools  has  been  helped  and 
stimulated  in  a  splendid  way  by  the  Goodhue  County  Sunday 
School  Association,  which  was  organized  in  1859.  and  which 
celebrated  its  semi-centennial  in  Red  Wing  last  June.  The  three 
guests  of  honor  at  this  celebration  were  Professor  Jabez  Brooks, 
the  first  president  of  the  association,  and  M.  B.  Lewis  and  Louis 
Johnson,  charter  members  and  active  workers  in  the  association 
during  its  whole  history. 

The  comity  lias  been  very  fortunate  in  having  within  its 
boundaries  several  private  and  denominational  schools  for 
advanced  education.  The  first  one  of  these  schools  was  Hamline 
University,  under  the  auspices  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church.  This  school  commenced  its  work  in  1854.  with  Rev. 
Jabez  Brooks  as  principal,  and  continued  during  the  next  fifteen 
years,  when  it  was  removed  to  St.  Paul.  The  Red  AYing  Col- 
legiate Institute  was  incorporated  in  1870.  with  the  following 
members  of  the  first  board  of  directors:  L.  F.  Hubbard.  0.  C. 
Webster,  F.  A.  Cole,  James  Lawther,  Peter  Daniels  and  W.  P. 
Hood.  Two  large  buildings  were  erected  on  College  Bluff  at  a 
cost  of  $17,000,  the  land  being  donated  by  Edward  Murphy.  The 
school  was  conducted  for  about  three  years.  The  property  was 
later  sold  to  the  Hauges  Norwegian  Lutheran  Synod  and  has 
since  been  used  as  a  college  and  divinity  school  for  young  men. 
This  institution  gets  its  students  from  all  over  the  Northwest, 
but  many  of  the  young  men  of  the  county  have  also  made  use  of 
the  excellent  opportunities  which  are  offered.  The  Villa  Maria 
is  a  convent  school  for  girls  located  near  Frontenac.  It  is  in 
charge  of  the  Ursuline  nuns  and  is  doing  much  for  the  education 
of  young  girls.     The  Lutheran  Ladies'  Seminary  began  its  work 


in  the  fall  of  1893  and  has  grown  to  be  a  very  prosperous  institu- 
tion with  a  large  enrollment.  Various  business  colleges  have 
from  time  to  time  been  conducted  in  Red  Wing  and  have  enjoyed 
considerable  prosperity. 

The  only  state  institution  located  in  the  county  is  the  State 
Training  School,  situated  two  miles  from  Red  Wing. — Julius 

Hamline  University. — The  pioneers  in  a  new  country  are  as  a 
rule  men  not  only  of  brawn,  but  also  of  supreme  faith  and 
courage.  It  is  faith  that  gives  them  the  stamina  to  battle  against, 
the  difficulties  and  privations  of  frontier  life.  By  faith,  they  see 
great  cities  where  the  eye  sees  nothing  but  the  wigwams  of  the 
.savage ;  great  industries  where  no  sound  is  heard  save  that  of 
the  waterfall ;  great  schools  and  churches  where  only  the  mis- 
sionary is  found  seeking  to  reveal  the  truth  to  Nature's  children. 
The  early  Methodist  preachers  were  no  exception  to  this  rule. 
They  believed  that  the  fertile  soil  of  Minnesota  would  one  day 
furnish  sustenance  for  millions ;  that  mighty  cities  would  be 
built,  and  that  an  empire  of  boundless  resources  would  develop 
upon  that  vast  expanse  of  forest  and  plain.  Accordingly,  one 
of  their  representatives,  the  Rev.  David  Brooks,  made  his  appear- 
ance at  the  Territorial  Council  of  Minnesota  with  a  remarkable 
proposition.  It  chanced  that  he  went  to  William  Pitt  Murray, 
a  man  who  served  the  people  of  his  state  well  for  many  years. 

In  a  speech  delivered  at  Hamline  University,  at  St.  Paul,  May 
10,  1897,  on  the  occasion  of  the  one  hundredth  anniversary  of  the 
birth  of  Leonidas  L.  Hamline,  Mr.  Murray  related  the  incident 
as  follows : 

"Early  in  January,  1854,  a  clergyman  of  the  Methodist  Epis- 
copal Church  from  Wisconsin  came  to  me,  I  being  then  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Territorial  Council,  and  handed  me  a  draft  of  a  bill 
which  he  desired  introduced  in  the  Territorial  Legislature,  to 
incorporate  the  Minnesota  Academy,  an  institution  to  be  under 
the  control  of  the  Wisconsin  conference.  I  said  to  him  that  a 
special  charter  would  be  unnecessary,  as  the  winter  previous  an 
act  had  been  passed  to  authorize  three  or  more  persons  whom 
might  be  desirous  of  forming  a  corporation  for  seminary  pur- 
poses, to  become  a  body  corporate  by  complying  with  certain 
conditions  named  in  said  act.  The  gentleman  seemed  quite 
anxious  to  have  a  special  act,  under  the  impression  that  a  legis- 
lative act  would  give  it  more  character,  of  which  I  did  not 
approve.  Perhaps  as  an  inspiration,  I  suggested  that  it  would 
afford  me  pleasure  to  aid  in  the  passage  of  a  university  charter, 


which  I  had  to  name.  The  idea  to  him  was  a  novelty.  A  denomi- 
national university  in  a  frontier  territory,  with  a  population  of 
less  than  eight  thousand  people — they  generally  without  means 
—and  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  without  a  membership 
sufficient  to  maintain  a  conference,  "was  a  pleasantry  the  old 
veteran  of  the  cross  could  not  appreciate  He  being  an  English- 
man, born  and  bred,  may  have  thought  of  the  universities  of 
Oxford  and  Cambridge,  with  their  numerous  colleges  and  halls, 
and  with  their  large  libraries  and  wealth.  A  feeder  for  some 
college  down  east,  where  there  was  more  money  and  a  higher 
civilization,  was  Ids  ambition  and  hope.  We  did  not  agree  and 
the  bill  was  returned  to  him.  A  day  or  two  after,  my  associate 
in  the  Territorial  Council,  the  Hon.  Isaac  Van  Etten,  introduced 
the  bill  to  incorporate  the  Minnesota  Academy.  Having  made  up 
my  mind  that  my  Methodist  brethren  either  had  to  have  n  univer- 
sity charter  or  none.  I  had  the  bill  referred  to  a  special  com- 
mittee, of  which  I  was  a  member.  The  other  members  of  the 
committee  were  indifferent  what  became  of  the  bill,  whether  it 
was  reported  back  to  the  council  with  the  recommendation  that 
it  pass,  or  report  a  substitute  authorizing  the  establishment  of 
ferries,  or  the  laying  out  of  country  roads,  or  the  erection  of 
sign  boards  at  cross-roads  to  indicate  the  right  road  for  country 
preachers  across  the  prairies  to  their  various  appointments. 
After  having  consulted  with  the  Rev.  -John  Kearns,  the  pastor 
©f  the  old  Market  Street  Church  in  the  city  of  St.  Paul,  the 
parent  and  first  Methodist  Episcopal  church  in  the  territory  of 
which  the  Central  Park  Methodist  Church  of  St.  Paul  is  the 
successor,  and  the  Rev.  B.  F.  Hoyt,  a  pioneer  clergyman  who 
resided  in  St.  Paul,  both  of  whom  were  of  the  opinion  that  a 
university  charter  would  be  a  good  thing  and  might  perhaps  be 
got  under  way  before  the  end  of  the  century.  At  all  events,  it 
would  be  a  good  thing  to  talk  about  as  indicative  of  the  growth 
of  Methodism  in  the  West,  although  for  a  long  time  it  might  be 
found  nowhere  except  on  the  statutes.  I  then  prepared  to  draft 
my  bill — substitute  for  the  seminary  bill.  The  name  for  the  uni- 
versity, I  had  already  determined  upon.  There  were  two  reasons. 
I  may  say,  which  led  to  this : 

"'On  a  summer  evening  in  1852  I  attended  a  reception  at  the 
Wesleyan  Female  College,  at  Cincinnati.  Ohio,  during  commence- 
ment week,  and  among  the  guests  was  Bishop  Leonidas  L.  Ham- 
line,  to  whom  I  had  an  introduction,  and  who  soon  after  asked 
me  to  have  a  seat  by  his  side.  AYe  spent  nearly  the  entire  even- 
ing together.  He  appeared  to  be  interested  in  the  Northwest, 
especially  in  the  young  and  frontier  territory  of  Minnesota.  He 
wanted  to  know  all  about  her  settlers,  what  kind  of  people  were 
making  their  homes  in  her  villages  and  on  her  prairies:  whether 


the  church  from  which  he  had  just  resigned  the  high  office  of 
bishop  was  holding  its  own  among  the  churches  of  the  territory 
in  its  missionary  and  pioneer  work.  He  seemed  pleased  at  what 
I  told  him.  During  the  evening  his  conversation  and  advice  were 
fatherly;  his  aim  and  thought,  apparently,  to  mark  out  to  me  the 
better  way,  with  now  and  then  incidents  of  his  own  early  life. 
To  me  it  was  interesting  and  never  forgotten,  and  as  we  parted 
I  remember  so  distinctly  his  cheery  words:  'Good  night,  good 
night.  God  bless  you.'  The  memories  of  that  evening,  together 
with  a  correspondence  with  him  afterwards,  led  me  to  have  a 
very  great  regard  for  the  Bishop.  This,  coupled  with  the  fact 
that  Bishop  Hamline  had  been  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
prelates  in  the  United  States — the  peer  of  any  in  ability  and 
piety — is  what  gave  the  institution  its  name. 

'The  next  question  was,  where  shall  the  institution  of  the 
future  be  located?  The  early  legislators  believed  that  the  suc- 
cess of  an  educational  institution  depended  largely  upon  its  prox- 
imity to  navigable  streams,  for  the  reason  that  a  large  majority 
of  the  earlier  settlers  made  their  homes  near  the  Mississippi  and 
Minnesota  rivers  and  Lake  St.  Croix — and  for  a  further  reason 
that  students,  like  freight',  are  more  cheaply  transported  by 
water  than  by  land.  Therefore  the  bill  provided  'that  said  uni- 
versity be  located  on  the  Mississippi  River,  between  St.  Paul  and 
Lake  Pepin,'  it  being  understood  that  if  there  was  no  town 
worthy  of  the  honor,  one  could  be  made.  The  bill,  as  reported, 
or  at  least  substantially  so,  passed  both  houses  and  became  a 
law,  March  3,  1854. 

'The  Bishop  was  advised  of  the  action  of  the  legislature,  and 
a  copy  of  the  act  was  forwarded  to  him.  This  was  the  first  inti- 
mation that  he  had  that  such  a  scheme  was  thought  of;  he  fell 
complimented  and  intimated  in  reply  that  he  would  do  something 
for  his  namesake. 

'Within  a  few  weeks  after  the  passage  of  the  act.  Hoyt, 
Brooks  and  Bidwell  issued  a  call  for  a  meeting  of  the  incorpora- 
tion to  be  held  on  May  19,  in  the  city  of  St.  Paul.  In  response 
to  the  call,  a  meeting  was  held,  and  the  charter  accepted,  when 
an  adjournment  was  had  until  June  12,  185*4.  When  the  trustees 
held  their  second  meeting,  more  than  one  village  contested  for 
the  prize;  even  St.  Paul  thought  it  was  a  plum  worth  looking 
after.  The  late  Major  Nathaniel  McLean  offered  twenty  acres  of 
land  on  Dayton's  Bluff,  now  known  as  Suburban  Hills,  ami 
among  the  most  elevated  and  beautiful  building  sites  on  the  Mis- 
sissippi River,  then  just  outside  the  corporate  limits  of  the  town 
of  St.  Paul.  Lyman  Dayton.  Ira  Bidwell.  William  II.  Randall 
and  Louis  Robert  also  made  Liberal  offers  of  broad  acres  and 
town  lots  for  its  location.    William  Freeborn,  one  of  the  trustees, 


became  very  much  interested  in  its  location,  and,  with  what  he 
claimed  to  be  a  prophetic  vision,  declared  that  the  little  village 
of  Red  Wing,  with  its  three  hundred  inhabitants,  and  a  total 
valuation  of  real  and  personal  property  for  taxation  less  than 
$70,000,  was  in  the  future  to  be  a  city  that  would  rank  high  in 
intelligence,  wealth  and  population  among  the  cities  of  Minne- 
sota, and  demanded  that  the  new  university  be  located  there,  as 
a  matter  of  right,  claiming  that  myself  and  others  had  so  prom- 
ised. The  fact  was  admitted,  and  Red  Wing  became  the  home 
of  Hamline  University." 

The  first  board  of  trustees  was  a  remarkable  set  of  men. 
Among  them  representing  the  clergy  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
were  Rev.  Chauncey  Hobart,  Rev.  John  Kearns,  Rev.  David 
Brooks,  Rev.  Matthew  Sorin  and  Rev.  Thomas  M.  Fullerton. 
The  others  were  Parker  Payne.  Ira  Bidwell,  P>.  F.  Hoyt,  Willis 
A.  Gorman,  Alexander  Ramsey.  Samuel  C.  Thomas,  Merritt  Allen, 
Hart  Boughton,  William  Freeborn  and  W.  D.  Woodbury. 

As  soon  as  the  location  was  decided  upon,  the  trustees  began 
to  make  preparations  for  opening  the  school.  Bishop  Hamline 
gave  $25,000,  $12,000  in  real  estate  in  New  York  and  $13,000  in 
real  estate  in  Chicago;  the  citizens  of  Red  Wing  subscribed 
liberally,  and  the  way  was  thus  opened  for  immediate  action. 

At  that  time  there  was  a  young  man  who  was  preacher  in 
charge  of  Jackson  Street  (now  Summerfield)  Church,  Milwaukee. 
He  had  graduated  with  high  honors  from  Wesleyan  University, 
Middletown,  Conn.,  in  1850.  He  knew  something  of  the  begin- 
ning of  the  settlement  of  Minnesota  and  was  attracted  by  its 
possibilities.  So  when  he  was  invited  to  become  principal  of  the 
preparatory  department  of  Hamline  University,  to  be  opened  in 
the  fall  of  1854,  he  readily  consented  and  hopefully  set  out  for 
his  new  field  of  labor.  This  was  the  beginning  of  the  connection 
of  Dr.  Jabez  Brooks  with  Hamline  University,  a  connection  not 
to  be  permanently  severed  so  long  as  the  institution  remained 
at  Red  Wing. 

On  November  16.  1854,  the  preparatory  department  was 
opened  with  an  attendance  of  thirty-three.  Two  rooms  were 
secured  on  the  second  floor  of  the  store  building  of  Smith,  Hoyt 
&  Co.,  near  the  river,  and  here  the  history  of  higher  education  in 
the  state  of  Minnesota  began.  The  beginning  was  humble.  Fine 
buildings,  great  libraries,  extensive  laboratories — all  were  want- 
ing; but  the  essential  elements  of  true  education  were  there — 
cultured  Christian  teachers  and  pupils  eager  for  knowledge. 

The  faculty  was  small.  In  the  first  annual  catalogue,  pub- 
lished in  1855,  were  but  three  names — Rev.  Jabez  Brooks,  A.  M., 
principal;  Miss  Louisa  Sherman,  teacher  of  modern  languages, 
painting    and    drawing;    Mrs.    Frances    L.    Dunning,    teacher   of 


music  and  ornamental  work.  Rev.  Jabez  Brooks  was  librarian. 
The  students  were  chiefly  from  Minnesota ;  but  Michigan,  Iowa 
and  AVisconsin  were  represented  among  them.  The  total  number 
enrolled  the  first  year  was  seventy-three,  thirty  ladies  and  forty- 
three  gentlemen.  During  the  first  year  of  Hamline's  history  the 
trustees  proceeded  to  erect  a  college  building.  A  block  of  ground 
in  the  heart  of  the  town  was  donated  by  the  proprietors  of  the 
town  site.  Plans  were  adopted  and  in  August  the  active  work  of 
construction  was  started.  That  same  fall  the  building  was 
completed.     It  was  formally  opened  January  10,  1855. 

It  has  been  stated  that  Bishop  Hamline  gave  $25,000  to  the 
institution  in  real  estate,  part  of  which  was  in  Chicago  and  part 
in  New  York  City.  The  property  in  New  York  was  set  aside  for 
building  purposes.  Though  it  was  worth  $12,000  when  given  by 
Bishop  Hamline.  yet  when  it  came  to  be  sold  it  had  so  fallen  in 
value  that  the  university  realized  from  it  only  a  little  more  than 
$7,000,  and  so  there  fell  upon  the  institution,  immediately  upon 
its  erection,  an  incumbrance  which  constituted  the  bulk  of  its 
indebtedness  and  finally  became  one  of  the  causes  of  its 

In  the  spring  of  1857  President  Brooks,  whose  health  was 
failing  on  account  of  overwork,  resigned.  Thus  far,  only  the 
preparatory  department  had  been  organized,  and  as  a  number 
were  ready  for  college  it  was  decided  to  establish  a  full  and 
complete  college  course.  Rev.  B.  F.  Crary,  D.  D..  was  elected 
president.  Up  to  this  time  Minnesota  had  been  prosperous.  Trus- 
tees of  the  institution  had  been  able  to  secure  the  funds  neces- 
sary for  maintaining  the  institution  as  easily  as  could  be  expected 
in  a  new  country,  sparsely  settled,  when  all  the  money  that  could 
be  secured  was  expended  for  improvements.  But  in  the  same 
month  when  it  was  decided  to  throw  open  the  doors  of  Hamline 
for  a  full  and  complete  college  education  to  the  youth  of  the 
Northwest,  when  with  an  increased  faculty  the  running  expenses 
of  the  institution  were  largely  augmented,  a  financial  panic 
struck  the  entire  country.  It  was  especially  severe  in  Minnesota, 
because  there  had  been  no  opportunity  for  the  settlers  to  store 
away  wealth  against  the  time  of  adversity.  Values  ceased  to 
exist;  the  wealthy  became  poor;  it  was  a  question  of  daily  bread 
rather  than  riches,  or  the  rearing  of  magninYenl  buildings  for 
educational  purposes. 

In  1859  the  first  college  class  was  graduated.  There  were 
but  two  members,  Elizabeth  and  Mary  Sorin,  daughters  of  one 
of  the  trustees.  In  the  spring  of  1861  came  the  War  of  the 
Rebellion.  One  of  the  faculty,  IT.  B.  Wilson,  professor  «»!'  mathe- 
matics, and  many  of  the  students  enlisted.  There  were  few.  if 
any,  young  men  left  who  were  physically  able  to  hear  arms.     At 


this  time,  too,  President  Crary,  who  had  been  struggling  manfully 
to  keep  Hamline  alive  in  those  years  succeeding  the  panic  of  '57, 
was  selected  by  a  committee  of  the  legislature  of  Minnesota  to 
organize  the  public  school  system  of  the  state,  and  he  accepted 
the  appointment.  In  the  meantime  the  Rev.  Jabez  Brooks  had 
recovered  his  health  and  the  trustees  elected  him  to  the  presi- 
dency. His  was  no  enviable  task.  The  institution  was  in  debt, 
most  of  her  young  men  had  gone  to  the  war;  her  friends,  many 
of  them,  were  penniless,  and  the  resources  of  the  state  were  taxed 
to  the  utmost  to  maintain  order  on  the  frontier  while  her  sons 
fought  for  the  preservation  of  the  Union.  He  threw  into  it  all 
the  energy  of  his  young  manhood.  Up  and  down  the  state  he 
went  soliciting  funds.  lie  did  double  work  in  the  classroom.  He 
used  his  private  funds  to  provide  for  his  family;  he  did  every- 
thing that  was  possible  for  him  to  do.  withholding  nothing  of 
time  or  talents  or  energy,  and  Hamline  lived. 

Tin;  last  commencement  at  Red  AVing  occurred  March  4,  1869.' 
At  the  annual  conference  of  the  church  held  in  October,  1869.  a 
report  presented  shows  that  at  that  time  the  question  of  the 
removal  of  the  college  was  being  agitated.  On  July  6  of  that 
year  the  trustees  decided  thai  in  view  of  financial  conditions  it 
would  not  be  wise  to  reopen  the  doors  of  the  college  during  the 
ensuing  year.  Later  the  institution  was  removed  to  St.  Paul, 
and  today  it  has  the  honor  not  only  of  being  the  oldest  college 
in  the  state,  but  also  one  of  the  leading  educational  institutions 
in  the  Northwest.  Various  reasons,  among  which  financial 
troubles  form  an  important  part,  are  given  for  the  removal  of 
the  university  to  St.  Paid.  Red  Wing  people  have  always 
regretted  the  removal;  and  there  are  many  friends  of  the  univer- 
sity who  assert  that,  successful  as  has  been  the  career  of  that 
institution,  it  would  have  had  a  still  more  glorious  history  had 
it  remained  in  Red  Wing  and  the  drawbacks  of  s us j  tension  and 
removal  been  obliterated. 

The  property  was  sold  to  the  city  of  Red  Wing  for  $5,000, 
the  transfer  papers  bearing  the  date  of  February  24.  1872.  The 
building  was  torn  down  and  the  material  sold  to  whatever  pur- 
chasers could  be  found.  The  ground  is  still  owned  by  the  city 
and  is  dedicated  to  the  uses  of  a  public  park.  The  ground  was 
graded  without  the  expense  of  entirely  removing  the  foundation 
walls,  and  even  to  the  present  day  in  very  dry  weather  the  grass 
dries  above  the  old  walls  and  the  outlines  of  the  historic  old 
building  may  plainly  be  seen. 

Red  Wing  Seminary. — This  institution   is  located  on   College 
Bluff   and    commands    a    view    of   the    most    picturesque    natural 


scenery  of  any  school  in  the  Northwest.  The  property  was  pur- 
chased from  the  Red  Wing  Collegiate  Institute  and  placed  in  the 
possession  of  the  Hauges  Norwegian  Evangelical  Lutheran  Synod 
through  the  personal  efforts  of  H.  M.  Sande,  a  farmer  living  in 
the  township  of  AYanamingo ;  A.  Ellingson,  of  Red  Wing,  and 
Rev.  0.  Hanson,  of  AYanamingo.  The  first  school  year  com- 
menced in  September,  1879.  Rev.  I.  Eistenson  was  the  principal 
and  Prof.  G.  O.  Brohaugh  his  assistant.  Several  instructors  were 
also  engaged,  among  whom  may  he  mentioned  Prof.  II.  P.  Wilson. 
Seventy  students  were  enrolled  during  the  first  year. 

The  purpose1  of  the  school  is  to  furnish  a  general  Christian 
culture  and  more  particularly  to  prepare  ministers  and  teachers 
for  the  synod.  The  work  at  first  consisted  of  an  academic  course 
of  three  years  and  a  theological  course  of  three  years.  As  the 
institution  developed  it  was  found  necessary  to  lengthen  the 
preparatory  course.  This  was  done  in  1889,  when  it  was  changed 
from  three  to  four  years.  In  1897  it  was  changed  to  five  years, 
and  in  1908  it  was  extended  to  seven  years,  making  it  a  complete 
college  course.  The  school  year  was  also  changed  from  seven  to 
nine  months.  A  commercial  department  has  been  added,  as  well 
as  a  musical  department. 

The  school  soon  outgrew  the  "Old  Building,"  and  "Summer 
Hall"  was  bought  and  completed  in  1882.  In  1902  the  synod 
decided  to  build  another  building,  and  this  was  completed  in 
1901  and  is  known  as  the  "Main  Building."  Besides  this  and 
the  two  old  buildings  which  now  are  used  for  dormitories,  there 
is  a  president's  house,  a  hospital  and  a  heating  plant,  the  whole 
property  now  costing  approximately  $100,000. . 

During  the  past  year  the  school  has  employed  three  profes- 
sors of  theology  and  five  professors  in  the  academy  and  college, 
together  with  several  special  instructors.  The  total  number  of 
students  was  about  two  hundred. 

Those  who  have  served  as  presidents  of  the  seminary  are  T. 
Eistenson,  J.  Kyllingstad,  A.  Wenaas,  J.  N.  Kildahl,  O.  S.  Meland, 
H.  H.  Bergsland  and  M.  G.  Hanson.  Among  those  who  have  acted 
as  instructors  may  be  noted  S.  Gunnerson,  E.  Kr.  Johnson,  G. 
Rast,  J.  A.  Leas,  L.  Chally,  A.  J.  Reichert.  O.  R.  AYold.  J.  Telleen, 
M.  O.  Wee,  E.  AY.  Schmidt  for  the  theological  department,  and 
G.  O.  Brohaugh,  IT.  II.  Elstad,  C.  R,  Hill,  E.  AY.  Schmidt.  I.  M. 
Anderson.  Julius  Boraas,  E.  0.  Ringstad.  William  Mills,  G.  EL 
Ellingson  and  O.  0.  Stageberg  for  the  preparatory  department. 
Selma  Gibson  and  G.  A.  Eausner  have  had  charge  of  the  musical 

Since  the  beginning  of  the  school  138  have  graduated  from 
the  theological  course,  nearly  all  of  whom  are  pastors  or  mission- 
aries in  the  various  fields  of  the  synod.     The  total   number  of 


graduates   from   the   preparatory   department   is   237.      Of   these 
seventy-two   have   become   pastors,   twenty-eight   have   taken  up 
school  work  as  teachers,  professors  or  superintendents,  twenty- 
two  are  in  business,  there  are  twenty  physicians,  eleven  lawyers, 
four  editors,  three  publishers,  four  dentists,  three  farmers,  two 
bankers,  two  engineers,  thirty-one  students  at  various  institutions. 
Rev.  Martin  Gustav  Hanson. — To  a  college  man  there  is  always 
one  distinction  which  in  his  heart  of  hearts  is  more  precious  than 
all  else  that  he  may  achieve  in  life,  and  that  one  thing  is  the 
honor  of  being  called  to  a  chair  of  his  alma  mater,  in  the  halls 
of  which  his  own  young  manhood  has  received  the  stamp  which 
marks  it   in   after  life.     Immeasurably   greater,   however,   is   the 
privilege  of  some  time  attaining  the  presidency  of  that  institu- 
tion, and  thus  having  an  important  share  not  only  in  its  progress 
and  work,  but  also  in  its  policies  and  discipline.    Among  the  men 
to  whom  the  felicity  of  such  a  lot  has  fallen  is  the  subject  of 
this  sketch.     Born  at  Wanamingo.  this  county,  July  11,  1859,  he 
is  the  son  of  Oesten  and  Maria    (Christopherson)   Hanson,  both 
natives  of  Norway.     The  father  came  to  America  at  the  age  of 
fifteen  years  and  located   at   Lewiston.  Wis.,  later  removing  to 
AVanamingo.  where  he  was  one  of  the  pioneers.     For  thirty-seven 
years  he  was  a  preacher  of  the  gospel,  working  against  fearful 
odds,  preaching  the  ideals  of  Christianity  to  a  people  who  were 
wrestling  with  the  problem  of  existence,  and  to  whom  the  reali- 
ties of  life  were  necessarily  presented  in  their  daily  toil  in  the 
most  materialistic   aspects.     A  pioneer  preacher  in  those   days 
must  needs  be  a  man  of  strong  inward  faith   and  also  rugged 
physique,  a  man  who  could  preach  to  the  hearts  of  the  people 
the  true  word,  and  at  the  same  time  be  able  to  meet  with  unfail- 
ing courage   the   almost   unnumbered   pioneer   discomforts.     His 
wife,    gifted   in  all   motherly  and  wifely   finalities,   was   an   able 
support  in  all  his  undertakings.     It  is  pleasing  to  record  that 
Oesten  Hanson  lived  to  see  the  seed  he  planted  bear  fruit  in  abun- 
dant measure,  and  to  see  a  pioneer  people  develop  into  a  com- 
munity of  prosperous  and  God-fearing  agriculturists.    For  a  long 
period  he  served  the  churches  at  Aspelund,  Kenyon  and  Roseoe, 
his  death  occurring  August  4,  1898,  he  having  many  years  sur- 
vived his  wife,  who  died  in  1866.     The  following  account  of  his 
services  was  published  shortly  before  his  death:     :'Pastor  Han- 
son has  been  a  member  of  the  synodical  council  of  the  Hague 
Synod  since  1863,  has  served  as  president  or  vice  president  of 
the  synod  for  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  century;  has  been  presi- 
dent of  the  Red  Wing  Seminary  and  of  the  synod's  mission  com- 
mittee, and  has  been   prominently  identified  with  the  synod  in 
other  ways  for  more  than  three  decades.    He  has  three  sons  who 
are  ministers   of  the   gospel — Rev.   M.   G.   Hanson,  Rev.   H.   A. 


Hanson  and  Rev.  Thomas  L.  Hanson."  Martin,  early  in  life  left 
without  a  mother's  care  received  his  education  in  the  public 
schools  of  Wanamingo,  and  then  entered  the  Red  Wing  Seminary, 
at  that  time  a  much  smaller  institution  than  at  present.  In  1884 
he  received  his  diploma  from  that  school,  and  was  ordained  the 
same  year  at  Lee  county.  Illinois,  his  first  charge  being  the 
Emanuel  and  East  Emanuel  churches  at  St.  Paul.  Minn.  At  the 
same  time  he  served  the  congregations  at  Renville  and  Frost, 
Minn.  In  1892  he  was  sent  to  Grand  Forks,  N.  D.,  where  he  had 
pastoral  charge  of  the  district  including  the  churches  at  Grand 
Forks,  Reynolds,  Buxton,  Valle,  Grafton,  Nash,  Crookston  and 
Oslo.  In  1898,  when  those  in  charge  of  the  Red  Wing  Seminary 
were  looking  for  a  capable  man  for  the  presidency  of  that  institu- 
tion, their  attention  was  called  to  the  young  clergyman  who  a 
few  years  before  had  graduated  from  its  doors  with  honors.  He 
accordingly  received  the  call  and  accepted,  believing  that  in  this 
position  was  a  wider  field  of  usefulness.  His  work  since  that 
time  is  too  well  known  to  need  comment,  and  future  historians 
of  the  institution  will  write  of  him  that  praise  which  it  is  not 
always  fitting  should  be  written  of  a  modest  man  still  in  the 
prime  of  his  activities.  His  work  for  five  years  as  vice  president 
of  the  synod,  for  six  years  as  president  of  the  same  body,  for  four 
years  as  president  of  the  district  of  North  Dakota,  and  for  many 
years  as  president  of  the  Inner  Mission  of  the  Synod,  in  which 
position  he  is  now  serving,  are  a  part  of  the  chronicles  of  his 
denomination.  Rev.  Hanson  has  taken  to  himself  as  a  companion 
in  life,  Caroline  Runiee,  of  Crawford  county,  Wisconsin,  daughter 
of  Ole  and  Guri  Runiee.  natives  of  Norway.  This  union  has  been 
blessed  with  five  children.  Oscar  A.,  born  August  14.  1887,  at 
St.  Paul,  Minn.,  died  in  infancy.  Adolph  M.  was  born  September 
11,  1888,  at  St.  Paul.  Babel  G.  was  born  November  24,  1890,  in 
the  same  city.  Reuben  B.  was  born  August  30,  1892.  at  Grand 
Forks,  N.  D.,  and  George  W.,  who  is  a  general  favorite  with  the 
faculty  and  student  body  of  the  seminary,  was  born  under  the 
shadows  of  the  classic  halls  of  that  institution  of  learning 
August  4,  1899. 

The  Orphans'  Home  at  Vasa  had  its  beginning  in  1865,  when 
four  little  children  were  thrown  on  the  mercy  and  charity  of 
others.  Dr.  E.  Norelius  conceived  the  idea  of  opening  a  place  for 
them,  and  so  a  room  in  the  basement  of  the  old  Lutheran  Church 
at  Vasa  was  fitted  up.  Soon,  however,  other  children  were  found 
to  be  in  need  and  this  room  became  too  small.  With  a  little 
assistance  Dr.  Norelius  purchased  a  small  tract  of  land  and  con- 
structed  a  building,   more   properly   a  shanty.      It    was   made   of 


rough  boards  and  patched  together  and  mended  in  every  con- 
eeivable  way  to  keep  out  the  winter's  cold.  The  increase  of  little 
orphans  who  were  being  cared  for  by  the  pastor  soon  made  the 
quarters  too  small  for  convenience.  A  home  was  therefore  con- 
structed and  did  good  service  until  1879.  when  the  building  was 
levelled  to  the  ground  by  a  cyclone.  A  subscription  list  was 
started  and  another  building  was  constructed.  Again  came  a 
sad  day,  November  2:5.  1899.  when  the  home  was  burned  to  the 
ground.  The  Swedish  Augustana  Synod,  which  had  taken  charge 
of  the  home,  immediately,  assisted  by  the  local  board  of  directors 
and  residents  of  Red  Wing  and  Vasa.  took  steps  to  build  the 
comfortable  home  which  is  occupied  at  the  present  time.  In  the 
meantime  the  Little  folks  had  been  sheltered  in  the  homes  of 
neighboring  families,  some  of  whom  afterward  decided  to  adopt 
the  little  strangers  who  had  thus  been  thrown  on  their  mercy. 
The  building,  which  is  a  frame  structure,  is  neat  and  attractive. 
the  total  cost   being  aooul   $8,000.     The  children  are  well  cared 

for  and   given   a    g I   education,   both   in    English   and   Swedish. 

Red  Wing  Lutheran  Ladies'  Seminary. — Twenty  years  ago 
the  now  sainted  Rev.  II.  A.  Preuss  suggested  the  advisability  of 
erecting  a  school  for  young  ladies  at  \\c<\  Wing  on  the  very  spol 
on  which  the  Ladies'  Seminary  now  stands.  The  suggestion  was 
not  acted  upon  at  the  time,  but  in  the  year  1889  some  of  the 
members  of  the  Red  Wine-  Norwegian  Lutheran  Church,  deeply 
feeling  the  want  of  an  institution  of  this  character,  determined 
to  ered    a   seminary   in   this   city,  and  secured   the   very  tract  of 

ground    which   the   Rev.    Preuss   had    rec mended    twenty   years 

before.  In  this  year.  1889,  however,  the  Luther  College  at 
Decorali,  Iowa,  was  totally  destroyed  by  fire.  The  incorporators 
of  the  Red  Wing  venture,  knowing  thai  their  help  was  needed 
at  the  rebuilding  of  the  Decorali  school,  generously  postponed 
the  erection  of  their  own  institution.  In  the  beginning  of  1892 
they  thought  that  the  time  had  come  for  them  to  proceed  with 
the  execution  of  their  project.  They  therefore  solicited  subscrip- 
tions, adopted  a  .plan  and  began  active  work.  Owing  to  the 
financial  depression  the  opening  of  the  school  was  delayed  one 
year,  but  They  succeeded  in  completing  the  present  magnificent 
structure  so  that  active  school  work  commenced  November  5, 

The  school  is  located  on  a  bluff  overlooking  the  city  and  the 
Mississippi  river.  The  main  building  and  dining  hall  are  con- 
structed of  pressed  brick  on  cut  stone  foundations.  The  music 
hall,  a  newer  building,  is  constructed  of  the  same  material. 

The  seminary  aims  to  give  its  pupils  a  thorough  and  practical 
education  on  a  Christian  basis,  and  includes  the  usual  academic 
literary,   musical,  art.  religious   and   scientific   courses,   both  col- 


Legiate  and  preparatory,  together  with  many  branches  distinc- 
tively feminine,  such  as  domestic  science,  housekeeping,  needle- 
work and  cooking. 

Rev.  Hans  Allen  is  at  the  head  of  the  institution.  There  are 
twenty-six  incorporators  and  the  officers  are:  President,  Rev.  K. 
Bjorgo;  vice  president,  Dr.  C.  L.  Opsal;  secretary,  H.  L.  Hjerm- 
stad; trustees,  C.  II.  Boxrud,  C.  F.  Hjermstad,  Dr.  C.  L.  Opsal, 
Joh.  Ylvisaker,  J.  C.  Seebach,  Albert  Johnson,  R.  H.  Boxrud.  H. 
Allen,  K.  Bjorgo  and  H.  L.  Hjermstad  are  ex-officio  members. 

The  total  number  of  pupils  enrolled  during  the  school  year 
1908-09  was  183.  Of  these  10  were  by  nationality  Norwegian,  48 
German,  11  American,  7  Swedish,  5  Danish,  1  Swiss  and  1  Finish. 
Of  these  156  were  boarders  and  27  city  people. 

Six  pupils  were  enrolled  as  specials,  11  were  in  the  prepara- 
tory course,  40  in  the  domestic  economy,  1  in  the  normal,  55  in 
the  seminary  and  14  in  the  college  courses.  Twenty-one  were 
enrolled  in  the  department  of  elocution,  15  in  the  commercial 
course.  57  in  the  art  department.  43  in  the  vocal  department,  15  in 
the  piano  department.  3  in  violin  and  the  Choral  Society  num- 
bered 133. 

At  the  graduating  exercises  on  June  10,  1909,  18  received 
diplomas  from  the  seminary  course,  1  from  the  normal,  7  from 
the  domestic  economy  and  11  from  the  commercial  courses;  4 
received  diplomas  from  the  piano  department  and  1  from  the 
voice  culture  department. 

Rev.  Hans  Allen,  president  of  the  faculty  of  the  Lutheran 
Ladies'  Seminary,  is  a  gentleman  of  unquestioned  integrity  and 
marked  scholarly  attainments,  one  who  stands  high  in  the  min- 
isterial and  educational  ranks  of  the  county.  He  is  a  native 
of  Decorah  Iowa,  born  March  15,  1861,  son  of  Guttorm  Allen,  who 
came  to  America  in  1844,  and  the  same  year  enlisted  in  the  Mex- 
ican war.  Here  he  did  his  adopted  country  brave  and  efficient 
service.  Upon  his  return  he  located  at  Jefferson  Prairie,  Wis., 
and  married  Kirsten  Rishovd,  a  native  of  Norway,  who  came 
to  this  country  in  1846.  At  Jefferson  Prairie  he  farmed  for  a 
short  time,  afterward  removing  to  Decorah,  Iowa,  Avhere  he  pur- 
chased 360  acres  and  carried  on  agricultural  operations  on  an 
extensive  scale.  He  died  in  1902  and  his  wife  followed  him  to 
the  Great  Beyond  diiring  the  following  year.  Hans  Allen  at- 
tended the  common  schools  of  his  neighborhood  and  entered  the 
Luther  College  of  Decorah,  Iowa,  receiving  his  diploma  with 
honors  in  1883.  He  supplemented  this  training  with  a  three  years' 
course  at  the  Concordia  College,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  after  which  he 
was  ordained  to  the  ministry  in  the  fall  of  1886.  His  first  charge 
was  at  Portland,  Trail  county.  North  Dakota,  where  he  served 
eight  congregations  in  an  able  manner  for  six  years.    His  work  in 


this  capacity  attracted  attention,  and  in  1892  he  was  assigned  to 
a  congregation  at  Mankato,  Minn.,  where  he  labored  acceptably 
two  years.  In  1894  came  the  opportunity  for  wider  service  when 
he  was  called  to  the  presidency  of  the  Lutheran  Ladies '  Seminary, 
in  which  capacity  he  has  remained  to  the  present  day,  having 
charge  of  the  institution  and  occupying  the  chair  of  Norwegian 
Literature,  Bible  and  Church  History.  As  a  disciplinarian  he 
combines  the  qualities  of  justness  with  gentleness,  as  a  teacher  he 
is  an  acute  thinker  and  incisive  reasoner,  and  as  a  citizen  his 
opinions  command  esteem,  respect  and  consideration.  Rev.  Allen 
was  married  June  13,  1887,  at  Decorah.  Iowa,  to  Emma  Wingaard, 
of  that  place,  daughter  of  Ole  and  Marie  Wingaard,  natives  of 
Norway.  The  mother  is  now  deceased  and  the  father  lives  in 
Decorah.  To  Rev.  and  Mrs.  Allen  have  been  born  three  children : 
Nellie  M.  E.,  born  April  3,  1888,  and  Clara  L.,  born  January  22, 
1892,  are  students  at  the  seminary,  while  Esther  E.,  born  March 
28,  1898,  attends  the  parish  school  of  Evangelical  Lutheran  Trin- 
ity Church  at  Red  AVing. 

The  Minnesota  State  Training  School,  formerly  known  as  the 
Minnesota  State  Reform  School,  has  a  beautiful  location  of  about 
450  acres  of  land,  something  over  a  mile  below  the  city  of  Red 
AVing.  The  group  of  buildings  is  situated  on  an  elevated  plateau 
leading  down  by  a  gentle  slope  to  the  Mississippi  river  and  com- 
manding a  view  that  in  itself  should  be  an  inspiration  to  the  way- 
ward or  unfortunate  ones  who  spend  their  youth  in  the  school. 
The  institution  has  been  in  existence  since  January  15,  1868,  and 
had  occupied  its  present  site  since  October,  1891.  The  State 
expended  over  $300,000  on  the  property  and  buildings,  gained 
from  the  sale  of  the  old  site  of  the  school  in  St.  Paul,  that  location 
having  wonderfully  increased  in  value  since  the  establishment  of 
the  sjchool  in  1868.  The  school  is  occupied  on  the  family  plan, 
each  family  of  some  fifty  boys,  classified  according  to  age,  having 
a  cottage  and  playground  of  its  own,  but  with  a  dining  hall  in 
common.  The  girls'  school  is  a  building  by  itself,  300  feet  west 
of  the  other  buildings,  and  its  management  is  entirely  separate 
and  distinct  from  the  boys.  The  exterior  of  the  buildings  are 
of  brick  and  stone,  the  interior  being  entirely  of  hardwood. 
There  is  nothing  at  the  school  to  suggest  that  it  is  a  penal  insti- 
tution, the  boys  themselves  looking  like  cadets  in  a  military 
school,  clothed  as  they  are  in  neat  uniforms.  Graded  schools, 
similar  to  ordinary  public  schools,  are  conducted,  one-half  of  the 
scholars  attending  in  the  forenoon  and  working  in  the  afternoon, 
and  vice  versa.  The  grading  and  beautifying  of  the  extensive 
grounds  have  all  been  done  by  the  boys,  who  also  cultivate  the 
large  garden  patches  which  supply  the  schools  with  vegetables 
and  fruit  for  use  on  the  tables  and  feed  for  the  stock.     The  boys 


do  all  their  housework,  cooking,  baking,  laundry  work,  etc.,  and 
the  entire  institution  is  a  marvel  of  neatness.  The  school  main- 
tains a  carpenter  shop,  shoe  shop,  tailor  shop,  printing  office  and 
other  establishments.  A  small  paper,  the  Riverside,  is  printed 
by  the  boys,  who  also  supply  the  material  for  its  contents.  An- 
other enjoyable  attraction  of  school  life  is  a  well  trained  brass 
band.  The  boys  and  girls  are  sentenced  under  sixteen  years  of 
age,  and  can  be  kept,  the  boys  until  they  are  twenty-one  and  the 
girls  until  they  are  eighteen,  but  they  may  be  paroled  on  their 
good  behavior  during  that  time.  There  are  no  statistics  available 
on  which  to  base  a  percentage  of  those  redeemed  by  the  good 
influence  of  the  school,  but  it  is  believed  that  the  results  rank 
well  with  the  results  obtained  by  other  state  institutions  of  sim- 
ilar character.  Religion  is  made  a  part  of  the  ever-day  life,  with 
special  services  Sunday. 

Red  Wing  Collegiate  Institute. — This  institute  was  organized 
and  incorporated  August  28,  1870,  with  the  following  board  of 
officers :  president,  Lucius  F.  Hubbard ;  secretary,  Charles  C. 
Webster;  treasurer,  F.  A.  Cole.  Directors:  James  Lawther,  Peter 
Daniels,  Lucius  F.  Hubbard,  Charles  C.  AVebster,  F.  A.  Cole  and 
W.  P.  AVood.  The  grounds  were  donated  by  Edward  Murphy, 
of  Minneapolis,  and  funds  raised  for  building  purposes  by  issu-' 
ing  stock  certificates  to  the  amount  of  $12,500.  Daniels  &  Sim- 
mons took  the  contract  for  a  consideration  of  $14,800,  and  to 
complete  it  a  mortgage  was  given  to  Joseph  Averill,  of  Danvers, 
Alassachusetts,  who  advanced  $5,000.  The  institute  was  success- 
ful for  about  three  years,  when,  for  want  of  funds  it  was  sold  to 
Joseph  Averill,  to  satisfy  the  above  noted  mortgage.  January 
8,  1878,  it  Avas  purchased  by  Hans  Marcuson,  in  trust  for  the 
Hauges  Norwegian  Evangelical  Synod,  and  afterwards  deeded 
to  a  board  of"  directors,  viz.:  Hans  Marcuson,  Gunelf  Tollefson.. 
Knut  John  Stangeland,  and  Andrew  Ellingson,  with  the  design 
of  making  it  a  Lutheran  Theological  Seminary. 

Frank  A.  Whittier,  whose  efficient  management  of  the  State 
Training  School  has  won  praise  from  far  beyond  the  borders  of 
the  state,  is  a  native  of  this  state,  born  June  22,  1860.  His  par- 
ents, Albert  and  Lucy  A.  (Wellington)  Whittier,  both  natives  of 
New  Hampshire,  were  descended  from  old  Granite  State  families. 
They  ventured  in  the  early  days  into  what  was  then  the  new 
country  of  Ohio.  Imbued  with  the  pioneer  spirit,  they  found 
that  the  rich  valleys  of  Ohio  Avere  fast  passing  the  stages  of  early 
settlement,  and  consequently  determined  to  try  their  fortunes 
still  further  to  the  westAvard.  Consequently  the  year  of  1856 
saw  them  located  in  Minneapolis,  where  young  Frank  A.  ivas 
born.     In  the  summer  of  1860,  they  settled  in  Empire  township, 


Dakota  county,  and  purchased  240  acres  of  land.  The  father  at 
once  set  to  work  with  vigor  and  soon  the  land  was  under  cultiva- 
tion, while  a  comfortable  home  sheltered  the  family.  Here  the 
roof  tree  was  established,  and  happiness  and  prosperity  was  the 
lot  of  the  family  until  December  14,  1884,  when  the  stricken  home 
mourned  the  loss  of  the  mother.  A  few  years  later,  in  1891,  the 
father  took  up  his  residence  with  a  daughter  in  Farmington, 
this  state,  where  he  died,  August  23,  1904.  Frank  A.  was  brought 
up  on  a  farm,  and  attended  the  district  schools  in  Empire  town- 
ship. Later  he  graduated  from  the  Hastings  High  School,  in 
which  institution  he  made  so  good  a  record  that  he  had  no  diffi- 
culty in  securing  a  clerical  position  in  the  bank  there.  A  year 
later  he  returned  home,  and  remained  on  the  farm  until  1888. 
From  that  date  until  1893  he  ran  an  establishment  for  the  retail 
handling  of  dairy  products  in  St.  Paul,  this  business  later  being 
disposed  of  to  the  Crescent  Creamery  Company.  His  next  em- 
ployment was  with  the  municipal  engineering  department  of  the 
city  of  Minneapolis,  and  in  1895  he  was  appointed  state  agent  for 
the  state  prison  and  reformatory,  in  which  position  he  remained 
until  he  came  to  -Red  Wing  as  superintendent  of  the  Minneapolis 
State  Training  School,  an  office  which  he  has  retained  to  the 
present  day.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  while  on  the  farm 
for  the  benefit  of  his  health,  after  leaving  the  bank  at  Hastings, 
Mr.  "WMttier  taught  in  the  rural  school  districts  for  several  years. 
In  politics  he  is  a  Republican,  in  fraternal  affiliation  a  member 
of  the  Masonic  order  and  of  the  Independent  Order  of  Foresters. 
In  religious  belief  he  favors  the  Universalist  church.  Mr.  Whit- 
tier  was  married,  April  2,  1884,  at  Empire,  Minn.,  to  Margaret 
Cameron,  by  whom  he  has  five  children.  Albert  A.,  a  graduate 
of  the  University  of  Chicago,  is  a  civil  engineer  in  the  state  of 
Utah,  while  Walter  F.,  Grace,  Horace  B.  and  Myra'  live  with  their 

Villa  Maria  Convent,  a  school  for  girls,  under  the  direction  of 
the  Ursuline  nuns  of  the  Roman  Catholic  church,  is  situated  on 
Lake  Pepin,  near  the  village  of  old  Frontenac,  the  well-known 
summer  resort. 

A  more  beautiful  site  for  a  school  could  not  well  be  found; 
on  a  rise  of  ground,  commanding  a  wide  view  of  lake,  valley, 
hill  and  plain,  surrounded  by  park-like  forests,  and  arched  by 
the  full  sweep  of  the  heavens,  all  the  natural  influences  combine 
to  elevate  and  instruct  the  mind.  Nor  are  historical  associations 
lacking,  for  on  this  very  spot  there  stood,  more  than  a  century 
and  a  half  ago,  St.  Michael's,  one  of  the  old  French  missionary 
for«ts  of  the  upper  Mississippi. 

The  grounds,  consisting  of  120  acres,  are  the  gift  of  General 


Israel  Garrard,  who  spent  a  fortune  and  a  great  part  of  his  life 
in  improving  and  beautifying  the  already  naturally  beautiful  vil- 
lage of  Frontenac,  to  the  attractions  of  which  the  villa  now  con- 
tributes in  no  small  degree.  Noticing  the  rapid  growth  of  the 
school  conducted  at  Lake  City  by  the  Ursulines,  and  appreciat- 
ing the  difficulty  for  them  of  accomplishing  in  crowded  quarters 
the  work  at  which  they  aimed,  the  general  offered  in  1885  a  tract 
of  land  for  a  more  commodious  institution.  The  offer  was  ac- 
cepted with  gratitude,  and,  thanks  to  the  noble  generosity  of 
Mother  Kostha  Bowman,  the  project  was  soon  realized,  and  the 
construction  of  the  largest  educational  building  of  the  time,  in  the 
Northwest,  was  begun.  The  foundations  were  laid  in  1888,  and 
under  the  able  superintendence  of  F.  J.  Evans  and  the  assistance 
of  0.  D.  Prescott,  the  work  progressed  rapidly,  the  main  build- 
ing being  completed  and  dedicated  in  1890. 

The  building  is  cruciform  in  shape,  with  a  length  of  301  feet, 
and  a  width  of  90  feet,  exclusive  of  porches.  It  is  four  stories 
high,  and  is  surmounted  at  the  north  end  by  a  tower  lifting  a 
golden  cross  150  feet  above  the  ground.  The  main  entrance  is 
at  the  northeast  corner,  and  opens  into  a  spacious  hall,  extending 
to  the  opposite  side,  where  a  broad  stairway  of  polished  oak 
gives  access  to  the  floors  above.  The  hall  is  lighted  by  large 
stained  glass  windows,  and  is  crowned  by  a  dome. 

On  the  left  of  the  hall,  on  the  ground  floor,  are  the  parlors, 
and  from  the  right  leads  a  corridor  200  feet  long,  out  of  which 
open  the  dormitory,  the  refectory,-  and.  at  the  farther  end,  the 
kitchen.  The  convent  proper,  for  the  nuns  occupy  the  entire  four 
stories  of  the  west  wing.  Besides  the  many  windows,  there  is  a 
ventilating  chimney,  and  the  rooms  are  noticeably  airy  and  com- 

On  the  second  floor  are  the  library,  the  museum,  and  the 
laboratories  for  physics  and  chemistry.  Above  the  dormitory 
are  a  large,  sunny  study  hall,  music  rooms  and  recitation  rooms, 
and  adjoining  these  are  the  gymnasium  and  recreation  hall. 

On  the  third  floor,  the  art  rooms  occupy  the  east  end.  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  remainder  of  the  space  is  given  up  to  the 
chapel,  a  lovely  devotional  apartment,  with  high  arched  ceiling, 
frescoed  walls  and  stained  glass  windows.  In  a  vaulted  recess 
at  one  end  is  the  altar,  an  artistic  piece  of  workmanship  of  pol- 
ished wrood,  carved  and  gilded.  Framed  into  it  above  is  a  magnifi- 
cent painting  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  the  work  of  one  of  the  old 
masters,  presented  to  one  of  the  nuns  by  King  Louis  II.  of  Ba- 

The  fourth  floor  contains  an  immense  water  tank  which  sup- 
plies the  numerous  bath  and  toilel   rooms  in  various  parts  of  the 


building,  and  serves  as  protection  against  fire.  For  further  pro- 
tection from  this  danger  there  are  patent  extinguishers  on  every 
lioor.  Artificial  heat  is  supplied  by  the  hot  water  system,  and 
there  is  telephone  connection. 

That  the  names  of  their  generous  benefactors  may  not  be  for- 
gotten, the  nuns  caused  to  be  inserted  into  the  northeast  corner 
of  the  building  a  stone  bearing  the  inscription,  "Israel  Garrard, 
noblis  Benefaciente  Gratulantes,  Soc.  Urs.  Felice;"  while  over  the 
door,  in  the  chapel,  a  tablet  is  inscribed:  "In  memoriam — Hon. 
J.  B.  Bowman — nostri  benefactoris  mortui."  In  the  hearts  of 
the  nuns  these  names  are  held  in  perpetual  grateful  memory. 

The  course  of  study  embraces  all  tbe  branches  of  a  thorough 
English  education,  combined  with  the  culture  of  art,  music  and 
languages,  and  extends  from  lowest  primary  through  the  gram- 
mar and  high  school  grades.  Successful  steps  have  been  taken 
to  have  the  school  accredited  to  the  University  of  Minnesota,  so 
that  graduates  from  the  Villa  who  wish  to  continue  their  educa- 
tion in  the  University  may  be  admitted  to  its  courses  without 
examinations.  Lessons  are  also  given  in  music,  the  arts  and 
languages,  as  well  as  in  the  various  branches  of  handiwork,  for 
which  the  Ursuline  nuns  have  won  a  high  reputation. 

The  physical  development  of  the  pupils  is  provided  for  in 
gymnasium  and  playground,  and  in  the  extraordinary  opportuni- 
ties for  the  natural  out-of-door  exercises  of  walking,  driving, 
boating  and  bathing,  under  the  supervision  of  the  ever-watchful 

Above  all  do  the  nuns  regard  the  moral  development  of  the 
child,  and  broad  and  deep  do  they  lay  the  foundation  stones  of 
character.  Religious  instruction  is  given  to  the  Catholic  children, 
while  all  thejr  pupils  are  trained  daily  and  hourly  in  the  pre- 
cepts and  practices  calculated  to  foster  those  noble  qualities  of 
head,  heart  and  soul  that  go  to  the  formation  of  true  woman- 
hood. The  character  and  accomplishments  of  the  graduates  who 
have  gone  out  from  Villa  Maria  during  these  past  thirty  years 
give  ample  testimony  to  the  devotion  of  the  nuns,  and  the  thor- 
oughness of  their  training. 

The  Gustavus  Adolphus  College,  of  St.  Peter,  was  started  in 
Red  "Wing  in  1862  by  Dr.  E.  Norelius.  The  next  year  it  was 
removed  to  East  Union.  Carver  county,  and  named  St.  Ansgar's 
Academy.  In  1874  a  corporation  was  formed  and  in  the  next  two 
years  suitable  buildings  were  erected  at  St.  Peter's,  where  the 
institution  has  since  been  located,  growing  to  tremendous  im- 

Julius  Boraas,  M.  L.,  educator  and  author,  now  living  in  Red 
Wing,  was  born  in  the  township  of  Belle  Creek,  this  county,  De- 

Julius  Boraas 

Sarah  E.  P.  Hasler 


cember  7,  1871,  son  of  Johannes  and  Ellen  Boraas,  who  came  from 
Stjordalen,  near  Trondhjem,  Norway,  directly  to  Goodhue  county 
about  forty  years  ago.  He  received  his  preliminary  education  in 
the  schoolhouse  of  district  92,  and  from  1886  to  1890  attended 
the  Red  Wing  Seminary,  graduating  with  honors  from  the  aca- 
demic course  in  the  spring  of  1890.  After  teaching  school  in  the 
country  for  a  year  he  entered  the  University  of  Minnesota,  where 
he  diligently  pursued  the  college  course  from  1891  to  1895,  gradu- 
ating in  the  latter  year  as  valedictorian  of  his  class.  He  received 
his  degree  of  Master  of  Letters  from  the  same  institution  in  1898. 
From  1895  to  1898  he  was  one  of  the  popular  instructors  at  the 
Red  Wing  Seminary  and  his  appointment  in  the  latter  year  as 
superintendent  of  county  schools  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by 
the  death  of  Mr.  Engstrom  met  with  popular  approval.  Since 
then  Prof.  Boraas  has  continued  to  serve  in  the  same  capacity, 
being  elected  successively  in  1900,  1902,  1901,  1906  and  1908. 
Professor  Boraas  is  a  member  of  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa,  an  hon- 
orary college  fraternity.  He  was  married  on  Thanksgiving  Day, 
1897.  at  Kenyan,  Minn.,  to  Julia  Rygh.  and  their  happy  home  has 
been  blessed  with  three  children — Vivian,  Harold  and  Nora.  Prof. 
Boraas  has  placed  the  schools  of  Goodhue  county  on  a  high 
plane  and  his  methods  have  been  freely  discussed  and  favorably 
commented  upon  by  the  educational  journals.  Among  the  causes 
of  his  success  are  these :  He  was  thoroughly  equipped  by  nature 
and  education  and  has  been  absorbingly  devoted  to  his  work.  He 
has  a  way  of  interesting  the  children  in  such  a  manner  as  to  bring 
forth  their  best  efforts  and  at  the  same  time  gain  their  love  and 
respect.  Besides  being  an  educator  he  has  the  practical  common 
sense  of  a  business  man,  which  has  enabled  him  to  enlist  the 
co-operation  of  parents  and  school  boards  in  bringing  about  the 
necessary  improvements  and  reforms.  A  vein  of  kindly  humor, 
of  which  Prof.  Boraas  is  possessed,  is  a  pleasing  part  of  his  per- 
sonality which  impresses  those  he  meets,  whether  in  a  business, 
educational  or  social  way. 

As  a  writer  Prof.  Boraas'  products  are  also  in  demand.  He  is 
the  author  of  a  useful  book  for  teachers,  entitled  "Getting  Along 
in  Country  Schools."  This  book,  designed  to  furnish  those  lessons 
which,  hitherto,  teachers  have  learned  only  through  years  of  ex- 
perience, has  already  had  a  wide  circulation  and  is  more  than 
accomplishing  its  purpose.  Its  success  has  caused  a  demand  for 
other  books  along  the  same  line  from  his  gifted  pen.  In  addition 
to  this.  Prof.  Boraas  has  written  several  serials  for  the  "Young 
People's  Friend,"  and  has  contributed  extensively  to  the  various 
school  journals. 

Sarah  E.  Pettibone  Hasler  (Mrs.  Samuel  J.)  is  one  of  the 
prominent  women  of  Red  Wing  and  Goodhue  county.     She  was 


one  of  the  pioneer  public  school  teachers  of  the  county,  and  dur- 
ing her  three  decades  of  teaching  many  of  the  boys  and  girls  who 
have  since  become  well-known  residents  of  the  state  passed  under 
her  tuition.  She  was  born  at  Walled  Lake,  Oakland  county,  Mich- 
igan, September  23,  1838,  daughter  of  Harmon  and  Tamizen 
(Dunning)  Pettibone.  The  father  was  a  native  of  Bennington, 
Vt'.,  and  the  mother  of  Saratoga  Springs,  N.  Y.  They  moved  to 
Walled  Lake,  Mich.,  and  there  the  father  was  proprietor  of  a 
hotel.  In  June,  1854,  they  located  in  Red  Wing,  Harmon  Petti- 
bone having  made  a  trip  here  in  the  spring  of  the  previous  year. 
He  built  a  mill  on  the  present  site  of  Charles  Betcher's  mills  and 
became  associated  in  the  milling  business  with  Ruben  Knapp, 
under  the  firm  name  of  Pettibone  &  Knapp.  Later  the  firm  be- 
came Freeborn  &  Pettibone,  with  William  Freeborn  as  partner. 
In  1858  Mr.  Pettibone  sold  out  his  interests  here  and  moved  to 
Hastings,  this  state